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英文合同导读
出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2010-12-17 14:58:00

《英文合同导读》
作者:王 辉
 
Tasting an English Contract
Learning by study must be won;
 
“Twas ne’er entailed from son to son.
 
--Gay, Fables, II, ii.
 
知识惟有学习获得,决非世代遗传。
 
--盖伊,《寓言》
 
 
前言 (Preamble)与目录(Contents)略。
 
 
 
 
 
 
第一章           英文合同概述(General Introduction)
 
In view of all this, we are making a binding agreement, putting it in writing, and our leaders, our Levites and our priests are affixing their seals to it.(Nehemiah BIBLE NIV)
 
因这一切的事,我们立确实的约,写在册上。我们的首领,利未人,和祭司都签了名。【尼西米】《圣经》新国际版
 
 合同,古称契约(港台现仍多用此语),“契”者即证券,证明买卖、抵押、租赁等关系的文书,如契据、房契等。古代典籍中常见此语,《易·系辞》就有“后时圣人易之以书契。” “约”者即共同商定的事,共同议定要遵守的条文,如和约、条约等。《三国演义》中就有“昔高祖约法三章,黎民皆感其德。”
 
而西方在早在〈〈圣经〉〉中就有关于上帝在西乃山与以色列人立约的记载。挪亚方舟就是籍着上帝与挪亚的契约而建造的:But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. (但我要与你立约,你以及你的儿子、妻子和儿媳,要与你一同进入方舟。)
 
 
第一节:合同与协议:(Contract and Agreement)
 
而在现代英语合同中,合同一般成为Contract,协议一般称为Agreement。那么Contract和Agreement是一回事吗?他们之间又有什么关系呢?《中华人民共和国民法通则》第85条规定:“合同是当事人之间设立、变更、终止民事关系的协议”(A contract shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish, change or terminate their civil relationship)。《中华人民共和国合同法》第二条规定:“合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关系的协议”(Contracts referred to in this Law are agreements between equal natural persons, legal persons and other organizations for the purpose of establishing, altering and terminating mutual civil rights and obligations)。
 
美国法律整编合同法第二次汇编定义合同为:“合同乃为一个允诺或一组允诺。违反此一允诺时,法律给予救济;或其允诺之履行,法律在某些情况下视之为一项义务。”(A contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives a remedy, or the performance of which the law in some way recognizes as a duty.) (Restatement,Second, Contracts, Section 1)这一定义在Steven H. Gifts 编著的Law Dictionary被完全引述. 但一般而言,Contract,乃两个以上当事人间具有法律约束力之协议,或由一个以上当事人所为一组具有法律约束力之允诺。(A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties or a set of legal binding promises made by one party or more.(G. C. Lindsay, Contract, 3rd ed. 1992) 这一表述在L.B. Curzon编撰的Dictionary of Law中概括为“A legally binding agreement creating enforceable obligations.” Chris Turner在其编撰的Contract Law中定义的更为具体明了“A contract is an agreement between two parties by which both are bound in law and which can therefore be enforced in a court or other equivalent forum.”即合同就是对合同方具有法律上约束力,可由法院或其他同等管辖地强制执行的协议。
 
而在Black’s Law Dictionary(Eighth Edition)对contract 的定义多达8项:1. An agreement two or more parties creating obligations that are enforceable or otherwise recognzable at law 2.The writing that set forth such an agreement.3.引述美国法律整编合同法第二次汇编“contract”的定义.4. Broadly, any legal duty or set of duties not imposed by the law of tort; esp., a duty created by a decree or declaration of a court. 5. The body of law dealing with agreement and exchange.6. The term of an agreement or any particular term. 7.Loosely, a sale or conveyance. 8. Loosely, an enforceable agreement between two or more parties to do or not to do a thing or a set of things; a compact.
 
至于agreement,L.B. Curzon的Dictionary of Law定义为:“A consensus of minds, or evidence of such consensus, in spoken or written form, relating to anything done or to be done.”是对已做和待做的有关事宜以口头或书面形式做出的相同意思表示或该意思表示的证据。而在
 
Black’s Law Dictionary(Eighth Edition) 给Agreement下了两个定义:一个是“A mutual understanding between two or more persons about their relative duites and obligations regarding past or future performances; a manifestation of mutual assent by two or more persons. ”即双方或多方就过去或将来的相关职责和义务的履行而达成相互的理解;双方或多方相互达成一致的表现形式。另一个是“The Parties’ acutal bargain as found in their language or by implication from other circumstances, including course of dealing, usage of trade and course of performance.”即当事人通过语言或其他情形暗示而确立的实际约定,包括交易常例、贸易习惯以及履行惯例。
 
在ENGLISH-CHINISE BILINGUAL LAW DICTIONARY (2nd ed.)中对agreement作出了如下解释:
 
document setting out the contractual terms agreed between two parties or contract between two parties where one party makes an offer, and the other party accepts it.协议,协定,合同(列出双方当事人同意和约定条件的文件)
 
Contract(合同)和Agreement(协议)到底能不能相互替换呢?让我们来看看英文合同相关书籍和词典的说法。Chris Turner在其Contract Law中是这样阐述合同的成立:“There are three key ingredients to formation(of contracts): agreement-based on mutuality over the terms, agreement exists when a valid acceptance follows a valid offer; consideration-given by both sides, the quid pro quo, and the proof that the bargain exists; intention to create legal relations-since a contract is legally enforceable, unlike mere gratuitous promises. 即合同成立的三个要件:协议(基于要约与承诺形成对条款的相互一致而存在)、约因(双方付出的对价及对价存在的证据)和设立法律关系的意愿。(合同具有法律上的执行力,不同于纯粹的无偿赠予的允诺)这里也是用agreement来解释contract的,认为contract(合同)是一种符合一定条件的agreement(协议)。
 
在英语法律用语中虽然多用“agreement”来解释“contract”,其实也有偶用“contract”解释“agreement”的情形,如:Agreement,…(2) A contract (The Law Dictionary) 甚至有在同一句中交替使用的实例,如:If the contract contains an innocent mistake, you can get out of the agreement if the mistake is important. (What Should I Know About Contracts, The State Bar of California, 2 Edi. 1984), 还有更为明确的:Agreement. Synonym for Contract (Robert LeRoy & Kenneth A. Buths, Business Law and Taxes, “Glossary”, 1984)
 
而在Black’s Law Dictionary对agreement的注释中也能看到“The term’agreement’ frequently as synymous with the word”contract”, is really an expression greater breath of meaning and less technicality. Every contract is an agreement,; but not every agreement is a contract. In its colloquial sense, the term ‘agreement’ would include any arrangement between two or more persons intended to affect their relations (whether legal or otherwise) to each other. An accepted invitation to dinner, for example, would be an agreement in this sense; but it would not be a contract, because it would neither be intended to create, nor would it in fact create, any legal obligation between the parties to it. Further, even an agreement which is intended to affect the obligations of the parties does not necessarily amount to a contract in the strict sense of the term. For instance, a conveyance of land or a gift of a chattel, though involving an agreement is … not a contract; because its primary legal operation is to effect a transfer of property, and not to create an obligation.” 2 Stephen’s Commmentaries on the laws of England 5 (L. Crispin Warmington ed., 21st ed. 1950).
 
“An agreement, as the courts have said, ‘is nothing more than a mannefestation of mutual assent’ by two or more legally competent persons to one another’ by two or more legally competent persons to one another. Agreementis in some respects a broader term than contract, or even than bargain or promise. It covers excluded sales, gifts, and other transfers of property.” Samuel Williston, A Treaties on the Law of Contracts § at 6 (Walter H.E. Jaeger ed., 3d ed.1957).
 
综上所述,我们不难看出,汉语的法律用语仅用协议来解释合同,而英语的法律用语往往不很严格,多用Agreement解释Contract, 但也有用Contract解释Agreement的情形, 虽说大多情况Contract与Agreement有所区别,有时候两者还可以作为同义词互换使用。可以说contract都是协议,但协议不一定就是Contract。但就广义的协议和合同来讲,还是有区别的:
 
从成立的宗旨上看,协议十分宽泛不囿于为了当事人间形成法律或其他关系,即便是为影响当事人的义务也未必形成严格意义上的合同关系,如不动产转让或动产赠与。
 
从内容、条款上看,合同较为具体、详尽,着眼于微观,而协议则较为原则、粗疏,致力于宏观。实践中往往合作方就某一项目达成协议对有关原则问题作出约定,然后在此基础上签订合同,再全面明确各项具体的细节。
 
从涉及范围上看,合同的标的往往比较单一集中,也很明确;通常都是一事一议,就事论事,而协议的标的往往比较广泛;一项大型项目的协议往往包括或分解成若干个具体的合同。
 
从书写格式上看,合同已基本格式化了,大家可以看到许多的合同范本;而协议的格式相对灵活一些,没有什么固定的格式。
 
而狭义的协议和合同并无分别,只是用语上和习惯上的称呼而已。
 
 
<<英文合同导读>>1.2 合同的种类与名称(Categories and Titles)   
 
第二节 合同的种类与名称(Categories and Titles):
 
一份英文法律文件, 到底是不是英文合同, 就要看它的内容是否符合合同的要求。一般而言合同不外乎包括人、事、时、地、物五大要素,也就是4W1H (Who, When, Where, What, How),如果你手上的文件内容包括了这五项要素而且签署生效,该文件就应该具有了合同的性质,而不论它是以何面目出现的。常见的英文合同名称可分为以下四大类:
 
一、         合同、协议(Contract; Agreement)
 
文件名称直接标明“Contract”或“Agreement”是最常见的英文合同。《中华人民共和国》第九章到第二十三章就合同种类作了概括,它们分别是买卖合同;供用电、水、气、热力合同;赠与合同;借款合同;租赁合同;融资租赁合同;承揽合同;建设工程合同;运输合同;技术合同;保管合同;仓储合同;委托合同;行纪合同;居间合同等十五大类。(Sales Contracts, Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas or Heat, Donation Contracts, Loan Contracts, Leasing Contracts, Financial Leasing Contract, Work-for-hire Contracts, Construction Project Contracts, Carriage Contracts, Technology Contracts, Safe-keeping Contracts, Warehousing Contracts, Agency Appointment Contracts, Commission Agency Contracts, Brokerage Contracts)
 
而常见的协议有委托代理协议(Agency Agreement)、合伙协议(    Partnership Agreement、股份转让协议(Shares Assignment Agreement)、保密协议(Confidentiality Agreement)、竞业禁止协议(Non-compete Agreement)、聘用协议(Employment Agreement)等等。
 
二、         意向书(Letter of Intent)
 
文件名称如果标明“Letter of Intent”, “Memorandum of Understanding”(简称MOU, 通常翻译为谅解备忘录),甚至只称为“Memorandum”(简称Memo,通常称之为备忘录)。另外,也有标明“Minute of Talks”(即会谈纪要)。
 
这些法律文件往往是当事人双方在商洽合作中形成的,可以称之为准合同文件,虽然,从名称上看,它们似乎不是合同或者协议,但这些法律文件,如果经当事人签订,即具有一定的法律约束力。甚至,由于没有形成正式的合同或协议,而径直依据这些文件而进行实质的合作,使之具有合同或协议的性质。那就是说,合同的效力不能被其名称所拘束,如果上述的法律文件,其中完整明确地记载了交易的条款,当事人如果依据该条款内容履行,双方也能达成交易目的。那么这份法律文件就应当视为双方的合同或者协议。
 
三、         契约(Covenant, Indenture, Deed, Compact,Protocol)
 
英文合同还有一些约定俗成的名称。Covenant, 主要指不动产转让的合同或证明文件,英文合同如果基于传统英美法对价的存在,也会用到这个词, 表示双方达成的契约。如:In consideration of mutual premises and covenants herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows: Indenture通常也是指不动产转让的契约文件,Deed一般指地契、房契,Compact多用于国家间的协定、协议。
 
Protocol, 通常翻译为草约或者议定书,往往也是双方会谈结果的文字依据。经双方签字后,即受其约束,对草约内容承担法律责任,如果需要补充、修改、完善,双方还会签订补充的协议。
 
四、         其他书函(Letter; Waiver; Guaranty; Power of Attorney)
 
英文合同有时候非常简短,形式上就像信函一样,姑且称之为书函类的英文合同,常常用"Letter"(函),"Waiver"(弃权书),"Guaranty"(保证书),"Power of Attorney"(委托书)等简单明确的字眼作为合同的名称。相对于"Agreement"或"Contract"类的合同,书函类的合同一般具有补充或附属的性质,而且经常出现在“Agreement”或“Contract”类合同的附件中。当然书函类的合同对双方当事人也有完全的拘束力。
例如:甲公司向乙银行贷款,由丙公司做担保人,通常甲公司与乙银行会签署一份总协议(General Agreement),做为双方往来的主要依据,再由丙公司签署一份保证书(Guaranty)给乙银行,而乙银行每次拨款时,会发出一份授信书(Credit Letter或Facility Letter)给甲公司,授信书上会载明授信额度,作为甲公司申请拨款的依据。由本例中三份合同可以看出,General Agreement系授信的主要依据,甲公司和丙银行间的权利义务关系主要由General Agreement来规范,而Guaranty及Credit Letter均为附属在General Agreement架构下的小合同。丙公司因签署了Guaranty,因此对乙银行负有保证义务,乙银行因为签署了Credit Letter,因此对甲公司就发生了拨款的义务。
本书撰写的方式,是针对名称为"Agreement(狭义)"或"Contract"类型的合同文件做阅读方法的说明,其原因即在于此类文件的合同结构复杂而内容完整,读者若能掌握阅读此类合同的要领,阅读其它类型的英文合同时自然就“No Problem”没问题了。
 
 
<<英文合同导读>>第二章 英文合同的特色    
 
第二章           英文合同的特色(Features of English Contracts)
 
Form follows function.
 
--motto of the Bauhaus school of architecture
 
形式服从功能
 
           --鲍豪斯建筑学院校训
 
与基础英语相比,作为专业性极强的语言,英文合同的用语不同于日常语言,具有显著的特点。首先,句子冗长而且复杂、似乎总也找不到句号,用词偏僻,晦涩难读,不易理解。其次,英文合同中往往沿用拉丁语,法律术语,跟中文的文言文似的,着实是佶屈聱牙,令人痛苦不堪。再次,由于属于专业英语的范畴,英语合同必然涉及法律方面理解,阅读者除了语言本身的能力外,对于法律也应具备一定的素质。这是所有专业英语的共性,就是需相应的专业知识,这方面本文恕不多言。下面就是Plain English Campaign(直白英语运动)组织所遇到的最长的英文合同的句子,有兴趣的读者不妨看看到底是什么意思:In the event that the Purchaser defaults in the payment of any installment of purchase price, taxes, insurance, interest, or the annual charge described elsewhere herein, or shall default in the performance of any other obligations set forth in this Contract, the Seller may: at his option: (a) Declare immediately due and payable the entire unpaid balance of purchase price, with accrued interest, taxes, and annual charge, and demand full payment thereof, and enforce conveyance of the land by termination of the contract or according to the terms hereof, in which case the Purchaser shall also be liable to the Seller for reasonable attorney's fees for services rendered by any attorney on behalf of the Seller, or (b) sell said land and premises or any part thereof at public auction, in such manner, at such time and place, upon such terms and conditions, and upon such public notice as the Seller may deem best for the interest of all concerned, consisting of advertisement in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city in which the security property is located at least once a week for Three (3) successive weeks or for such period as applicable law may require and, in case of default of any purchaser, to re-sell with such postponement of sale or resale and upon such public notice thereof as the Seller may determine, and upon compliance by the Purchaser with the terms of sale, and upon judicial approval as may be required by law, convey said land and premises in fee simple to and at the cost of the Purchaser, who shall not be liable to see to the application of the purchase money; and from the proceeds of the sale: First to pay all proper costs and charges, including but not limited to court costs, advertising expenses, auctioneer's allowance, the expenses, if any required to correct any irregularity in the title, premium for Seller's bond, auditor's fee, attorney's fee, and all other expenses of sale occurred in and about the protection and execution of this contract, and all moneys advanced for taxes, assessments, insurance, and with interest thereon as provided herein, and all taxes due upon said land and premises at time of sale, and to retain as compensation a commission of five percent (5%) on the amount of said sale or sales; SECOND, to pay the whole amount then remaining unpaid of the principal of said contract, and interest thereon to date of payment, whether the same shall be due or not, it being understood and agreed that upon such sale before maturity of the contract the balance thereof shall be immediately due and payable; THIRD, to pay liens of record against the security property according to their priority of lien and to the extent that funds remaining in the hands of the Seller are available; and LAST, to pay the remainder of said proceeds, if any, to the vendor, his heirs, personals representatives, successors or assigns upon the delivery and surrender to the vendee of possession of the land and premises, less costs and excess of obtaining possession.
 
因此,国外,特别是美国要求法律文件的格式和语言应当现代化的呼声愈来愈强烈。Robert E. Swindle早在美国1980年出版的The Business Communicator一书中就写到:" ... legal and quasilegal documents can and are being written in everyday language. Several leading companies are rewriting their legal forms voluntarily, and the State of New York recently passed a law requiring that businesses write consumer contracts in nontechnical language. Additionally, the President of the United States has directed all administrative agencies to write future regulations in what he termed plain English for a change." (大意是说法律和准法律性文件能用日常语言书就,而且人们也正在这样做。几家大公司自愿重新起草他们的法律文书,纽约州最近也通过一项法律,要求商业企业用非术语草拟消费者合同。另外,美国总统下令所有行政机构在出台将来的规定时要用他所称的直白英语进行变革。)而在英国也有一个成立了25年的Plain English Campaign(直白英语运动)组织致力于各种公文的直白英语化,而反对各种官样文章(gobbledygook)。1999年英国颁布实施的消费者不公平术语法(Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations)也要求消费者合同的术语必须用直白明了的语言(plain and intelligible language),该法也要求这些术语必须是易读的,意味着要用清晰的设计和排印(clear design and typography)。类似的法律也在欧盟的国家适用。
 
但 Law Dictionary的作者Steven H. Gifts在该字典的前言中感叹到“…the special language of the law remains a barrier to nonlawyers. To the extent that this promotes the economic health of the profession, maintains its aura, and prevent unauthorized practice of the law, it may be regarded as a virtue.”大意是说,法律专业语言对律师以外的人士来讲,仍然是一道壁垒。从促进行业经济的健康发展,保留行业特点和防止未经授权进行律师执业等方面考虑,可以把这种语言壁垒看作是一种行业优势。
 
作为非英美法系的非英语国家,面对加入WTO,全球经济一体化的严峻挑战,我们应该怎样应对纷繁复杂的英文法律文件和语言呢?尽管Plain English(直白)似乎是大势所趋,但万事都有个渐变的过程,长年累月沉淀下来的习惯不是一下就能改变的。拿来主义某种意义上,是必须的,所以我们首先还是应该先通晓传统的英语合同格式和用语,在精通的基础上,才能谈得上根据实际情况进行进一步的格式和用语方面的改革,取其精华,去其糟粕,当然,这需要一个漫长的过程。以下就针对英文合同的特色分别从篇章结构、用词、句式结构以及时态四大方面进行说明:
 
 
<<英文合同导读>>2.1篇章结构特点(1)     -|马可菠萝 发表于 2005-10-18 22:46:04 
 
 
第一节 篇章结构特点(Text Structure)
 
一份完整的英文合同通常可以分为标题(Title)、前言(Preamble)、正文(Habendum)、附录(Schedule)及证明部分即结尾词(Attestation)五大部分。「标题」在开宗明义地显示合同的性质;「前言」是用最简单的说明,大略介绍合同订立的背景;「正文」里包括依各种合同性质的不同而约定的具体条款,包括不论何种类型合同都会出现的一般条款;[附录]构成对前述合同正文条款作必要的补充。(不是所有合同都有该部分)最后「结尾」则是当事人签名前的一段文字,为整份合同画上完满的句号。以下分别就此五部分进行说明。
一、合同的标题(Title)
英文合同和中文合同都一样,标题并不是一定要有的,因为当事人间的法律关系是用合同内容的各个条款来判断,标题基本上不会产生任何影响。但为方便辨识的考虑,合同撰写人通常都会依照合同性质,在合同首页的最上方给予一个适当的标题。在第一章的英文合同名称中已有介绍,在此不再赘述,仅补充Confirmation(确认书),Order(定单)经常也会出现在简易的合同中。
 
二、合同的前言(Preamble)
英文合同在标题之后,各式各样的条款出现之前,通常会先有一段「前言」,也称序言、导言、总则等, 也见有称为“Non-operative part”者。前言一般不会占去太多的篇幅,目的在于很简略地介绍合同内容之人、事、时、地、物等背景,让阅读合同的人在接触冗长复杂的正文前,先有一个基础的认识与心理准备。
详细来说,前言通常又分作以下两个段落:
 
第一部份文字叫做 "Parties" ,也就是合同的「开场白」(Commencement),内容在说明当事人姓名或名称、国籍或注册地国及住所地或主营业地、订约日期包括各自在合同中的简称等等。
 
EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT (SALES)
EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT is made and entered into on ________ day of _________ (month), ____ (year), by and between:  _______ (hereinafter referred to as the "Company"), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of ____, with its registered office located at ________________, and ______ (hereinafter referred to as the "Employee"), an individual, with nationality of _________ (Passport No._____) residing at  _____________.    
 
本聘用协议于___年_月_日签订,双方当事人为:
 依_州法律组织设立的________公司 (以下简称本公司) , 主营业地为_______,与
___国籍的____ (护照号码: _____)(以下简称雇员), 居住于_________________。
 
 
& by and between
要表示合同是由哪些当事人所订定,英文中通常会说"This Agreement is made by and between...",用"by"来表示合同「由谁订定」,"between"来表示「谁与谁之间的订立」。如果当事人不只两个,也可以用"by and among"来代替。
& organized and existing
合同开场白里要说明当事人的国籍,在自然人的情况下可以用"a national of ..."或"an individual with the nationality of ..."来表示,如果是法人组织多半使用"organized and existing under the laws of ..."这样的字眼,其中"organized"也可以用"incorporated"来代替。
& registered office
"registered office"是指一个公司的「注册所在地」,它和"principal office" 或“ principal place of business”即「主营业地」并不一定位于同一个地方。
 
第二部份叫做"Recitals",是由数个以"Whereas"字样开头的句子所组合而成(这些句子俗称为"Whereas Clauses" 即鉴于条款)。 "Whereas"的本义是"When in fact"、"considering that"、或"that being the case"的意思,所以"Whereas Clauses"就表示当事人乃是在基于对这些事实(例如订约的目的、背景、原由等)的共同认识,订立此合同。以下是一个补偿贸易合同(Compensation Trade Contract)的Whereas Clauses,很简单明了地表达了双方合作的意愿。
WITNESSETH
 
Whereas Party B has machines and equipment, which are now used in Party B's
manufacturing of steel wire rope, and is willing to sell to Party A the machines
and equipment; and
 
Whereas Party B agrees to buy the products, steel wire rope, made by Party A
using the machines and equipment Party B supplies, in compensation of the price
of the machines and equipment, and
 
Whereas Party A agrees to purchase from Party B the machines and equipment, and
 
Whereas Party A agrees to sell to Party B the products, the steel wire rope, in
compensation of the price of Party B's machines and equipment;
 
兹证明(通常不译)
鉴于乙方拥有用于生产钢丝绳的机械设备,愿向甲方出售该机械设备;
鉴于乙方同意购买甲方用乙方所供应的该机械设备生产的产品,钢丝绳来补偿该机械设备的价款;
鉴于甲方同意从乙方购买该机械设备;
鉴于甲方同意向乙方出售产品钢丝绳以补偿乙方机械设备的价款;
 
 
 
紧接在一串whereas clauses之后,会出现类似上例中的"Now Therefore,  in consideration [对价/约因(港台多用此遇)] of……:"这样一句话,表明合同是有偿合同,目的在提醒阅读合同的人,真正规范订约当事人权利义务关系的条款在这句话之后就要开始了,也就是说,这句话是前言与正文之间过渡的桥梁,在此之前为订约背景事实的叙述,在此之后则为关于交易关系的实体约定(一般称为"operative part/clauses")。
 
例如:Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter, Party A and Party B agree as follows:
 
兹以上述各点和契约所载条款为约因,订约双方协议如下:
 
 
 
 
[原创]<<英文合同导读>>2.1篇章结构特点(2)    
 
三、正文(Hanbendum/Operative part)
正文(Hanbendum) 部分, 也称Operative part/clauses或Body, 具体约定当事人的权利义务。各式各样的正文条款是合同中最核心的部份,也是篇幅最大的部份,与当事人的权利义务关系发生最直接、最密切的牵连。
本书拟将英文合同中的正文条款分为两类:「特殊条款」与「一般条款」。所谓「特殊条款」指的是只有在某些特定性质的合同中才会出现的条款,例如劳动合同中通常会约定保密条款、竞业禁止条款,但是买卖同就不会有这些约定。反过来说,买卖合同中一般要记载交易标的、交易条件等等条款,在劳动合同中就不会出现。
相对于「特殊条款」的所谓「一般条款」,指的是不论合同性质如何,几乎所有的合同中都会记载的条款,例如管辖法院的约定、违约条款等等,将于第四章中详细介绍,在此亦不赘述。
四、附录(Schedule)
 
附录也称Addendum, Annex或Exhibit,也有用Attachment, List或Table表示的。附录部分作为对正文条款的补充,不是所有英文合同都有的一项。以下就是一份聘用协议的附录,对该公司聘用的经理职责作出补充说明:
 
THE SCHEDULE ABOVE REFERRED TO
 
1. To manage, maintain and promote the business of the Company
 
2. To attend personally during the usual hours of business and to supervise and control the business and to be accessible to customers and employees of the Company.
 
3. To keep the usual books of account.
 
4. To pay daily all money received in the business into the Company’s bank account.
 
5. Generally to protect the interests of the Company.
 
上文提及的附录是指:
 
1. 管理,维持并促进公司的经营
 
2. 亲自参与公司的日常经营,监管经营,对本公司的客户和员工平易近人。
 
3. 保管日常账册。
 
4. 支付日常公司经营到帐的款项
 
5. 广泛地保护公司的利益
 
此外,即便是有这部分的英文合同,也经常因为附录的内容庞杂篇幅较长,如有关的图表或者其他法律文书,而放在合同的最后单独列明。下文就是单独列在合同后的附录的一个信用证:
 
EXHIBIT B Letter of Credit
XYZ BANK LIMLTED
[Address]
 
Credit Bank, N. A.         
International Banking Facility
 
Los Angeles, California 90000 U.S.A.
 
Date:
 
Letter of Credit No.:
 
Gentlemen:
 
We hereby establish this irrevocable letter of credit in your favor for account
of ABC Company in the amount of U. S. $ _______ (amount in words), available
against your draft(s) drawn at sight on Credit Bank, N.A., Letter of Credit
Department, Los Angeles, California, accompanied by your signed and dated
statement as follows:
 
"The amount drawn under Letter of Credit No.[_________]dated[_______] issued by
XYZ Bank Limited on behalf of ABC Company is payable to the undersigned pursuant
to the terms of that certain Loan Agreement dated as of _________, 20 ___,
between ABC Company and Credit Bank. N.A."
 
All drafts drawn under this Letter of Credit must bear the clause "Drawn under
XYZ Bank Limited Letter of Credit Number_____, dated_______, 20 ___.
 
Partial drawings are permitted.
 
We hereby engage with the drawers, endorsers and bona fide holders of drafts
drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this Letter of Credit that the
drafts will be duly honored if drawn and presented to the above drawn in Los
Angeles, California, on or before [Expiry date 30 days after the final
Installment Payment Date].
 
This Letter of Credit is subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for
Documentary Credits (1983 Revision), International Chamber of Commerce,
Publication No. 400.
 
Special Instructions to Drawee Bank
 
In reimbursement for any payment made by you hereunder, you may debit our
account with you.
 
XYZ BANK LIMITED
BY____________
(Authorized Signature)
 
附件B:
 
XYZ银行
 
地址:
 
北美信贷银行
国际银行业务部
美国加州洛杉玑
日期:
信用证号码:
 
*先生
 
我行在此开立,以ABC公司为受益人,总额为*美元的不可撤销信用证,凭交加州洛杉玑北美信贷银行信用证部开出的即期汇票付款。并附有贵行签署、具名日期的如下声明:
 
由XYZ银行代表ABC公司*年*月*日开立的第*号信用证项下款项系根据ABC公司与北美信贷银行*年*月*日订立的某贷款协议条款规定,付与签字人。
 
本证项下开具的汇票须注明“本汇票系凭XYZ银行……年……月……日第…号信用证下开具”的条款。
 
允许部分提款。
 
凡根据本证开具与本证条款相符的汇票,如按时开具提交我行,我行保证对出票人、背书人和善意持有人不迟于最后分期付款日后30天内承担付款责任。
本信用证系根据国际商会第400号出版物跟单信用证统一惯例与实务(1983年版)缮制。
 
 付款行特别指令
 
贵行本信用证项下所付款项,记入我行与贵行的借记帐户。
 
XYZ银行
 
授权签字
 
五、证明部分(Attestation)
英文合同结构中的最后一个部份就是结尾辞即证明部分与当事人的签名。所谓「结尾辞」指的是在当事人签名之前经常会出现一段文字,相当于中文合同中“双方签字盖章,特此为证”。除了表明签名人确实为正当授权的代表外,还会具明签名的日期。至于签名档的部份,如果当事人是公司的话,除了代表人的签名以外,还要加盖公司印鉴,并且通常会注明代表人的职务(title)。
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by duly authorized representatives of both parties on the date and year first written above.
___________________ ___________________
By: By:
Title: Title:
本协议由被授权之人,于本协议上述所记载日期,代表双方当事人缔结生效之,特此为证。
_________________ __________________
代表人: 代表人:
职务: 职务:
& IN WITNESS WHEREOF
这三个词是英文合同结尾辞的标准模式,实体上讲并没有什幺特别的功能或意义,与中文合同里最后通常会记载的「恐口说无凭,特立契为证」很类似,也有用IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF 替代,有时候也会用"INTENDING TO BE LEGALLY BOUND"代替,意思也是一样的。
& duly authorized representatives
当合同之当事人为法人组织时,必须推选出一位自然人作为法定代表人,例如公司的法定代表人通常会是董事长,代表公司对外签订合同,建立权利义务关系。除了董事长根据法律当然具备对外代表公司的权限之外,公司董事会也可以通过决议授权某一个董事、总经理、或其它重要职员作为公司签约的代表人,此时与公司签约的对方当事人为了确保这个代表人的确属于"duly authorized representative",可以要求公司提供这个授权的董事会决议证明,以妥善保护自己的权益。下面就是一个董事会对采购员的授权决议:
 
BOARD OF DIRECTORS' RESOLUTION
 
DESIGNATING A PURCHASING AGENT
 
Pursuant to a duly made, seconded, and carried motion the Board of Directors of __________ _________________ (hereinafter referred to as Corporation) adopted the following resolution by a unanimous vote:
 
RESOLVED, that ______________________ is hereby appointed Purchasing Agent of this Corporation with limited authority to make purchases in the Corporation's name and behalf. Under no circumstances will the Purchasing Agent have real or apparent authority to make a purchase for the Corporation if the dollar amount of said purchase or the total dollar amount of an installment purchase will exceed the amount of __________ dollars ($___________).
 
I The undersigned, _________________________, certifies that he or she is the duly appointed Secretary of _______________________ Corporation and that the above is a true and correct copy of a resolution duly adopted at a meeting of the directors thereof, convened and held in accordance with law and the Bylaws of said Corporation on _____________, (Date) and that such resolution is now in full force and effect.
 
IN WITNESS THEREOF, I have affixed my name as Secretary of _________________
 
____________________ Corporation and have attached the seal of ________________
 
____________________ Corporation to this resolution.
 
Dated: ______________________ ___________________________
 
Secretary
 
Seal:
 
董事会决议:
 
任命采购员:
 
就已第二次提起到董事会的动议,本公司董事会全体一致通过如下决议:
 
 兹决议,本公司授权***为本公司采购员,以本公司名义代表本公司对外采买。但其单笔采购金额或分期购买的总额不得超过****美元。超过该数额该采购员概无真实或表见代理权。
 
我,签字人,证明***,他/她是本公司正式任命的秘书,以上是本公司董事会决议的真实准确的副本,该决议系按法律和本公司章程在*年*月*日召开的董事会上正式通过,现完全有效。
 
 作为公司秘书我签字并盖公司印鉴于该决议,特此为证。
 
 
 
 
日期:*年*月*日
 
秘书:(签字)
 
公司印鉴:(盖章)
& the date and year first written above
如果合同结尾辞里注明的日期和合同前言所载明的日期相同,就用这句话表示,如果不同的话,就应该另以条款明定合同生效日(Effective Date),以免产生争议。如下例:
 
After this contract is signed by the duly authorized representatives of both parties, both parties shall submit the contract to their governments or Boards of Directors for approval. The date when the later party obtains the approval shall be taken as the effective date of the contract. Both parties shall attempt to get the contract approval within 60 days from signing and notify by telex or cable the other party of the approval which is confirmed by the following registered air-mail letter.
 
本合同经双方正式授权代表签署后,应提交各自政府或董事会批准。以后一方获得批准日期为本合同生效日。双方应尽力在合同签署后60日内获得批准并以电传或电报形式通知该批准,随后以航空挂号邮件确认。
 
 
<<英文合同导读>>2.2 用词特点(1)     -|马可菠萝 发表于 2005-11-1 21:55:31 
 
 
第二节 用词特点(Wording)
 
作为正式法律文件,英语合同在用词方面极其考究,要求选词专业(professional),正式(formal),准确(accuracy)。具体体现如下:
 
1.专业性术语(Technical Terms/ Terminology)
 
法律专业性术语是在合同等法律文件中才用到的词汇,它并不以一般受众为对象,而针对专业人士,力求使语言表达准确无误。中文合同中常见的诸如“瑕疵”(defect)、“救济”(remedy)、“不可抗力”(force Majeure)、“管辖”(jurisdiction)等专业用词就已经让非专业人士大惑不解了,英文合同的专业用词自然就更玄妙无比了。 具体的实例如下:
 
l         Without prejudice to the parties' rights under Clause 18. 1, the indemnities provided for in Clausel6. 1 and/or 16. 2 and/or 16. 3 shall be the sole compensation for the damages caused by such delays.不妨害18.1款双方的权利,16.1,16.2及16.3款规定的赔偿应为上述延误引起损害的唯一赔偿金。indemnities较compensation专业,此处用compensation解释了indemnities;
 
l         Any such assignment, transfer or conveyance shall be without other consideration than the mutual covenants and considerations of this agreement.任何转让除根据本协议相互契约和对价外不得考虑其他。Transfer,assignment和conveyance都有转让的含义,其中assignment和conveyance(多用于不动产)尤为专业。
 
l         We advise you of our intention to terminate our tenancy on or before ________________ (Date) and to deliver to you full possession of the premises。我方不迟于某日期通知你方终止租约并交还房屋全部所有。tenancy指房屋租赁的租约,而premises指租赁的房屋及其附属物都是专业用语。
 
l         Licensee agrees to pay to Licensor a minimum royalty of___________ Dollars ($______) as a minimum guarantee against royalties to be paid to Licensor during the first contract term, said minimum royalty to be paid on or before the last day of the initial term hereto.  受许可方同意支付许可方最低使用费*美元作为该许可合同第一期使用费的最低保证金,该最低使用费不迟于本合同的入门期最后一天支付给许可方。Royalties在许可合同中专指特许权使用费。
 
l         Price of the Contract shall be calculated on Royalty in accordance with the content and scope stipulated in Article 2 to the Contract and shall be paid in___________.按照第二条规定的内容和范围。本合同采用提成方式计算价格,计价的货币为___。与上例不同的是,这里的royalty指的是许可合同计价方式的一种即提成计价(royalty price),相对于统包价格(lumpsum price)
 
l         Default in observing or performing any of the covenants or agreements of debtor set forth in any collateral document of security given to secure indebtedness hereunder, and the continuation of such default beyond any period of grace specified in any such document.
 
借款人未能履行契约或附带的担保文件列明的协议,以及该违约的持续超过上述文件规定的宽限期。在借款合同中grace专指宽限期,而不是普通英语的其他意思。
 
l         Furthermore, the parties agree that the following situations shall be considered as exceptional circumstances which justify the earlier termination by the other party: bankruptcy, moratorium, receivership, liquidation or any kind of composition between the debtor and the creditors, or any circumstances which are likely to affect substantially one party's ability to carry out his obligations under this contract。此外,双方同意以下条件应认为是对方合理提前终止合同的例外情形:破产、延付令、破产在管、清算或其他债权人和债务人任何形式的和解,或任何可能对一方履行合同项下义务能力造成实质影响的情形。此处的composition显然不是普通英语中“作文”的意思,而是指破产和解。
 
l         In addition, upon request of the Board and if the Liquidating Trustee determines that it would be imprudent to dispose of any non-cash assets of the Company, such assets may be distributed in kind to the Members in lieu of cash, proportionately to their right to receive cash distributions hereunder.另外,应董事会请求且如果清算托管人确定处理本公司非现金财产非明智之举,该财产可按各成员根据合同项下收取现金份额的权利以实物形式替代现金进行分配。In kind 此处与in cash 相对,通常用于合资、合伙协议中表示“以实物出资”,本句中是以实物分配清算。In lieu of 表示替代相当于基础英语中的instead of。
 
l         The Buyer shall establish the covering letter of credit before the date specified in Clause Three of this Sales Confirmation, failing which the Seller reserves the right to rescind without further notice, or to accept whole or any part of this Sales Confirmation not fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for losses sustained, if any.买方须于销售确认书第三条所规定的日期之前开出本批交易的信用证。否则,售方有权不经通知取消本确认书,或接受买方对本销售确认书未履行的全部或一部分,或对因此遭受的损失提出索赔。Reserve为专用词汇,我们常见的“版权所有”英语表达就是All rights reserved。Rescind(取消合同/协议)和lodge(提出索赔,与claim(s)连用)也都是专业用语。
 
l         In case one party desires to sell or assign all or part of his investment subscribed, the other party shall have the preemptive right. 如一方欲出售或转让其所投资的部分或全部,另一方应有优先购买权。Assign(其名词形式assignment)和Preemptive属专业用语。
 
 2. 正式用语(Formal Terms)
 
英文合同,习惯采用书面的形式,合同往往使用正式的书面用语,较少使用口头用语,以显示合同正规、严肃。具体实例如下:
 
l         At the request of Party B, Party A agrees to send technicians to assist Party B to install the equipment.应乙方要求,甲方同意派遣技术人员帮助乙方安装设备。 assist 较 help 正式;
 
l         The personnel shall not to partake in any political activities in Iraq.所有人员不得参加伊拉克国内的任何政治活动。partake in 较 take part in 正式;
 
l         The Employer shall render correct technical guidance to the personnel.雇主应该对有关人员给予正确技术指导。 render 较 give 正式;
 
l         Party A shall repatriate the patient to China and bear the cost of his passage to Guangzhou.甲方应将病人遣返中国并负责其返回广州的旅费。 repatriate 较 send back 正式;
 
l         This Contract shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of China.本合同受中国法律管辖,并按中国法律解释。construe 较 explain, interpret 正式;in accordance with 较according to正式。
 
l         The Employer may object to and require the Contractor to replace forthwith any of its authorized representatives who is incompetent.雇主认为承包人委派的授权代表不合格时,可以反对并要求立即撤换。require较ask正式;而且,require表示上对下的要求,ask没有这么明确,它含有request和require之意,其中request表示下对上的要求,即“请求”公文体forthwith 较 at once 正式;
 
l         The Chairperson may convene and preside an interim meeting based on a proposal made by one-third of the total number of directors.董事长可以根据董事会过1/3董事的提议而召集主持临时董事会议。Convene较hold正式,preside较be in charge of 正式,interim也是正式用词较temporary正式。
 
l         In processing transactions, the manufacturers shall never have title either to the materials or the finished products.加工贸易中,厂方无论是对原料还是成品都无所有权。 title 较 ownership 正式。
 
l         The term "Effective date" means the date on which this Agreement is duly executed by the parties hereto.“生效期”指双方合同签字的日子。 execute 较 sign 正式;
 
l         The submission to and consent by the Engineer of such programs or the provision of such general descriptions or cash flow estimates shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his duties or responsibilities under the Contract.向工程师提交并同意的上述进度计划或提供上述一般说明或现金流量估算,并不解除合同规定的承包人的任何义务或责任。Consent和estimate都是正式用词;
 
l         The Appendix hereto shall, through the contract period, be deemed to be construed as an integral part of this Contract. 整个合同期间,本合同附件应理解为合同不可分割的一部分。deem较consider正式。
 
l         The parties shall work together in order to endeavour to achieve the timely completion of the Project in accordance with the Project Schedule as Annex 4 according to which the construction period shall be _________years from the commencement date.双方共同努力确保按附件四的工程进度表及时竣工,根据该工程进度表工期应从开工日起*年。Commencement较starting、beginning正式。
 
 
·[原创]<<英文合同导读>>2.2 用词特点(2) 
 
 
3.  同、近义词、相关词并列(Parallel Synonyms, Parasynonyms and Associated/Binomial Expressions)
 
在英文合同中同近义词或相关词成对或多个并列连用,使合同周密严谨,以减少漏洞和争议。
 
l         This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.本协议由甲方与乙方签订。句中made与entered into同义,而by与between相关。
 
l         Party A agrees to purchase from Party B the following commodity under the terms and conditions set out below: 甲方同意按照下列条款向乙方购买如下商品:terms 和conditions同义,往往并列连用表示合同的条款。
 
l         Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any order sort to collect any account on and after September 20. 自9月2O日起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。On与after相关词连用用以明确时间。
 
l         Any partner or his/her agent, may review any and all accounting or other records at anytime.任何合伙人或其代理人,可随时审查任一或全部会计账目或其他记录。Any 与 all 相关词连用,表达更为严谨。
 
l         The decision by such arbitration shall be accepted as final and binding upon both parties。该仲裁裁决为终局裁决,双方均受其约束。Final和binding属相关词连用。
 
l         The Company hereby releases and discharges Party A from further performance of, and any duties, obligations or liabilities under, the amended Agreement.本公司特此解除甲方已修正协议的进一步履行及其修正协议下的义务和责任。Release和discharge相关词连用,duty,obligation和liability属近同义词连用。
 
l         If the Contractor shall duly perform and observe all the terms, provisions, conditions and stipulations of the said Contract, this obligation shall be null or void but otherwise shall be and remain in full force and effect.如果承包人切实履行并遵守上述合同的所有条款、条件及规定,此义务即告终止,否则将保持完全有效。句中terms, provisions, conditions,stipulations为一组同义词,意为合同的条款及规定,null和void,be和remain,force和effect也都是同义连用。
 
l         While this agreement is in effect, the Author shall not, without the prior written consent of the Publisher, write, edit, print, or publish, or cause to be written, edited, printed or published, any other edition of the Work, whether revised, supplemented, corrected, enlarged, abridged, or otherwise….
 
l         May be fixed or varied from time to time at and in accordance with the sole discretion and opinion of the Selleror its factor….
 
4.大写字母的运用(Capitalization)
 
英文合同中,有些词的首字母需要大写。需要大写首字母的词除了基础英语中用在句首的一般情形外,尤其应注意下列的几种情况:
 
l         当事人
 
当事人指合同双方或各方(一般为两方以上)时,首字母通常大写。例如:
 
Party B shall inspect the raw materials supplied by Party A forthwith upon receipt thereof.
 
乙方应一经收到甲方提供的原材料,即行检验。
 
l         机构名称
 
英文合同中涉及的机构名称,首字母要大写。例如:
 
China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission.
 
(中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会)
 
International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (简称UNIDROIT)
 
(国际统一私法协会)
 
The Board of Directors (董事会)
 
l         合同涉及的特指名称
 
在英文合同中,一些涉及到的关键词语,一般首字母要大写。通常会在合同的定义条款中定义,然后再重复使用。例如:
 
The Acceptance Test Manual shall be the document prepared by A which will be used by A and the Purchaser FOR checking that the Equipment is in accordance with the specification and Approved Data.
 
本验收实验手册系指由A提供的,供A与买方检验设备是否符合技术规格和认可资料的文件。句中的Acceptance Test Manual , Equipment, Approved Data均有特指含义。
 
l         本合同及合同具体条款及附件名称
 
Such Site Acceptance shall take place within a period of two weeks after the Effective Date to the Contract as such period may be extended pursuant to Article 6 hereof.
 
现场验收应在本合同生效日后2周内进行,此项验收的时间按本合同第6条延长。
 
Party A and Party B shall make full endeavors to fulfill this Contract with the stipulated period. The schedule of various activities is attached at Appendix 4.
 
甲乙双方应竭尽全力在规定的期间内完成本合同,各活动的日程表见附件4
 
l         国际公约、惯例和国家法律法规、条例规章等的名称,
 
例如:This Contract is signed on a mutuality voluntary basis by and between the following Employer and Employee in accordance with "The Labour Law of The People's Republic of China."
本合同在自愿的基础上由聘用方和受聘方根据《中华人民共和国劳动法》达成协议如下:
 
合同提及的国际公约、惯例的首字母也需大写,如:
 
International Chamber of Commerce Term 2000(简称INCOTERMS 2000)
 
2000年国际贸易术语解释通则
 
也称International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms 2000
 
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods(简称CISG)
 
《联合国国际货物买卖合同公约》
 
The Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits,1993 Revision ICC Publication No. 500
《跟单统一信用证统一惯例》(1993年修订本,国际商会第500号出版物)
 
 The Uniform Law on International Sale of Goods 《国际货物买卖统一法》
 
The Uniform Law on the Formation OF Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
 
《国际货物买卖合同成立统一法》
 
The Principles of International Commercial Contracts
 
《国际商事合同通则》
 
l         合同中的货币名称
 
Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US$600 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY). 聘方须每月付给受聘方美元600元整。SAY表示后接大写,ONLY表示整
此外,英文合同为强调某些部分而用大写字母书写以资醒目。
 
例如在英文合同的开头往往有这样的句子:This AGREEMENT … WITNESSES that WHEREAS … and WHEREAS … NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of it is hereby agreed as follows:
 
[原创]<<英文合同导读>>2.2 用词特点(3)     -|马可菠萝 发表于 2005-11-16 22:37:50 
 
 
版权声明:本书的版权属于作者本人,未经作者本人同意,不得转载、转贴。任何其他人出版、发行或以其它方式使用本书的,请直接与作者联系取得书面授权或同意。
 
5.古体词与外来词(Archaic Words and Loan Words)
 
英文合同中迄今仍然使用一些古体词语,最突出的形式是把here, there, where加上介词而构成的复合副词。如:hereby, hereto, hereunto, herein, hereinafter, hereinbefore, hereunder, thereof, thereto,whereby, whereas等等。Here+介词一类往往可以套用介词+this agreement来帮助理解。There/where+介词就需要考虑上下文参照here+介词的理解方法。具体的理解和运用将在第3章英文合同常用词一节详述。
 
基于民法法系对普通法系的影响,英文合同的外来词主要是法语和拉丁语,有些外来词已经同化为英语,成为英语词汇的一部分,还有一些保留下来,现在仍在使用。连Contract这个词都是从拉丁语contractus演化来的呢。英文合同中常见的不可抗力条款用的Force Majeure也是拉丁语。具体例子如下:
 
l         The arbitration shall take place in the Plaintiff’s or Defendant’s country.仲裁应在原告或被告的国家进行。Plaintiff 和 defendant原为法语,现在已同化为英语。
 
l         The provisions of Paragraph 6 and Paragraph 12 of the US Plan apply mutatis mutandis to the UK Scheme, save that if an amendment is made to the UK Scheme or to the terms of an Approved Stock Option at a time when the UK Scheme is approved by the Inland Revenue under Schedule 9, the approval will not thereafter have effect unless the Inland Revenue have approved the alteration or addition. 应用于英方方案的美方规划的第6节和第12节的规定的已作必要的修正,除非对英方方案或已批准股票期权条款的修改时值根据附件9英方方案已获批准,此后该批准不得生效,除非内税局已批准该改变或增补。mutatis mutandis为拉丁语,意为已作必要的修正。
 
l         An allowance on the basis of 2% of the sales price for each unit shall be calculated and deducted from the purchase price fraction pro rata. 补贴应按每单位售价的2%计算并从购价中按比例扣除。Pro rata 为拉丁语意为in proportion, according to a factor that can be calculated exactly.
 
l         We appoint and empower Mr./Ms. _____________ to be our agent ad litem in the first and second instances and/or retrial respectively, as well as in the enforcement procedures, with respect to the case of _______vs.__________.我方委托授权某先生/女士为某案一审,二审,再审和执行程序的委托代理人。Ad litem为拉丁语“for the suit”. Agent ad litem表示为诉讼代理人。
 
6. 助动词的准确使用(Auxiliaries)
 
英文合同中,shall并非单纯表示将来时,而常用来表示法律上可强制执行的义务,具有约束力,“应”、“应该”、“必须”;其否定形式shall not则禁止某种行为,一般宜译为“不得”, will无论语气还是强制力要比shall弱,宜译为“将”、“原”、“要”;should通常只用来表示语气较强的假设、比如“万一”。 多用"shall"代替"will"或"should"加强语气和强制力。
 
l         This Contract shall become effective upon and from the date on which it is signed.
本合同签字生效。
 
l          This Contract shall be written in English in four copies. Each party shall keep two copies.
本合同应以英文写成,一式四份,双方各持两份。
 
l         Investment contributed by the parties is Renminbi __________, which will be the registered capital of the joint venture company. 各方认缴投资总额为人民币***,将作为合资公司注册资本。
 
 
May则时常用来表达当事人拥有的选择性权利。如During the Option Period, the Purchaser may terminate this Agreement with a written notice to the Seller. 选择期间,买方可书面通知卖方终止本协议。但其否定形式may not另看下例:
 
l         The parties hereto shall, first of all, settle any dispute arising from or in connection with the contract by friendly negotiations. Should such negotiations fail, such dispute may be referred to the People’s Court having jurisdiction on such disput,e for settlement in the absence of any arbitration clause in the disputed contract or in default of agreement reached after such dispute occurs.首先,合同双方应通过友好协商解决合同产生与合同有关的争议。如协商不成,所争议合同缺少仲裁条款或争议后未达成仲裁协议,则该争议可提交到有管辖权的人民法院诉讼解决。
 
本句中shall,should和may的表达准确,符合人们通过“协商”—“仲裁”—“诉讼”解决争议的基本流程。Shall表示义务性约定,should表示假设条件不成就,may表示行使选择性权利。
 
[原创]<<英文合同导读>>2.3 句式特点(1)   
 
第三节 句式结构特点(Sentence Structure)
 
1.       句子冗长,结构严谨,语序复杂(prolixity, preciseness and perplexity )
 
英文合同为了准确、严密、清楚地表达,多以庞杂的从句和/或短语并列,语序复杂多变的长句面目出现,很少以简单句为主。
 
A.主句的状语的位置,一般放在助动词后,行为动词前,与基础英语频度副词如;often,sometimes,always,never,seldom的位置相同。例如:
 
l         The Company shall, at all time during the term of the Joint Venture, effect and maintain full and adequate insurance against loss or damage by fire and such risks as are customarily issued in connection with the operation of the Company.合资公司应在合资期间的任何时候,就火灾以及此类与公司经营相关的其他风险所造成的损失或损害进行投保,并保持充分和适当的保险。
 
l         If, at any time during the execution of the Work, the Engineer requires the Contractor to make bore-holes or to carry out exploratory excavation, such requirement shall in accordance with Clause 51, be the subject of an instruction unless an item or a Provisional Sum in respect of such work is included in the Bill of Quantities.在工程施工过程中的任何时间内,如果工程师要求承包人钻孔或进行勘探性开挖,则根据第51条规定以指示形式下达这一要求,但工程量报价表中已经包括了涉及此类工作的项号或暂定金额者除外。
 
B.从句复杂,从句的状语,往往放在连词之后,从句的句子之前。例如:
 
l         If, at any time during the execution of the Contract, either of the Parties to the contract is prevented from executing the Contract in case of Force Majeure such as war, serious fires, flood, typhoon and earthquake, etc., the time for execution of the Contract shall be extended for a period equal to the affect of those causes.在合同期间的任何时候,合同任一方,由于受到战争、严重火灾、洪水、台风和地震等不可抗力事件的影响而不能履行合同时,合同履行期应予延长,延长期限相当于事件影响的时间。
 
l         If, at the time and in the place agreed under Sub-Clause 37.3, the materials or plant are not ready for inspecting or testing or if, as a result of the inspection or testing referred to in this Clause, the Engineer determines that the materials or plant are defective or otherwise not in accordance with the Contract, the Engineer may reject the materials or the plant and shall notify the Contract thereof immediately.如果在按第37.3条约定的时间和地点,供检查和检验的材料或工程设备未准备好,或者按本条规定所作的检查或检验结果,工程师认为材料或工程设备有缺陷或是不符合合同规定的,则工程师可拒收这些材料或工程设备,并应立即通知承包人。(本句较为复杂,有两个条件从句,一个宾语从句)
 
C.主从复合句,从句经常用简略形式。例如:
 
l         A party dissatisfied with the judgment may, within 15 day upon receipt of the judgment, file an appeal to the next upper People’s Court.如不服本判决,该方可于接到判决之日起十五日内向上一级法院提起上诉。
 
l         The Contractor shall, unless otherwise provided in the Contract, make his own arrangement for the engagement of all staff and labour, local or other, and for their payment, housing, feeding and transport.除合同另有规定外,承包人应自行安排从当地或其他地方雇用的所有职员和劳务人员,以及他们的报酬、住房、膳食和交通。
 
2. 否定前置与倒装(Negative Fronting and Anastrophe)
 
英语中处理否定的方式一般有两种:一是否定词放在情态动词或助动词后,行为动词前,构成正常的陈述语序;二是否定词放在句首,然后情态动词或助动词与主语位置调换,构成倒装语序。英文合同中含否定意义的句子往往采用后者。例如:
 
否定仅前置:(Fronting)
 
l         Nothing in Article 12.3 shall prevent Party A or any of its affiliation from continuing to carry on any of their present businesses.合同第十二条第三款规定不得妨碍甲方或其分支机构持续经营现有业务。
 
l         Neither party, without prior consent of the other, may assign or transfer to nay third party any equity interests held by its side.未经对方同意,任一方不得向任何第三人转让其持有的股权。
 
否定倒装:(Anastrophe)    
 
l         In no event shall the Seller be liable for lost profits, delay, injury to goodwill or any special or consequential damages howsoever any of the same are caused.对于利润损失、延误、商誉损害或任何特别或间接的损害赔偿,不论任何原因引起的,卖方概不承担责任。
 
l         In this case, Party B shall refund to Party A the amount which Party A has paid to Party B plus the related interest at the rate of 10% per year immediately, but in no case shall such refunding by Party B exceeds 30 days from receipt from Party A of the notice to terminate the contract.在此种情况下,乙方应立即返还甲方已支付给乙方的款项并按年利率10%加算利息,但不论怎样乙方该返还不得超过收到甲方终止合同通知后30日。
 

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