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中英文对照:中华人民共和国水土保持法
作者:赵丽娜律师发布   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-03-31 13:54:00

Soil and Water Conservation Law of the People's Republic of China

中华人民共和国水土保持法

Promulgating Institution: Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
Document Number: Order No. 39 of the President of the People's Republic of China
Promulgating Date: 12/25/2010
Effective Date: 03/01/2011
Validity Status: Valid
颁布机关: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会
文     号: 中华人民共和国主席令第三十九号
颁布时间: 12/25/2010
实施时间: 03/01/2011
效力状态: 有效

Text

正文

Order No. 39 of the President of the People's Republic of China
The Soil and Water Conservation Law of the People's Republic of China revised and adopted at the 18th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress on December 25, 2010. The revised Soil and Water Conservation Law of the People's Republic of China is hereby promulgated and shall come into force on March 1, 2011.
Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China
December 25, 2010
中华人民共和国主席令
第三十九号
    《中华人民共和国水土保持法》已由中华人民共和国第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议于2010年12月25日修订通过,现将修订后的《中华人民共和国水土保持法》公布,自2011年3月1日起施行。
中华人民共和国主席   胡锦涛
2010年12月25日
Soil and Water Conservation Law of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国水土保持法
Adopted at the 20th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the 7th National People's Congress on June 29, 1991 and amended at the 18th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress on December 25, 2010
 
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: General Provisions
Chapter 2: Planning
Chapter 3: Prevention
Chapter 4: Management
Chapter 5: Monitoring and Supervision
Chapter 6: Legal Liability
Chapter 7: Supplemental Provisions
1991年6月29日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十次会议通过 2010年12月25日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议修订
    目录
    第一章  总则
    第二章  规划
    第三章  预防
    第四章  治理
    第五章  监测和监督
    第六章  法律责任
    第七章  附则
Chapter 1: General Provisions
第一章  总则
Article 1    This Law is enacted to prevent and control soil and water erosion, to protect and reasonably use soil and water resources, to reduce natural disasters such as flooding, drought and sand, to improve the ecological environment, and to ensure the sustainable development of the economy and society.
     第一条  为了预防和治理水土流失,保护和合理利用水土资源,减轻水、旱、风沙灾害,改善生态环境,保障经济社会可持续发展,制定本法。
Article 2    Soil and water conservation activities conducted within the territory of the People's Republic of China shall be incompliance with this Law.
For the purposes of this Law, "soil and water conservation" shall mean preventive and management measures taken against soil and water erosion caused by natural factors and human activities.
     第二条  在中华人民共和国境内从事水土保持活动,应当遵守本法。
    本法所称水土保持,是指对自然因素和人为活动造成水土流失所采取的预防和治理措施。
Article 3    The soil and water conservation shall follow the guiding line of "prevention focused, protection first, comprehensive planning, integrated management, reality based, appropriate priority, reasonable administration, and outcome-oriented".
     第三条  水土保持工作实行预防为主、保护优先、全面规划、综合治理、因地制宜、突出重点、科学管理、注重效益的方针。
Article 4    The people's governments at or above the county level shall strengthen centralized leadership for the soil and water conservation, include the soil and water conservation in their planning for economic and social development of the same level, and arrange dedicated funding for the tasks defined in the soil and water conservation planning and organize the implementation.
The State implements the target-based responsibility system and assessment, awarding and punishment system for the local people's governments at all levels in the key areas for prevention and management of soil and water erosion.
     第四条  县级以上人民政府应当加强对水土保持工作的统一领导,将水土保持工作纳入本级国民经济和社会发展规划,对水土保持规划确定的任务,安排专项资金,并组织实施。
    国家在水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区,实行地方各级人民政府水土保持目标责任制和考核奖惩制度。
Article 5    The competent water resources department of the State Council is responsible for the soil and water conservation nationwide.
The watershed administration agencies set up by the competent water resources department of the State Council for the key rivers and lakes determined by the state (hereinafter referred to as "watershed administration agencies") assume the duties of supervision and administration for soil and water conservation within their respective jurisdictions.
The competent water resources department of a local people's government at or above the county level is responsible for the soil and water conservation within its administrative area.
The forestry, agricultural, land and resources and other relevant departments of a people's government at or above the county level conduct soil and water erosion prevention and control according to their respective duties.
     第五条  国务院水行政主管部门主管全国的水土保持工作。
    国务院水行政主管部门在国家确定的重要江河、湖泊设立的流域管理机构(以下简称流域管理机构),在所管辖范围内依法承担水土保持监督管理职责。
    县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门主管本行政区域的水土保持工作。
    县级以上人民政府林业、农业、国土资源等有关部门按照各自职责,做好有关的水土流失预防和治理工作。
Article 6    The people's governments at all levels and relevant departments shall strengthen publicity and education on soil and water conservation, promote knowledge in soil and water conservation, and increase the awareness of soil and water conservation among the public.
     第六条  各级人民政府及其有关部门应当加强水土保持宣传和教育工作,普及水土保持科学知识,增强公众的水土保持意识。
Article 7    The State encourages and supports research on soil and water conservation, improve research in this area, promote advanced technologies for soil and water conservation, and cultivate technology and research talents on soil and water conservation.
     第七条  国家鼓励和支持水土保持科学技术研究,提高水土保持科学技术水平,推广先进的水土保持技术,培养水土保持科学技术人才。
Article 8    Any organization or individual has the obligation with respect to soil and water resources protection and soil and water erosion prevention and control, and may report any damage to soil and water resources that caused soil or water erosion.
     第八条  任何单位和个人都有保护水土资源、预防和治理水土流失的义务,并有权对破坏水土资源、造成水土流失的行为进行举报。
Article 9    The State encourages and supports the participation in the soil and water conservation by the private sector.
The people's government at or above the county level shall praise and award organizations and individuals with remarkable contribution to the soil and water conservation.
Chapter 2: Planning
     第九条  国家鼓励和支持社会力量参与水土保持工作。
    对水土保持工作中成绩显著的单位和个人,由县级以上人民政府给予表彰和奖励。
第二章  规划
Article 10    The preparation of the planning for soil and water conservation shall be based on the findings of the soil and water erosion surveys and the designation of the key areas for prevention and management of soil and water erosion and in accordance with the "integrated coordination, differentiated guidance".
     第十条  水土保持规划应当在水土流失调查结果及水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区划定的基础上,遵循统筹协调、分类指导的原则编制。
Article 11    The competent water resources department of the State Council shall organize the national soil and water erosion survey on a regular basis and publish the findings.
The competent water resources department of the people's government of a province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government is responsible for the soil and water erosion survey for the administrative area and shall publish the findings, after reporting them to the competent water resources department of the State Council for record-filing.
     第十一条  国务院水行政主管部门应当定期组织全国水土流失调查并公告调查结果。
    省、自治区、直辖市人民政府水行政主管部门负责本行政区域的水土流失调查并公告调查结果,公告前应当将调查结果报国务院水行政主管部门备案。
Article 12    A people's government at or above the county level shall designate and announce the key areas for prevention and management of soil and water erosion based on the findings of the soil and water erosion survey.
An area with potential major risk of soil and water erosion shall be determined as a key area for prevention, while an area with severe soil and water erosion shall be determined as a key area for management.
     第十二条  县级以上人民政府应当依据水土流失调查结果划定并公告水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区。
    对水土流失潜在危险较大的区域,应当划定为水土流失重点预防区;对水土流失严重的区域,应当划定为水土流失重点治理区。
Article 13    The contents of the soil and water conservation planning shall include soil and water erosion conditions, types of erosion, objectives for prevention and management, tasks and measures.
The soil and water conservation planning shall include a general plan for soil and water erosion prevention and control, as well as protection and reasonable utilization of soil and water resources for the watershed or region, and consistent specific plans for particular tasks or soil and water erosion prevention and control for particular areas.
The soil and water conservation planning shall be compatible with the general land utilization planning, water resources planning, urban and rural planning and environmental protection planning.
The preparation of soil and water conservation planning shall be conducted by soliciting public and expert comments.
     第十三条  水土保持规划的内容应当包括水土流失状况、水土流失类型区划分、水土流失防治目标、任务和措施等。
    水土保持规划包括对流域或者区域预防和治理水土流失、保护和合理利用水土资源作出的整体部署,以及根据整体部署对水土保持专项工作或者特定区域预防和治理水土流失作出的专项部署。
    水土保持规划应当与土地利用总体规划、水资源规划、城乡规划和环境保护规划等相协调。
    编制水土保持规划,应当征求专家和公众的意见。
Article 14    The competent water resources department of a people's government at or above the county level prepares the soil and water conservation planning together with relevant departments of the same level, and organizes the implementation after reporting the drafted planning to the people's government or a department authorized by the government and obtaining approval.
An approved soil and water conservation planning shall be strictly carried out; where revision of an approved planning is required by the actual conditions, it shall be filed to the agency that originally approved the planning in accordance with the preparation procedures for approval.
     第十四条  县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门会同同级人民政府有关部门编制水土保持规划,报本级人民政府或者其授权的部门批准后,由水行政主管部门组织实施。
    水土保持规划一经批准,应当严格执行;经批准的规划根据实际情况需要修改的,应当按照规划编制程序报原批准机关批准。
Article 15    Where an infrastructure, mineral resource development, urban construction, or public utility project may cause soil and water erosion, the drafting organization shall propose the methods and measures for preventing and controlling soil and water erosion in the planning for such a project, and solicit opinions from the competent water resources department of the people's government at the same level before reporting the planning for approval.
Chapter 3: Prevention
     第十五条  有关基础设施建设、矿产资源开发、城镇建设、公共服务设施建设等方面的规划,在实施过程中可能造成水土流失的,规划的组织编制机关应当在规划中提出水土流失预防和治理的对策和措施,并在规划报请审批前征求本级人民政府水行政主管部门的意见。
第三章  预防
Article 16    The local people's governments at all levels shall take measures such as closure and protection, and natural restoration in accordance with the soil and water conservation planning, organize individuals and organizations to plant trees and grass to increase vegetation coverage, conserve the water sources and prevent and minimize soil and water erosion.
     第十六条  地方各级人民政府应当按照水土保持规划,采取封育保护、自然修复等措施,组织单位和个人植树种草,扩大林草覆盖面积,涵养水源,预防和减轻水土流失。
Article 17    The local people's governments at all levels shall step up the regulation of the activities such as earth excavation, sand dredging, quarrying to prevent and reduce soil and water erosion.
Such activities as earth excavation, sand dredging and quarrying that may lead to soil and water erosion are forbidden in the collapsed areas, slop areas, or debris flow-prone areas.
The scope of collapsed areas, slop areas and debris flow-prone areas shall be determined and announced by the people's governments at or above the county level.
The determination of collapsed areas, slop areas and debris flow-prone areas shall be compatible with that of geological disaster-prone areas and key areas for prevention and control in the planning for geological disaster prevention and control.
     第十七条  地方各级人民政府应当加强对取土、挖砂、采石等活动的管理,预防和减轻水土流失。
    禁止在崩塌、滑坡危险区和泥石流易发区从事取土、挖砂、采石等可能造成水土流失的活动。崩塌、滑坡危险区和泥石流易发区的范围,由县级以上地方人民政府划定并公告。崩塌、滑坡危险区和泥石流易发区的划定,应当与地质灾害防治规划确定的地质灾害易发区、重点防治区相衔接。
Article 18    Production and construction activities that may cause soil and water erosion shall be restricted or forbidden in the areas with severe soil and water erosion and fragile ecology to protect plants, tintinnidas, crusts and lichens.
The owners of land, land use rights and relevant administration authorities shall build vegetation strips in the slopes and banks of erosion gullies, banks of rivers and the surroundings of lakes and reservoirs.
Reclamation or exploration of the vegetation strips is forbidden.
     第十八条  水土流失严重、生态脆弱的地区,应当限制或者禁止可能造成水土流失的生产建设活动,严格保护植物、沙壳、结皮、地衣等。
    在侵蚀沟的沟坡和沟岸、河流的两岸以及湖泊和水库的周边,土地所有权人、使用权人或者有关管理单位应当营造植物保护带。禁止开垦、开发植物保护带。
Article 19    The owners of soil and water conservation facilities and the use rights shall strengthen the management and maintenance of these facilities to ensure normal functioning.
     第十九条  水土保持设施的所有权人或者使用权人应当加强对水土保持设施的管理与维护,落实管护责任,保障其功能正常发挥。
Article 20    Reclamation and farming is forbidden in a steep land with a slope of over 25 percent.
For economic trees planted on the lands with a slope of over 25 percent, appropriate varieties shall be selected and scale reasonably determined, and conservation measures shall be taken to prevent soil and water erosion.
A province, autonomous regions or municipality directly under the Central Government may designate lands with a slope below 25 percent as reclamation-forbidden if so required by the actual conditions in its administrative area.
The scope of a steep land shall be determined and announced by the county people's government.
     第二十条  禁止在二十五度以上陡坡地开垦种植农作物。在二十五度以上陡坡地种植经济林的,应当科学选择树种,合理确定规模,采取水土保持措施,防止造成水土流失。
    省、自治区、直辖市根据本行政区域的实际情况,可以规定小于二十五度的禁止开垦坡度。禁止开垦的陡坡地的范围由当地县级人民政府划定并公告。
Article 21    Reclamation by destroying forest or grassland, and gathering of nostoc flagelliforme is forbidden.
Turf cutting, root digging or excessive digging for the purpose of finding grass worm, licrorice or ephedra is forbidden in the key areas for prevention and management.
     第二十一条  禁止毁林、毁草开垦和采集发菜。禁止在水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区铲草皮、挖树兜或者滥挖虫草、甘草、麻黄等。
Article 22    Logging shall be conducted in appropriate ways and clear cutting shall be strictly controlled; only the logging aimed at cultivation or renewal is allowed for such shield forests as water conservation forests, soil conservation forests and shelterbelts; soil and water erosion prevention measures shall be taken for the felling areas and skid rails and plantation shall be conducted after the felling in a timely manner.
A plan for the felling in a forest district shall have soil and water conservation measures.
The implementation of a felling plan, approved by the forestry department, shall be supervised by the forestry department and the competent water resources department.
     第二十二条  林木采伐应当采用合理方式,严格控制皆伐;对水源涵养林、水土保持林、防风固沙林等防护林只能进行抚育和更新性质的采伐;对采伐区和集材道应当采取防止水土流失的措施,并在采伐后及时更新造林。
    在林区采伐林木的,采伐方案中应当有水土保持措施。采伐方案经林业主管部门批准后,由林业主管部门和水行政主管部门监督实施。
Article 23    Soil and water conservation measures shall be in place when planting trees, cultivating young trees or planting Chinese medicine herbs in the lands with a slope over 5 percent.
Soil and water conservation measures shall be taken when a deserted land with a slope of above 5 degrees but under the prescribed reclamation-forbidden degrees is reclaimed for farming.
The detailed measures shall be developed by the province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government based on the actual conditions in its administrative area.
     第二十三条  在五度以上坡地植树造林、抚育幼林、种植中药材等,应当采取水土保持措施。
    在禁止开垦坡度以下、五度以上的荒坡地开垦种植农作物,应当采取水土保持措施。具体办法由省、自治区、直辖市根据本行政区域的实际情况规定。
Article 24    The location or route of a construction project shall not be within a key area for prevention or management of soil and water erosion; where this is not possible, the standards for prevention and management shall be raised and processes optimized to reduce surface disturbance and the scope of plantation damage and effectively control possible erosion of soil and water.
     第二十四条  生产建设项目选址、选线应当避让水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区;无法避让的,应当提高防治标准,优化施工工艺,减少地表扰动和植被损坏范围,有效控制可能造成的水土流失。
Article 25    For a construction project to be conducted in a mountainous area, terrain, sand area or other area defined as vulnerable to soil and water erosion, the owner shall prepare a conservation plan, report it to the competent water resources department of the people's government at or above the county level for approval, and take prevention and management measures in accordance with the approved plan.
An organization without the capability to prepare the conservation plan shall engage an agency with required skills to prepare the plan.
A conservation plan shall include the scope, objectives, measures and investment for the prevention and management of soil and water erosion.
Where there are major changes in the location or scale of the construction project after the conservation plan is approved, the plan shall be supplemented or revised and reported to the agency that approved the original plan for approval.
During the implementation of the conservation plan, any major change to the conservation measures shall be approved by the agency that approved the original plan.
The competent water resources department of the State Council formulates the measures for the preparation and approval of conservation plans for production and construction projects.
     第二十五条  在山区、丘陵区、风沙区以及水土保持规划确定的容易发生水土流失的其他区域开办可能造成水土流失的生产建设项目,生产建设单位应当编制水土保持方案,报县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门审批,并按照经批准的水土保持方案,采取水土流失预防和治理措施。没有能力编制水土保持方案的,应当委托具备相应技术条件的机构编制。
    水土保持方案应当包括水土流失预防和治理的范围、目标、措施和投资等内容。
    水土保持方案经批准后,生产建设项目的地点、规模发生重大变化的,应当补充或者修改水土保持方案并报原审批机关批准。水土保持方案实施过程中,水土保持措施需要作出重大变更的,应当经原审批机关批准。
    生产建设项目水土保持方案的编制和审批办法,由国务院水行政主管部门制定。
Article 26    A construction project, for which a conservation plan is required, may not start until the owner prepares a conservation plan and obtains approval from the competent water resources department for the plan.
     第二十六条  依法应当编制水土保持方案的生产建设项目,生产建设单位未编制水土保持方案或者水土保持方案未经水行政主管部门批准的,生产建设项目不得开工建设。
Article 27    The conservation facilities for a construction project, for which a conservation plan is required, shall be designed, built and put into operation simultaneously with the main works; the conservation facilities shall be included in the inspection and acceptance of the construction project; the project may not be put into operation if the conservation facilities are not inspected and accepted or they fail the inspection and acceptance.
     第二十七条  依法应当编制水土保持方案的生产建设项目中的水土保持设施,应当与主体工程同时设计、同时施工、同时投产使用;生产建设项目竣工验收,应当验收水土保持设施;水土保持设施未经验收或者验收不合格的,生产建设项目不得投产使用。
Article 28    For a construction project, for which a conservation plan is required, sand, stones, dusts, gangues, tailings or solid wastes generated or discharged in the construction shall be utilized in an integrated way; where integrated utilization is not possible and disposal is necessary, such materials shall be place in a dedicated location specified in the conservation plan and measures shall be taken to ensure no new hazards will be generated.
     第二十八条  依法应当编制水土保持方案的生产建设项目,其生产建设活动中排弃的砂、石、土、矸石、尾矿、废渣等应当综合利用;不能综合利用,确需废弃的,应当堆放在水土保持方案确定的专门存放地,并采取措施保证不产生新的危害。
Article 29    The competent water resources departments of the people's governments at or above the county level and the watershed administration agencies shall conduct follow-up checks on the implementation of conservation plans for construction projects, and handle the issues discovered in a timely manner.
Chapter 4: Management
     第二十九条  县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门、流域管理机构,应当对生产建设项目水土保持方案的实施情况进行跟踪检查,发现问题及时处理。
第四章  治理
Article 30    The State steps up the building of key soil and water conservation projects, such as terraced fields converted from steep cultivated lands and soil saving dams, in the key areas for prevention and management of soil and water erosion, and increase the strength of ecological restoration.
The competent water resources departments of the people's governments at or above the county level shall strengthen the building and management of key soil and water conservation projects, and establish, improve and implement the stewardship systems.
     第三十条  国家加强水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区的坡耕地改梯田、淤地坝等水土保持重点工程建设,加大生态修复力度。
    县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门应当加强对水土保持重点工程的建设管理,建立和完善运行管护制度。
Article 31    The State strengthens the prevention and management of soil and water erosion at the sources of rivers, protects the sources of drinking water and water conservation areas, raises fund through various ways, and includes the compensation for soil and water conservation in the established compensation system for ecological benefits.
     第三十一条  国家加强江河源头区、饮用水水源保护区和水源涵养区水土流失的预防和治理工作,多渠道筹集资金,将水土保持生态效益补偿纳入国家建立的生态效益补偿制度。
Article 32    Soil and water erosion caused by the building of construction projects or other production or construction activities shall be managed.
Where a construction project or other production or construction activity conducted in a mountainous area, terrain, sand area or other area defined as vulnerable to soil and water erosion damaged the conservation facilities, geography and vegetation and the conservation function cannot be restored, compensations shall be paid and used exclusively for erosion prevention and management.
The dedicated soil and water erosion prevention and management shall be organized and implemented by the competent water resources departments.
The administrative measures for the collection and use of conservation compensations shall be formulated jointly by the departments of the State Council in charge of finance, price and water resources.
Conservation expenses incurred in a construction project during the construction and production shall be allocated in accordance with the uniform financial accounting system of the country.
     第三十二条  开办生产建设项目或者从事其他生产建设活动造成水土流失的,应当进行治理。
    在山区、丘陵区、风沙区以及水土保持规划确定的容易发生水土流失的其他区域开办生产建设项目或者从事其他生产建设活动,损坏水土保持设施、地貌植被,不能恢复原有水土保持功能的,应当缴纳水土保持补偿费,专项用于水土流失预防和治理。专项水土流失预防和治理由水行政主管部门负责组织实施。水土保持补偿费的收取使用管理办法由国务院财政部门、国务院价格主管部门会同国务院水行政主管部门制定。
    生产建设项目在建设过程中和生产过程中发生的水土保持费用,按照国家统一的财务会计制度处理。
Article 33    The State encourages organizations and individuals to participate in the soil and water erosion management in accordance with the conservation planning, and provide support in funding, technology and taxes.
     第三十三条  国家鼓励单位和个人按照水土保持规划参与水土流失治理,并在资金、技术、税收等方面予以扶持。
Article 34    The State encourages and supports the management of deserted mountains, valleys, hills and intertidal zones in the form of contracting, prevents and manages soil and water erosion, protects and improves the ecological environment, promotes the appropriate exploitation and sustainable utilization of land resources, and safeguards the rights and interests of the contracting parties.
For the management of deserted mountains, valleys, hills and intertidal zones in the form of contracting or the lease of rural land in the area with severe erosion, the land lease contract shall include the responsibilities of preventing and managing erosion.
     第三十四条  国家鼓励和支持承包治理荒山、荒沟、荒丘、荒滩,防治水土流失,保护和改善生态环境,促进土地资源的合理开发和可持续利用,并依法保护土地承包合同当事人的合法权益。
    承包治理荒山、荒沟、荒丘、荒滩和承包水土流失严重地区农村土地的,在依法签订的土地承包合同中应当包括预防和治理水土流失责任的内容。
Article 35    For water eroded areas, the local people's governments at all levels and relevant departments shall organize agencies and individuals to take engineering, plantation and conservation tillage methods, as appropriate, to conduct integral management on soil and water erosion for steep cultivated lands and canals based on each small watershed formed by a natural gully and the hill lands on both sides.
For wind eroded areas, the local people's governments at all levels and relevant departments shall organize agencies and individuals to take such measures as rotation closing and rotation grazing, planting trees and grass, setting up sand shelters and forest grids, as appropriate, and build the protection system against wind and sand.
For the seriously eroded areas, the local people's governments at all levels and relevant departments shall organize agencies and individuals to take such measures as monitoring, runoff diversion, reducing slope and cutting down load, solidifying hills with supports, building barrier structures, and establish a system for monitoring, altering and warning.
     第三十五条  在水力侵蚀地区,地方各级人民政府及其有关部门应当组织单位和个人,以天然沟壑及其两侧山坡地形成的小流域为单元,因地制宜地采取工程措施、植物措施和保护性耕作等措施,进行坡耕地和沟道水土流失综合治理。
    在风力侵蚀地区,地方各级人民政府及其有关部门应当组织单位和个人,因地制宜地采取轮封轮牧、植树种草、设置人工沙障和网格林带等措施,建立防风固沙防护体系。
    在重力侵蚀地区,地方各级人民政府及其有关部门应当组织单位和个人,采取监测、径流排导、削坡减载、支挡固坡、修建拦挡工程等措施,建立监测、预报、预警体系。
Article 36    For the protected sources of drinking water, the local people's governments at all levels and relevant departments shall organize agencies and individuals to take such measures as preventive protection, natural restoration and integral management, build supporting vegetation filter strips, promote the use of methane power and the building of clean small watersheds, strictly control the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, minimize non-point source pollution caused by soil and water erosion, and protect the sources of drinking water.
     第三十六条  在饮用水水源保护区,地方各级人民政府及其有关部门应当组织单位和个人,采取预防保护、自然修复和综合治理措施,配套建设植物过滤带,积极推广沼气,开展清洁小流域建设,严格控制化肥和农药的使用,减少水土流失引起的面源污染,保护饮用水水源。
Article 37    Steep lands which are reclaimed for farming shall be conceded in accordance with relevant provisions, and trees and grass shall be planted; where there is an adequacy in farm land and therefore a steep land cannot be conceded, terraced fields shall be built and other conservation measures shall be taken.
For farm lands with a slope below the reclamation-forbidden that are reclaimed for farming, such measures as building terraced fields, improvement of watering system of the land, tillage for water preservation and soil conservation and conceding shall be taken, depending on the actual conditions.
     第三十七条  已在禁止开垦的陡坡地上开垦种植农作物的,应当按照国家有关规定退耕,植树种草;耕地短缺、退耕确有困难的,应当修建梯田或者采取其他水土保持措施。
    在禁止开垦坡度以下的坡耕地上开垦种植农作物的,应当根据不同情况,采取修建梯田、坡面水系整治、蓄水保土耕作或者退耕等措施。
Article 38    The surface soil on the lands occupied by production and construction activities shall be peeled, stored and utilized from the outmost layer to the inside to ensure the balance of excavated and filled soil and reduce the scope of surface disturbance; such measures such as erecting barriers, slope protection and diversion for flooding prevention shall be taken for the storage site for stones, soil, gangues, tailings, and solid wastes.
Upon the completion of the production or construction, trees and grass shall be planted on the naked areas in the soil excavation sites, excavation face and the storage sites to restore the vegetation, and the closed tailing reservoirs shall be reclaimed.
For production and construction activities on an arid area, measures for preventing wind erosion shall be taken, and rainfall infiltration facilities shall be set up to fully utilize the rainfall resource.
     第三十八条  对生产建设活动所占用土地的地表土应当进行分层剥离、保存和利用,做到土石方挖填平衡,减少地表扰动范围;对废弃的砂、石、土、矸石、尾矿、废渣等存放地,应当采取拦挡、坡面防护、防洪排导等措施。生产建设活动结束后,应当及时在取土场、开挖面和存放地的裸露土地上植树种草、恢复植被,对闭库的尾矿库进行复垦。
    在干旱缺水地区从事生产建设活动,应当采取防止风力侵蚀措施,设置降水蓄渗设施,充分利用降水资源。
Article 39    The State encourages and supports the measures for soil and water conservation taken for the mountainous areas, terrains, sand areas and other area vulnerable to soil and water erosion:
(1) No tillage, contour farming, rotation farming and crop rotation, ley farming and intercropping;
(2) Closure for cultivation, rotation closing and rotation grazing, and captive breeding;
(3) Development of methane power facilities and firewood-saving stoves, utilization of solar power, wind power and hydro-energy, and replacement of firewood by coal, electricity and gas;
(4) Migration from the areas with fragile ecological systems; and
(5) Other measures that contribute to soil and water conservation.
Chapter 5: Monitoring and Supervision
     第三十九条  国家鼓励和支持在山区、丘陵区、风沙区以及容易发生水土流失的其他区域,采取下列有利于水土保持的措施:
    (一)免耕、等高耕作、轮耕轮作、草田轮作、间作套种等;
    (二)封禁抚育、轮封轮牧、舍饲圈养;
    (三)发展沼气、节柴灶,利用太阳能、风能和水能,以煤、电、气代替薪柴等;
    (四)从生态脆弱地区向外移民;
    (五)其他有利于水土保持的措施。
第五章  监测和监督
Article 40    The competent water resources departments of the people's governments at or above the county level shall strengthen monitoring for soil and water conservation, and play out the roles of monitoring in government decision making, economic and social development and public service.
The people's governments at or above the county level shall ensure adequate funding for monitoring for soil and water conservation.
The competent water resources department of the State Council shall improve the national monitoring network for soil and water conservation, and conduct dynamic monitoring over soil and water erosion.
     第四十条  县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门应当加强水土保持监测工作,发挥水土保持监测工作在政府决策、经济社会发展和社会公众服务中的作用。县级以上人民政府应当保障水土保持监测工作经费。
    国务院水行政主管部门应当完善全国水土保持监测网络,对全国水土流失进行动态监测。
Article 41    For a medium or large construction project, the owner shall conduct monitoring of soil and water erosion caused by the production and construction activities or engage agencies with relevant qualifications to do the monitoring, and report the monitoring in a regular basis to the local competent water resources department.
Monitoring for soil and water conservation shall comply with relevant national technical standards, codes and procedures, and quality shall be ensured.
     第四十一条  对可能造成严重水土流失的大中型生产建设项目,生产建设单位应当自行或者委托具备水土保持监测资质的机构,对生产建设活动造成的水土流失进行监测,并将监测情况定期上报当地水行政主管部门。
    从事水土保持监测活动应当遵守国家有关技术标准、规范和规程,保证监测质量。
Article 42    The competent water resources departments of the State Council and of the people's governments of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall announce the following issues regularly based on the monitoring for soil and water conservation:
(1) Types, area, severity, distribution and trends of soil and water erosion;
(2) Damages caused by soil and water erosion; and
(3) The prevention and management of soil and water erosion.
     第四十二条  国务院水行政主管部门和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府水行政主管部门应当根据水土保持监测情况,定期对下列事项进行公告:
    (一)水土流失类型、面积、强度、分布状况和变化趋势;
    (二)水土流失造成的危害;
    (三)水土流失预防和治理情况。
Article 43    The competent water resources departments of the people's governments at or above the county level supervise and inspect the soil and water conservation.
Watershed administration agencies may exercise the duties of supervision and inspection of the competent water resources department of the State Council within their respective jurisdiction.
     第四十三条  县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门负责对水土保持情况进行监督检查。流域管理机构在其管辖范围内可以行使国务院水行政主管部门的监督检查职权。
Article 44    When performing the duties of supervision and inspection, water administration personnel may:
(1) Request the inspected organization or individual to provide relevant files, certificates and materials;
(2) Request a statement by the inspected organization or individual of the prevention and management of soil and water erosion; and
(3) Enter the site to conduct investigation or obtain evidence.
The tools, construction machinery and equipment used for illegal activities may be seized or confiscated with the approved of the competent water resources department if the inspected organization or individual refuses to stop the illegal activities and causes severe soil and water erosion.
     第四十四条  水政监督检查人员依法履行监督检查职责时,有权采取下列措施:
    (一)要求被检查单位或者个人提供有关文件、证照、资料;
    (二)要求被检查单位或者个人就预防和治理水土流失的有关情况作出说明;
    (三)进入现场进行调查、取证。
    被检查单位或者个人拒不停止违法行为,造成严重水土流失的,报经水行政主管部门批准,可以查封、扣押实施违法行为的工具及施工机械、设备等。
Article 45    When performing the duties of supervision and inspection, water administration personnel show the certificates for law enforcement.
The inspected organization or individual shall cooperate in the supervision and inspection for soil and water conservation, report information in a faithful way, and provide relevant files, certificates and materials; may not refuse or hinder the performance of duties by water administration.
     第四十五条  水政监督检查人员依法履行监督检查职责时,应当出示执法证件。被检查单位或者个人对水土保持监督检查工作应当给予配合,如实报告情况,提供有关文件、证照、资料;不得拒绝或者阻碍水政监督检查人员依法执行公务。
Article 46    Disputes over soil and water erosion between different administrative territories shall be resolved through negotiations; where negotiations fail, such a dispute shall be resolved by the people's government of the common next higher level of the disputing parties.
Chapter 6: Legal Liability
     第四十六条  不同行政区域之间发生水土流失纠纷应当协商解决;协商不成的,由共同的上一级人民政府裁决。
第六章  法律责任
Article 47    Where any competent water resources department or any other department that exercises the power of supervision and administration in accordance with this Law fails to make administrative licensing decision or grant approval document by law, or fails to open an investigation for any illegal act it has discovered or known from reporting of others, or fails to perform its duties in accordance with this Law, the officer directly responsible for the illegal act and other directly responsible persons shall be given punishment by law.
     第四十七条  水行政主管部门或者其他依照本法规定行使监督管理权的部门,不依法作出行政许可决定或者办理批准文件的,发现违法行为或者接到对违法行为的举报不予查处的,或者有其他未依照本法规定履行职责的行为的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分。
Article 48    For any activities that may cause water or soil erosion, such as fetching earth, digging sand or quarrying stones in any collapsed, landslide dangerous areas or any areas defined as vulnerable to mudslide in violation of this Law, the competent water resources department of a local people's government at or above the county level may order a cessation of the illegal activities, confiscate any illegal gains, and impose a fine between RMB 1,000 and RMB 10,000 for individual, or a fine between RMB 20,000 and RMB 200,000 for organization.
     第四十八条  违反本法规定,在崩塌、滑坡危险区或者泥石流易发区从事取土、挖砂、采石等可能造成水土流失的活动的,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门责令停止违法行为,没收违法所得,对个人处一千元以上一万元以下的罚款,对单位处二万元以上二十万元以下的罚款。
Article 49   For any activities of reclaiming and planting crops on steep land with a slope forbidden for reclamation or conducting reclamation or exploration of vegetation strips forbidden for reclamation or exploration in violation of this Law, the competent water resources department of a local people's government at or above the county level  may order a cessation of the illegal activities and taking of such remedial measures as include return of the land or resumption of the vegetation, and impose a fine of no more than RMB 2 per square meter for individual and a fine of no more than RMB 10 per square meter for organization based upon the total cultivated or explored area.
     第四十九条  违反本法规定,在禁止开垦坡度以上陡坡地开垦种植农作物,或者在禁止开垦、开发的植物保护带内开垦、开发的,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门责令停止违法行为,采取退耕、恢复植被等补救措施;按照开垦或者开发面积,可以对个人处每平方米二元以下的罚款、对单位处每平方米十元以下的罚款。
Article 50    Any conduct of destroying forest or grass for reclamation in violation of this Law shall be subject to penalty imposed in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Grassland Law of the People's Republic of China and the Grassland Law of the People's Republic of China.
     第五十条  违反本法规定,毁林、毁草开垦的,依照《中华人民共和国森林法》、《中华人民共和国草原法》的有关规定处罚。
Article 51    For any conduct of  turf cutting, root digging or excessive digging for the purpose of finding grass worm, licrorice or ephedra in the key areas for prevention and management in violation of this Law, the competent water resources department of a local people's government at or above the county level may order a cessation of  the illegal conduct and taking of remedial measures, confiscate illegal gains, and impose a fine between one time and five times of the illegal gains; in case of no illegal gains, a fine of no more than RMB 50,000 may be imposed.
In the event of any illegal activities as described above within the forestry area, a penalty shall be given in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Grassland Law of the People's Republic of China.
     第五十一条  违反本法规定,采集发菜,或者在水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区铲草皮、挖树兜、滥挖虫草、甘草、麻黄等的,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门责令停止违法行为,采取补救措施,没收违法所得,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下的罚款;没有违法所得的,可以处五万元以下的罚款。
    在草原地区有前款规定违法行为的,依照《中华人民共和国草原法》的有关规定处罚。
Article 52    For any activities of carrying out felling in any forest district without measures to prevent soil and water erosion, the competent departments for forestry department and water resources of the local people's government at or above the county level may order a rectification within a prescribed time limit and taking of remedial measures; in the event that soil and water erosion has been caused, the water resources department may impose a fine between RMB 2 and RMB 10 per square based upon the total area suffering the erosion.
     第五十二条  在林区采伐林木不依法采取防止水土流失措施的,由县级以上地方人民政府林业主管部门、水行政主管部门责令限期改正,采取补救措施;造成水土流失的,由水行政主管部门按照造成水土流失的面积处每平方米二元以上十元以下的罚款。
Article 53    For any of the following acts that violate the provisions of this Law, the competent water resources department of the people's government at or above the county level may order a cessation of the illegal activities and making up the relevant formalities within a prescribed time limit; or impose a fine between RMB 50,000 and RMB 500,000 in the case of failure to make up the formalities within the prescribed time limit, and the officers of the production and construction organization directly responsible for the act and other directly responsible persons shall be given punishment by law:
(1) Failing to prepare a conservation plan for a construction project for which the conservation plan is required, or commencing the construction when the prepared conservation plan has not yet been approved;
(2) Failing to supplement or modify the conservation plan in the case that the site or scale of the construction project has been changed or the supplemented or modified conservation plan has not yet been approved by the agency that approved the original plan; or
(3) Making any major changes to the conservation measures in the implementation of the conservation plan without the approval of the agency that approved the original plan.
     第五十三条  违反本法规定,有下列行为之一的,由县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门责令停止违法行为,限期补办手续;逾期不补办手续的,处五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款;对生产建设单位直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分:
    (一)依法应当编制水土保持方案的生产建设项目,未编制水土保持方案或者编制的水土保持方案未经批准而开工建设的;
    (二)生产建设项目的地点、规模发生重大变化,未补充、修改水土保持方案或者补充、修改的水土保持方案未经原审批机关批准的;
    (三)水土保持方案实施过程中,未经原审批机关批准,对水土保持措施作出重大变更的。
Article 54    For any conduct of putting into operation any construction project with the conservation facilities not inspected or accepted or failed the inspection and acceptance in violation of this Law, the competent water resources department of the people's government at or above the county level may order a cession of the production or use until the conservation facilities are accepted upon an inspection, with a fine between RMB50,000 and RMB 500,000 imposed.
     第五十四条  违反本法规定,水土保持设施未经验收或者验收不合格将生产建设项目投产使用的,由县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门责令停止生产或者使用,直至验收合格,并处五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款。
Article 55    For any act of dumping sand, stone, earth, waste rock, tailings, waste residues within the area beyond the dedicated location specified in the conservation plan in violation of this Law, the competent water resources department of a local people's government at or above the county level may order a cessation of the illegal act and a cleanup within a prescribed time limit, and impose a fine between RMB 10 and RMB 20 per cubic meter based upon the area of the place where the dumping is conducted; in the event of failure to conduct the cleanup within the prescribed time limit, the competent water resources department of a local people's government at or above the county level may designate a qualified organization to conduct the cleanup on behalf of the violator, with any costs required for the cleanup borne by the violator.
     第五十五条  违反本法规定,在水土保持方案确定的专门存放地以外的区域倾倒砂、石、土、矸石、尾矿、废渣等的,由县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门责令停止违法行为,限期清理,按照倾倒数量处每立方米十元以上二十元以下的罚款;逾期仍不清理的,县级以上地方人民政府水行政主管部门可以指定有清理能力的单位代为清理,所需费用由违法行为人承担。
Article 56    For any act of initiating construction project or engaging in other construction activities in violation of this Law that results in soil and water erosion, the competent water resources department of the people's government at or above the county level may order the violator to undertake treatment within a prescribed time limit; in the event of failure to do so, the water resources government may designate a qualified organization to undertake the treatment on behalf of the violator, with any required costs borne by the violator.
     第五十六条  违反本法规定,开办生产建设项目或者从事其他生产建设活动造成水土流失,不进行治理的,由县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门责令限期治理;逾期仍不治理的,县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门可以指定有治理能力的单位代为治理,所需费用由违法行为人承担。
Article 57    For any act of refusing to pay the conservation compensation in violation of this Law, the competent water resources department of a local people's government at or above the county level may order payment of the compensation within a prescribed time limit; in the event of failure to do so, a late fee of 0.05% of the default payment may be charged on a daily basis from the date of the defaulted payment, and a fine of no more than three times of the payable compensation may be imposed.
     第五十七条  违反本法规定,拒不缴纳水土保持补偿费的,由县级以上人民政府水行政主管部门责令限期缴纳;逾期不缴纳的,自滞纳之日起按日加收滞纳部分万分之五的滞纳金,可以处应缴水土保持补偿费三倍以下的罚款。
Article 58   Where any damage of soil and water erosion is caused due to a violation of any provision of this Law, the violator shall be subject to the civil liability by law, given a punishment for offense against public order by the public security organs if constituting a breach of the public order, and be subject to the criminal liability if constituting a crime.
Chapter 7: Supplemental Provisions
     第五十八条  违反本法规定,造成水土流失危害的,依法承担民事责任;构成违反治安管理行为的,由公安机关依法给予治安管理处罚;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
第七章  附则
Article 59    The agency determined by a people's government at or above the county level based on local conditions to be responsible for the soil and water conservation exercises the competent water resources department's duties of soil and water conservation provided in this Law.
     第五十九条  县级以上地方人民政府根据当地实际情况确定的负责水土保持工作的机构,行使本法规定的水行政主管部门水土保持工作的职责。
Article 60    This Law shall come into force on March 1, 2011.
     第六十条  本法自2011年3月1日起施行。

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