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Legal English How to Understand and Master the Law
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Legal English

We work with leading authors to develop the strongest
educational materials in law, bringing cutting-edge thinking
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Legal English
How to Understand and Master the Language of Law
William R. McKay and
Helen E. Charlton

Pearson Education Limited
Edinburgh Gate
Harlow
Essex CM20 2JE
England
and Associated Companies throughout the world
Visit us on the World Wide Web at:
www.pearsoned.co.uk
Published 2005
. Pearson Education Limited 2005
The rights of William R. McKay and Helen E. Charlton to be identified as authors
of this work have been asserted by the authors in accordance with the Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior
written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying
in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd,
90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP.
ISBN 0-582-89436-0
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
08 07 06 05
Typeset in 10/13pt Palatino by 69
Printed by Ashford Colour Press Ltd, Gosport
The publisher’s policy is to use paper manufactured from sustainable forests.

Acknowledgements vii
Introduction 1
Part 1 Business law and practice 3
1. Company formation 5
2. Board meetings 16
3. Shareholders' meetings 21
4. Boardroom battle! 32
5. Marketing agreements 45
Part 2 Civil litigation 57
6. Injunctions 59
7. Breach of contract claim 66
8. Road traffic accident! 76
9. Trial 90
10. Employment law 120
Part 3 Law bulletin 129
11. Law bulletin 131
Appendix 1: Study and research
guide 149
Appendix 2: Glossary 158
Appendix 3: Answer key 165
Index 185
v
Table of contents

The publishers and authors would like to thank the following individuals and publications
for granting permission to reproduce copyright material.
Employment Tribunals Service for permission to include sample copies of Employment
Tribunal forms.
The Law Society Gazette for permission to reproduce the following articles:
 ‘Shopping Around’ (edition dated 4 March 2004)
 ‘Having cross words in the courtroom’ (edition dated 1 April 2004)
 ‘Asian tigers prepare to spring’ (edition dated 20 May 2004).
Nigel Hanson for permission to reproduce ‘Shopping Around’. Nigel Hanson is a
member of the media team at Foot Anstey Sargent.
Justin Michaelson (Weil, Gotshal & Manges) on behalf of the Solicitors’ Association
of Higher Court Advocates, for permission to reproduce ‘Having cross words
in the courtroom’.
Lucy Trevelyan for permission to reproduce ‘Asian tigers prepare to spring’.
Margot Taylor, Principal Lecturer at the Inns of Court School of Law, for permission
to reproduce her article entitled 'Which route – solicitor or barrister?’ (The Times,
20 January 2004).
The authors would also like to express their gratitude to Sharon Hanson and
David Ronson for providing valued comments and feedback in the course of this
book being written.
vii
Acknowledgements
Publisher’s note
The following forms are . Crown copyright: v 08/02 (10: First directors and
secretary and intended situation of registered office); 10/03 (12: Declaration on
application for registration); 288a (Appointment of director or secretary); N19
(Special Resolution on Change of Name Companies Acts); N1 Claim form (CPR
Part 7) (01.02); IT1 (E/W) (Application to an Employment Tribunal); Form IT3
E&W– 8/98 (Employment Tribunals); Human Rights Act 1998.
While every care has been taken to establish and acknowledge copyright and to
contact the copyright owners, the publishers tender their apologies for any accidental
infringement. They would be pleased to come to a suitable arrangement with the
rightful owners in each case.

This book has been written to assist those interested in law and wishing to become
more conversant in English within a legal context (whether as a native English
speaker or someone using English as a second or foreign language). It is therefore
intended to be of assistance to a variety of individuals, including:
 those aiming to study or presently studying law within an English language
jurisdiction (whether for academic or vocational training purposes)
 those presently involved in the legal or business domain whose work brings
them into contact with legal practice.
Communication skills in oral and written legal English are developed through
a programme of language activity in conjunction with key legal skills training
including:
 advocacy
 interviewing and advising
 negotiation
 legal writing and drafting
In this way this publication offers the reader stimulating and enjoyable instruction
designed to progressively enhance relevant and meaningful communication skills
in oral and written legal English. Such a task based approach enables the reader to
optimise academic and professional effectiveness, offering a valuable source for academic
and professional development. Legal English provides the opportunity to
build on language skills in a professional context through familiarisation with realistic
legal scenarios and materials prepared by a qualified lawyer. The exercises are
suited to both self-study and group study in a classroom.
Readers therefore benefit from pro-active skills based exercises. These involve the
use of realistic legal precedents to develop a working knowledge of legal practice
and ability in performing ‘real-life’ legal tasks and procedures–all in the context of
improving the reader’s ability to use legal English.
English is predominantly the language of international legal practice and its importance
to lawyers cannot be over-emphasised. The way in which one uses legal
English can therefore be crucial to professional success. Competence is developed
throughout the book in a logical sequence of ascending complexity. Exercises are
also cumulative, previous lessons being reinforced and built upon in subsequent exercises
while also containing a practice and feedback element.
1
Introduction

The book consists of main sections on:
 Litigation (including courtroom advocacy, court orders, court documentation, paperwork
used by court lawyers, case preparation and problem solving)
 Business law (including company documentation, company meetings and resolutions
and commercial agreements)
These sections also include an explanation of basic legal principles (such as in
relation to the law of contract and tort) as well as a review of language and
grammar–all in the context of ‘portable’ skills training which will be of value in
many academic and professional contexts.
Additional sections on journalistic texts and legal research and study guidance
further contribute to making this a book of much value to readers wishing to develop
their legal English for use in the course of legal study or practice. It offers a
stimulating and enjoyable learning resource and can be used by readers with or
without any legal training. It will be of most use however to readers with at least an
upper intermediate standard in English language.
In each chapter you will be provided with an introduction to a different legal
topic. You are then provided with a range of language exercises relating to the legal
topic for that chapter.
These exercises involve legal skills practise and role-play (such as advocacy,
interviewing, negotiation and writing/drafting), enabling you to develop your proficiency
in legal English. The areas of language and law in each chapter are then
summarised to consolidate your learning. Answers to the exercises are provided in
Appendix 3 and should be checked only after you have undertaken the exercises.
For further resources see www.pearsoned.co.uk/McKay
Introduction
2

PART 1
Business law and practice

5
Chapter 1 Company formation
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Acquire knowledge of the legal characteristics and nature of a limited company
 Acquire an appreciation of the vocabulary and grammar relevant to company law
 Become aware of the information required in order to incorporate a company
 Understand and be capable of explaining the legal procedures and documentation
required for company formation
 Be able to prepare the legal documentation necessary in order to create a company
Company law
Characteristics of a company
A company is regarded in law as being a separate legal ‘person’, with a separate legal
personality. This means that it has rights separate from its owners and managers
to enter into contracts, employ people, own property and conduct business. The
creation and management of a company is governed by the Companies Act 1985
(CA ’85) and the Companies Act 1989.
By far the largest number of incorporated companies are incorporated with limited
liability, being limited by shares as defined by section 1(2)(a) CA ’85. The
potential financial liability of a member (in other words shareholder) in such a company
is limited to the amount, if any, remaining unpaid on the shares held by that
particular member. Such a company is known as a limited company and will have
the word ‘Limited’ at the end of its name.
A company can be a private or a public company. A public company must have a
minimum issued share capital of £50,000, as required by sections 11 and 118 CA ’85.
A public company may offer its shares for sale to the public (s. 81 CA ’85), whereas a
private company must not. A public company may also have its shares listed (and
traded) on the Stock Exchange. Information on the current values of such listed
shares is publicly available and can be checked for instance in The Financial Times.

COMPANY FORMATION
There are a number of legal requirements which must be complied with in order to incorporate
(in other words create) a company. In particular, the following documentation will normally be
required.
Memorandum of Association
The Memorandum of Association (known as the ‘articles of incorporation’ in the US) contains
the following information:
 Name of the company
 The company’s objects and powers (meaning basically the sphere of activities and nature of
the company)
 The company’s share capital
Articles of Association
The Articles of Association (the articles) are in effect a set of rules governing the conduct of
the members of the company and its officers. The officers of a company are its directors and
company secretary. These rules commonly relate to matters such as the conduct of shareholder
and board meetings, any restriction on the transferability of shares and the powers
bestowed on the directors etc. (In the US the Articles of Association are known as the
bylaws.) Many companies use a standard form of articles known as ‘Table A Articles’.
Form 10
This is a standard form which must be completed with details of the intended officers of the
company, as required by s. 10(2) CA ’85. Every incorporated company must have at least one
director and one company secretary. (If there is to be only one director then that individual
cannot also be the company secretary.) Details of the company’s registered office (at
which formal documents will usually be served upon the company) should also be included in
Form 10.
Form 12
This is another standard form which must be signed by a person applying for incorporation of
the company to certify that the legal requirements for registration have been complied with.
The person signing Form 12 (commonly known as the promoter of the company) can be one of
the directors, the company secretary or a solicitor engaged in the formation of the company.
Once completed, these company documents must then be sent to the Registrar of Companies
(‘the registrar’), along with a fee. The registrar then registers the company and issues a
Certificate of Incorporation. This is when the company comes into existence. There are further
legal requirements which the incorporated company must then continue to comply with, such
as having annual accounts prepared (s. 226 CA ’85), a copy of which must be filed annually at
Companies House (s. 242 CA ’85).
Exercise 1–reading
Part 1  Business law and practice
6

7
Answer the following questions concerning company formation, based on the above information.
1. What is meant by ‘limited liability’?
2. What is the minimum amount of issued share capital which a public company must
maintain?
3. List the four documents normally required in order to form a company.
4. If a client wishes to incorporate a company and be its only director, can s/he also be the
company secretary? If not then explain why not.
5. Name the document issued by the Registrar of Companies which is in effect a ‘birth certificate’
for a new company.
Exercise 2–comprehension
Now assume that you are a lawyer in the Business Law Department of Stringwoods & Evans, a
city law firm located at 18 Bond Street, London, W1 1KR (telephone number 020 7538 2892;
DX number 12432, London 1). You have been instructed by a new client named Thomas
Shapiro (TS) to incorporate a company for him. TS is a successful entrepreneur with business
interests throughout Europe and the Far East. He now wishes to establish a private company
limited by shares to be named ‘Maplink Limited’. Maplink Limited will be run as a business,
publishing various maps and guides for tourists visiting London and other cities around the
world.
Your senior partner has already drafted the Articles of Association for Maplink Limited. You are
now required to complete the further documentation needed to form the company. This consists
of:
 The Memorandum of Association
 Form 10
 Form 12
Taking account of the company details provided on p. 8, complete the following company formation
documentation accordingly by entering the correct details in the shaded spaces.
Exercise 3–drafting
Chapter 1  Company formation

Language practice

Part 1  Business law and practice
8
MAPLINK LIMITED–COMPANY PROFILE
REGISTERED OFFICE 44 Princess Diana Walk, South Kensington, London,
W2 3SL (Telephone no. 020 7429 8137)
DIRECTORS (1) MR THOMAS SHAPIRO of 23 Essex Street,
Hampton Court, Surrey, KT8 1NQ (Barrister – date
of birth 12 February 1968)
(2) PROFESSOR DIMITRIS YAVAPRAPAS of ‘The
Manor’, 2 Queen Elizabeth Street, London, SE1 5NP
(Surgeon - date of birth 3 July 1954)
COMPANY SECRETARY MISS GISELA WIRTH of 15 Robin Hood Way,
Mansfield, Nottingham, NG2 7CX (Accountant,
date of birth 28 November 1973)
AUTHORISED SHARE CAPITAL 250,000 X £1 Ordinary Shares
MEMBERS AND SHAREHOLDINGS THOMAS SHAPIRO 175,000
DIMITRIS YAVAPRAPAS 50,000
GISELA WIRTH 25,000

Chapter 1  Company formation
9

THE COMPANIES ACTS 1985 TO 1989
PRIVATE COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES
MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION OF [1]
1. The Company’s name is . [2]
2. The Company’s registered office is to be situated in England and Wales.
3. The object of the Company is to carry on business as a general commercial company.
4. The liability of the Members is . [3]
5. The Company’s share capital is £ [4] divided into 250,000 ordinary
shares of £1 each.
WE the subscribers to this Memorandum of Association wish to form into a Company
pursuant to this Memorandum and we agree to take the number of shares shown opposite
our respective names.
Names and addresses of Subscribers Number of shares taken by each subscriber
THOMAS SHAPIRO
23 ESSEX STREET,
HAMPTON COURT,
SURREY, KT8 1NQ ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE THOUSAND
1 [5]
FIFTY THOUSAND
2 [6]
3 [7]
Total shares taken : 4 [8]
Dated this 15 th. day of May 20 06

Part 1  Business law and practice
10

Chapter 1  Company formation
11

Part 1  Business law and practice
12

Chapter 1  Company formation
13

Complete the following sentences by entering an appropriate multi-word verb into each blank
space from the selection in the panel below.
1. The Defendant has decided to the judgment.
2. The judgment my client.
3. We are confident that the Judge will our opponent.
4. He wants to discussions with a view to becoming a director of the
company.
5. He intends to the company to purchase some shares.
6. I have been asked to a newly incorporated company.
Exercise 4–multi-word verbs
contract for negotiate with act for
appeal against decide against enter into
Characteristics of a limited liability company
 A limited company has a separate legal personality in law (as established by case of
Salomon v Salomon 1897)
 A company is owned by shareholders, management decisions primarily being made by
directors
 Shareholders (members) and directors have limited liability
 A company must be registered at the Companies Registry (based in Cardiff for companies
incorporated in England and Wales and in Edinburgh for companies incorporated
in Scotland)
 A company comes into existence upon issue of a certificate of incorporation
 Documents required to form a company: Memorandum of Association; Articles of
Association; Form 10; Form 12
 Memorandum of Association indicates: the name of the company; whether it is a
private or public limited company; the objects of the company (which state the purpose
of the company and the scope of its legal capacity to conduct business with outside
parties)
 Articles of Association provide a set of internal company rules
 A shareholder’s personal liability is limited to paying fully for shares held
 A company’s nominal (or authorised) share capital refers to the quantity of shares a company
is authorised to issue (as indicated in the company’s Memorandum of Association)
Law notes
Part 1  Business law and practice
14

 A company’s issued share capital (also known as allotted share capital) refers to the
value of shares actually issued (or allotted) to shareholders
 A company’s paid-up share capital refers to the amount of the total (nominal) value of
the issued share capital actually ‘paid-up’ by shareholders
 There are various types of shares which a company can issue, including:
1. ordinary shares–usually carrying voting rights and a right to any dividend declared
by the company (i.e. share of any profits made by the company)
2. preference shares – which do not carry voting rights (referred to as non-voting
shares) but provide priority (i.e. a preference) to payment of a dividend
 Continuing duty on company to maintain annual accounts and to file annual accounts
with Registrar of Companies
Multi-word verbs
Multi-word verbs consist of a verb and at least one particle. A particle is a word which
would be a preposition or an adverb in a different context. In this chapter you have
encountered several examples of multi-word verbs such as those in:
enter into a contract; comply with the requirements; subscribe their names to.
Multi-word verbs come in four categories:
1. verbs with particles and no object. E.g. Sit down!
2. verbs with two particles. E.g. He gets on with his client.
3. verb  inseperable particle  object. E.g. I’m waiting for the trial.
4. verb  separable particle  object. E.g. He set out the terms / He set the terms out.
List of multi-word verbs
The following is a non-exhaustive list of examples of multi-word verbs used in legal English.
Grammar notes
Chapter 1  Company formation
act for appeal against charge with
contract for decide for / against enter into
file for find against legislate for / against
negotiate with / for prohibit from rule against
settle for swear in withdraw from
15

16
Chapter 2 Board meetings
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Understand and be capable of explaining the practice and procedure of board meetings
 Be familiar with board meeting documentation
 Develop your vocabulary in relation to company meetings
 Acquire practice in drafting board meeting documentation
 Develop word skills and vocabulary relevant to company law
 Consider the use of relevant grammar including combining nouns and plural nouns
Introduction
In this chapter and the next one we will consider the practice and procedure of company
meetings. These take two basic forms:
1. Board meetings
2. Shareholders’ meetings
We shall consider shareholders’ meetings in the next chapter. The main characteristics
of a board meeting (also known as a directors’ meeting) are as follows.
Board meetings
Board meetings are attended by the directors of the company. Day to day business
decisions are usually taken at board meetings. Matters to be decided upon are put
to the meeting in the form of ‘resolutions’, each director present casting a vote for
or against each resolution being considered. (Voting is usually by a ‘show of
hands’.) Whether or not a resolution is passed depends on whether the majority of
votes are in favour of or against that resolution. In other words the decision is
made by a simple majority. Multi-national companies with directors located internationally
often stipulate in their articles that board meetings may be validly held
by means of telephone or audio-visual conferencing as well as via the internet.

Chapter 2  Board meetings
17
In Chapter 1 we incorporated a company named Maplink Limited (‘Maplink’). In common with
all companies, Maplink will hold board and shareholders’ meetings. Let us assume therefore
that Maplink is now planning to hold its first board meeting. (You may recall that Maplink
has two directors, namely Thomas Shapiro and Dimitris Yavaprapas.) Continuing to act as
Maplink’s lawyer you are now asked to prepare the minutes for the first board meeting of the
company, taking account of the following specific instructions.
CLIENT INSTRUCTIONS
 Another director is to be appointed, namely Mr Kadir Salleh of 4 Kensington Palace
Gardens, London, W2 4AJ
 The name of the company is to be changed from Maplink Limited to Travelgraph Limited
TASK
Complete the minutes of the company’s first board meeting by selecting the most appropriate
word from the list below to place in each correspondingly numbered space in the draft
minutes on the following page.
Exercise 1 – comprehension
Any director can call a board meeting on reasonable notice to all the other directors.
Board meetings are therefore often convened at short notice. A written record
is made of matters discussed and of resolutions considered at a board meeting.
This record is known as the ‘minutes’ of the meeting.

1. (a) restitution
(b) resolution
(c) resolved
(d) determined
2. (a) employed
(b) appointed
(c) selected
(d) commissioned
3. (a) classified
(b) head
(c) official
(d) registered
4. (a) disclosed
(b) indicated
(c) presented
(d) represented
5. (a) collated
(b) convened
(c) assembled
(d) accumulated
6. (a) given
(b) provided
(c) catered
(d) supplied
7. (a) intentions
(b) proposals
(c) resolve
(d) resolutions
8. (a) declared
(b) proclaimed
(c) affirmed
(d) publicised

Part 1  Business law and practice
18
MAPLINK LIMITED
Minutes of the first meeting of the board of directors of Maplink Limited (‘the company’)
held at 44 Princess Diana Walk, South Kensington, London, W2 3SL on 15 May 2006 at
10.00 a.m.
Present: Thomas Shapiro
Dimitris Yavaprapas
In Attendance: Gisela Wirth
1. Thomas Shapiro and Dimitris Yavaprapas accepted office as directors of the
company. It was resolved that Thomas Shapiro be appointed Chairman of the board.
2. It was [1] that [A] be appointed solicitor to the
company.
3. It was resolved that Gisela Wirth be [2] secretary of the company.
4. It was resolved that the [3] office be at 44 Princess Diana Walk, South
Kensington, London, W2 3SL.
5. It was resolved that the quorum necessary for the transaction of the business of the
directors should be two directors personally present.
6. A draft notice of an extraordinary general meeting of the company was
[4] to the meeting and approved. It was further resolved that such
meeting be [5] and that notice of this be [6] forthwith
to the shareholders.
7. The meeting thereupon adjourned. Upon resumption it was reported that the
[7] set out in the notice of the extraordinary general meeting had
been passed respectively as ordinary and special resolutions of the company.
8. Upon there being no further competent business the meeting was then
[8] closed by the Chairman.
Chairman
Now name yourself as the company’s solicitor by entering your own name in box ‘A’ of
paragraph 2 of the minutes of the board meeting!

Chapter 2  Board meetings
19

Board meetings
 Attended by directors of the company
 Address general managerial decisions of the company
 Each director normally has one vote
 Only directors of the company can vote at board meetings
 Resolutions are passed by simple majority
Law notes
Combining nouns
There are a number of instances in this chapter where two nouns are used together. In
such instances the first of the two nouns usually provides some indication or description
of the type or variety of the second noun. For example:
a directors’ meeting a shareholders’ meeting
(both a directors’ meeting and a shareholders’ meeting being types of meeting).
Further examples are: interview record (a type of record) Magistrates’ Court (a type
of court)
Sometimes when two nouns are placed together in this way they are separated by a
hyphen (-). This often occurs when the two nouns are commonly placed together, as
illustrated for instance with work-place and time-limit. If you are in any doubt as
to whether a hyphen is normally used with any particular combination of nouns you
are advised to use a good dictionary in order to check, such as Dictionary of Law by
Grammar notes
Answer the following questions relating to the above text on board meetings and on the minutes
you have just finalised for Maplink’s first board meeting.
1. What is meant by convening a meeting?
2. What is meant by a simple majority?
3. What is meant by a vote being taken on a show of hands?
4. Why do you think multi-national companies sometimes conduct board meetings by audiovisual
conferencing?
5. Suggest one reason why a director may wish to call a board meeting.
6. Paragraph 5 of the minutes indicates that the quorum for board meetings is two. What is a
quorum?
Exercise 2 – convening a board meeting

L.B. Curzon. Some combinations of nouns have become so synonymous with each other
however that they are written as one-word compound nouns. E.g. wheelchair.
Possessive forms
Possessive ‘s’
A possessive ‘s’ is added to nouns along with an apostrophe to indicate that the word(s)
following are related (i.e. ‘belong’) to the word(s) with a possessive ‘s’. E.g. counsel’s
opinion. The letter ‘s’ is also put at the end of nouns to indicate a range of other relationships.
For example:
Places: Europe’s main legal centres
Time: four days’ trial
Plural nouns
When dealing with regular plural verbs the apostrophe ( ’ ) should be placed after the ‘s’.
You will see for instance that this is where the apostrophe is placed with:
directors’ meetings shareholders’ meetings
Note that the apostrophe is also placed after the possessive ‘s’ when a singular noun
ends in ‘s’. For instance: James’s case.
With singular nouns however the apostrophe should be placed before the possessive ‘s’.
Hence:
the expert’s report Gordon’s witness statement
This is also the correct position for the apostrophe with irregular plural nouns. E.g.
women’s court attire.
20
Part 1  Business law and practice

21
Chapter 3 Shareholders’ meetings
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Acquire practice in drafting company resolutions and further company meeting
documentation
 Understand and be capable of explaining the practice and procedure of shareholders’
meetings
 Be aware of the roles of the officers of a company
 Draft company documentation to appoint a further director to the board
 Draft company documentation to change the name of a company
 Further develop word skills and vocabulary relevant to company law
 Consider the use of relevant grammar including the use of prepositions
Introduction
You will recall that in the last chapter we identified two main types of company
meetings:
1. Board meetings (also known as directors’ meetings)
2. Shareholders’ meetings (also known as members’ meetings)
In this chapter we will look at the practice and procedure of the second of these,
having considered board meetings in the previous chapter. Read the next section on
shareholders’ meetings then try the exercises which follow.

Part 1  Business law and practice
22
Exercise 1 – reading
SHAREHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
Company law dictates that certain business decisions concerning a company need shareholder
approval. In particular, shareholders’ meetings are required when major changes to the
company are being proposed. Proposals for such changes are put to a shareholders’ meeting
in the form of resolutions. Shareholders’ meetings can be attended by the company’s directors
as well as by its shareholders. However, only shareholders have the right to vote. (It is
possible to be a director without being a shareholder, unless a company’s articles of association
provide otherwise.)
A company’s annual general meeting (AGM) is a type of shareholders’ meeting. Other shareholders’
meetings are known as extraordinary general meetings (EGMs). Twenty-one days’ notice
is normally required to be provided to the shareholders before an AGM can be validly held,
14 days’ notice being required for an EGM. A vote on a proposed resolution is usually taken initially
by ‘a show of hands’. In the course of such a vote each shareholder (otherwise known as
a member of the company) normally has one vote, irrespective of the number of shares s/he
possesses. Once the result of the vote on ‘a show of hands’ is declared, any member may demand
what is known as a ‘poll’ (unless the company’s articles specifically provide otherwise).
If a poll is held votes are then counted differently. Rather than each member having one
vote regardless of his or her shareholding, each member has one vote for each share s/he
holds. The chairman of the company will usually have a casting vote in the event that the
number of votes are the same for and against a resolution, in order to enable such a deadlock
to be broken. (Article 50 of Table A Articles provides for this for instance.) Shareholders’
meetings are usually called by the board. If however the board is reluctant to call a shareholders’
meeting then the shareholders can requisition one (as provided by s. 368 CA ’85).
TYPES OF RESOLUTIONS
The types of resolutions and their main characteristics are set out below. The first two
mentioned are the most common types of resolutions proposed at company meetings.
1. Ordinary Resolution (OR) – requires a simple bare majority (i.e. 50% +1 of votes cast) to
be passed. Usual notice required to be provided to members of a proposed ordinary
resolution is 14 days.
2. Special Resolution (SR) – requires 75% of votes cast. Usual notice requirement is 21 days.
(Note that this means therefore that if an SR is being proposed at an EGM then the
required notice for the EGM will normally be 21 days rather than 14 days.)
3. Extraordinary Resolution – similar to a special resolution albeit notice requirement is
14 days (as opposed to 21 days for a special resolution).
4. Elective Resolution – enables private companies to ‘opt out’ of certain company law
formalities by unanimous agreement (e.g. to dispense with need to hold an annual general
meeting each year).
5. Written Resolution – a resolution in writing which can be validly passed without the need
for a meeting provided all those entitled to vote sign the written resolution to signify their
unanimous approval of the resolution.

Chapter 3  Shareholders’ meetings
HOLDING A SHAREHOLDERS’ MEETING
You will recall that in the last chapter you prepared the minutes for the first board meeting
of Maplink Limited (‘Maplink’). Continuing to act as lawyer for Maplink, you are now asked to
prepare the documentation required in order to convene the company’s first shareholders’
meeting. Remember that the company requires to achieve two specific objectives in the
course of that meeting:
 To appoint Kadir Salleh of 4 Kensington Palace Gardens, London, W2 4AJ (date of birth
4th of April 1969) to the board of directors
 To change the name of the company from Maplink Limited to Travelgraph Limited.
The steps now required are therefore as follows.
Step 1 Call the first shareholders’ meeting
Step 2 Prepare the minutes of the first shareholders’ meeting
Step 3 Prepare post-meeting documentation
Complete the following notice of the shareholders’ meeting (EGM), filling in the blanks by
selecting the appropriate words from the list below.
Exercise 2 – preparing the notice of the meeting
resolutions convened passing vote Notice
for the purpose of member appointed special Travelgraph
23
COMPANY NUMBER 3467609
NOTICE OF EXTRAORDINARY GENERAL MEETING
COMPANIES ACT 1985
COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES
MAPLINK LIMITED
(‘The Company’)
[1] is hereby given that an extraordinary general meeting of the
Company will be held at 44 Princess Diana Walk, South Kensington, London, W2 3SL,
on 15 May 2006 at 11.00 a.m. [2] considering and if thought fit
[3] the following [4] respectively as ordinary and
[5] resolutions of the Company.


Part 1  Business law and practice
24
ORDINARY RESOLUTION
1. That Kadir Salleh be [6] a director of the Company.
SPECIAL RESOLUTION
2. That the name of the Company be changed to [7] Limited
By order of the board
Gisela Wirth
Secretary
Date: 14 April 2006
Registered office: 44 Princess Diana Walk, South Kensington, London, W2 3SL.
Note: A shareholder entitled to attend and vote at the meeting [8] by
the notice set out above is entitled to appoint a proxy to attend and [9]
in his place. A proxy need not be a [10] of the Company.
Now complete the following minutes of the company’s first shareholders’ meeting by deleting
each word in bold and writing alongside each deletion in the spaces provided the proper form
of those words.
Exercise 3 – preparing the minutes

Chapter 3  Shareholders’ meetings
25
MAPLINK LIMITED
Minutes of an extraordinary general meeting of the Company held at 44 Princess Diana Walk,
South Kensington, London, W2 3SL on 15 May 2006 at 11.00 a.m.
Present: Thomas Shapiro
Dimitris Yavaprapas
In Attendance: Gisela Wirth
1. NOTICE AND QUORUM
It was note [1] that due notice of the meeting had been given to
all members and that a quorum was present. The meeting was therefore
declaration [2] open.
2. APPOINTMENT OF FURTHER DIRECTOR OF THE COMPANY
The chairman proposition [3] the following resolution as an ordinarily
[4] resolution.
‘That Kadir Salleh be appointed a directorship [5] of the Company’.
On a show of hands the chairmanship [6] declared the resolution
passed unanimity [7].
3. CHANGE OF COMPANY NAME
The chairman proposed the following resolution as a specially [8]
resolution:
‘That the name of the Company be changed to Travelgraph Limited’.
On a showing [9] of hands, the chairman declared the resolution passed
unanimously.
CLOSE OF MEETING
There being no further business, the chairman declared the meeting closure
[10].
Chairman

Part 1  Business law and practice
26
Answer the following questions relating to shareholders’ meetings.
1. What is meant by a unanimous agreement?
2. Name another term meaning the same as shareholder.
3. In the text above concerning shareholders’ meetings what is meant by a ‘deadlock’?
4. What is a casting vote?
5. What does it mean to requisition a meeting?
6. Is it illegal to be a director of a company without also being a shareholder of the company?
7. What is the minimum notice period normally required in order to convene an extraordinary
general meeting?
8. What minimum notice period will be required to convene the EGM we have considered in
this chapter?
9. At the foot of the notice calling the EGM there is a clause intimating that a shareholder is
entitled to appoint a proxy. What do you think is meant by a proxy?
The following internal memorandum addressed to you from the Head of the Business Law
Department sets out the steps now required to complete your client’s instructions. Eight
prepositions have however been omitted. Fill in these missing prepositions in the numbered
blank spaces.
Exercise 4 – comprehension
Exercise 5 – drafting (i)
STRINGWOOD & EVANS
Memorandum
From : Jacqueline Hanratty (Head of Business Law Dept.)
To : [ ]
TRAVELGRAPH LIMITED (FORMERLY MAPLINK LIMITED)
Thank you for doing such a good job [1] preparing the necessary company
documentation for this client company. In order to complete the job we now need
to think [2] the remaining post-meeting matters requiring to be dealt
[3] . In particular, it is now necessary to:

Chapter 3  Shareholders’ meetings
27
TASK 1
Complete the following Form 288a (referred to in the above memorandum) to provide notice to
the Registrar of Companies of Kadir Salleh’s appointment as a director by filling in the shaded
spaces.
TASK 2
Similarly complete Form N19 (p. 26) to provide notice to the Registrar of the change of
company name by filling in the shaded spaces.
TASK 3
Working in pairs, role-play the board and shareholders’ meetings considered in this chapter
and the previous one. (One person should play the role of the chairman, Thomas Shapiro,
the other person playing the role of the other director, namely Dimitris Yavaprapas.) If you are
working in a group then a third person can play the role of Gisela Wirth, the Company Secretary,
and make notes on what is discussed at the meeting.
Exercise 6 – post-meeting documentation–drafting (ii)

 Update the company’s Register of Directors [4] the appointment of
Kadir Salleh as a director;
 Notify the Registrar of Companies of Kadir Salleh’s appointment to the board
[5] completing a Form 288a and forwarding it to the Registrar of
Companies within 14 days
 Notify the Registrar of Companies of the change of company name
[6] Maplink Limited to Travelgraph Limited by completing and
sending a Form NC 20 before the time-limit of 15 days for doing so expires.
The change of company name will not take effect until the Registrar issues an amended
Certificate of Incorporation showing the change of name [7] Travelgraph
Limited. [8] that date the company will be legally recognised as
Travelgraph Limited.
Jacqueline Hanratty

Part 1  Business law and practice
28

Chapter 3  Shareholders’ meetings
29

Part 1  Business law and practice
Shareholders’ meetings
 Attended by the company’s directors and shareholders
 Convened to pass resolutions affecting the constitution of the company (including for
instance changes in share capital, approving a director’s service contract and changing
the name of the company etc.)
 Only shareholders are entitled to vote (including directors who are also shareholders)
 Majority required to pass a resolution depends on the type of resolution being considered
ordinary resolution (OR) requires 50%  1 of votes cast
special resolution (SR) requires 75% of votes cast
Procedure for convening directors’ and shareholders’ meetings
 Call board (i.e. directors’) meeting – any director can call on reasonable notice
 Ensure quorum present and hold board meeting – propose resolutions required, vote on
resolutions, adjourn meeting and finalise minutes of meeting
 Call extraordinary general meeting – notice required is normally 14 days or 21 days if
SR on agenda
 Ensure quorum present and hold extraordinary general meeting (EGM) – pass
resolutions, close meeting and finalise minutes
 ‘Present’ in the minutes refers to those in attendance and entitled to vote whereas
‘In Attendance’ refers to those present but with no such right to vote
 Re-convene board meeting – report result of voting on resolutions at EGM and close
meeting
 Complete post-meeting documentation
Law notes
Prepositions
Many short words in the English language such as at, in, of and after are prepositions.
Prepositions can also however consist of several words, such as in terms of and in the
event of. The only effective way of becoming truly conversant in using prepositions in legal
English is through familiarisation with their use in a legal context. Getting into the
habit of referring to a good dictionary (such as Dictionary of Law by L.B. Curzon) when you
are uncertain can also assist in this regard.
As a general rule, prepositions are placed before a noun, as in the following examples:
at court the legal proceedings were issued in time
Grammar notes
30

Chapter 3  Shareholders’ meetings
31
Alternatively, when used in connection with a phrase containing a noun, a preposition can
be placed immediately before such a phrase. Hence:
until further order at the locus
Prepositions can also however come after:
1. a noun– Mandy has entered into a contract for service with a large corporation.
2. an adjective– John was delighted with the Judge’s decision
3. a verb– How could the Judge possibly arrive at such a decision?
Lawyers often use formal language. In such circumstances (such as for instance in court)
prepositions can be placed before a ‘question word’ when posing a direct question. For
instance:
At what time did you see the accident?
In other formal contexts prepositions can be used immediately before a relative pronoun:
The Defendant is a company with whom the Claimant would like to maintain a business relationship.
It is therefore hoped that the negotiated settlement is one from which both parties will benefit.
Use of prepositions to indicate place and time
We can see from this chapter that prepositions are used in relation to company meetings
to refer to place and time:
Place:
The shareholders’ meeting was held at the company’s registered office.
The annual general meeting will be in the main hall.
Time:
The extraordinary general meeting took place at 11.00 a.m.
The next board meeting will be sometime during February
The next meeting must be convened before September.
Geographical variation
Note that there is some degree of variation internationally in the manner in which prepositions
are used, particularly in spoken English. For instance, whereas in England it would
be common to state ‘you have until Wednesday to lodge the document at court’, in the US
the word ‘through’ is often used in place of ‘until’. Hence in the US you would be more
likely to hear ‘you have through Wednesday to lodge the document at court’. It is also common
in ‘Americanised’ English to omit the preposition which would otherwise be placed in
a clause immediately before reference to a day in the week. Thus in the US you might
hear ‘we’ll reconvene this meeting first thing Monday’, whereas in England this would be
stated as ‘we’ll reconvene this meeting first thing on Monday’.

32
Chapter 4 Boardroom battle!
Removal of a director from the board
The shareholders of a company can remove a director from the board at any time by
passing an ordinary resolution (as provided by s. 303 of the Companies Act 1985.) A
director can therefore be removed from the board provided over 50% of the votes cast
at the shareholders’ meeting are in favour of the ordinary resolution to remove the director
concerned. That director is entitled to address the meeting with any submissions
s/he may wish to make as to why s/he should not be removed from the board.
The ‘targeted’ director may vote against the ordinary resolution proposing his or
her removal provided s/he is also a shareholder. In the course of such a vote the
‘targeted’ director may have enhanced voting rights (i.e. more than one vote for
each share s/he possesses). This will depend on whether the articles of the company
contain what is known as a ‘Bushell v Faith’ clause. Such a clause will typically
provide for instance that each share that director holds will carry three votes rather
then one when voting takes place on the ordinary resolution seeking his or her
removal. The existence of a Bushell v Faith clause in the articles can therefore make it
very difficult to remove a director from the board.
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Practice and develop relevant drafting and writing skills within the framework of a
boardroom dispute
 Develop vocabulary relevant to a director’s service agreement
 Acquire knowledge of the practice and procedure involved in removing a director from
the board
 Complete a letter of advice concerning the removal of a director from the board
 Plan a negotiated settlement of a dispute between directors
 Negotiate a settlement between parties in dispute within a company
 Consider the use of relevant grammar including conditional sentences

Chapter 4  Boardroom battle!
33
Even if a director is removed, s/he may nevertheless have a cause of action
against the company for breach of contract. The damages payable by the company
in this connection will depend on the terms of any service agreement in existence
between the director and the company. This will become clearer as you work
through the exercises in this chapter.
Client’s instructions
Thomas Shapiro, Managing Director of Travelgraph (formerly Maplink) Limited has
come back into your office. He explains that he and his fellow shareholders now regret
having appointed Kadir Salleh as a director. Kadir has rarely turned up for
work or board meetings. Even when he does he is late.
There have been many arguments between Kadir and the other directors. Last
week Kadir shouted at his fellow directors ‘Travelgraph’s travel guides are rubbish.
It’s time there were better guides on the market!’ Shapiro is particularly annoyed
that Kadir is making similar comments to customers and is worried that this is
adversely affecting sales. One important customer has already reduced its monthly
order. Shapiro also suspects that Kadir is secretly planning to set up his own company
in competition with Travelgraph. He now wants your advice on whether
Kadir can be removed a,s a director and if so how.
The document on p.31 is Kadir Salleh’s service agreement with Travelgraph Limited. It is important
to consider this carefully before advising Thomas Shapiro further. Read it carefully
then answer the following questions, while also citing the specific clause of the service agreement
providing the source of your answer. By way of illustration the first question is answered
for you.
1. When does Kadir Salleh’s service contract commence? Answer: 10 July 2006
(Clause 2.1)
2. Kadir Salleh’s service agreement is a fixed-term agreement. For what period of time?
3. What if any specific duties does Kadir have under the agreement?
4. What is Kadir’s annual salary?
5. What if any other benefits is Kadir provided with under the terms of the agreement?
6. Will Kadir be in breach of the service agreement if he does establish his own business in
competition to Travelgraph and if so why?
7. Which legal jurisdiction are any disputes between the parties to be resolved under
according to the terms of the agreement?
8. Why would a Bushell v Faith clause not assist Kadir Salleh in seeking to prevent his
removal from the board?
Exercise 1 – reading and comprehension


Part 1  Business law and practice
34
DIRECTOR’S SERVICE AGREEMENT
THIS AGREEMENT IS MADE ON 10 JULY 2006 BETWEEN:
(1) TRAVELGRAPH LIMITED (‘the Company’), whose registered office is at 44
Princess Diana Walk, South Kensington, London, W2 3SL
AND
(2) KADIR SALLEH (‘the Sales Director’) of 4 Kensington Palace Gardens, London,
W2 4AJ.
IT IS HEREBY AGREED that the aforesaid Kadir Salleh will serve as Sales Director of
Travelgraph Limited on the following terms and conditions.
1. DEFINITIONS
In the agreement the following expressions shall have the meanings set out below:
1.1 ‘the Board’ the board of directors of the Company
1.2 ‘intellectual property’ trade marks, copyrights, inventions and confidential
information
2. TERMS OF ENGAGEMENT
2.1 The Sales Director shall be employed by the Company for an initial fixed-term
period of three years commencing from 10 July 2006. This agreement may be
terminated thereafter by either party providing to the other not less than six
months’ notice in writing.
3. DUTIES
3.1 The Sales Director shall during his employment with the Company:
3.1.1. endeavour to promote and develop business on behalf of the Company
4. REMUNERATION
4.1 The Sales Director shall be paid an annual salary of £75,000, payable monthly in
arrears on the 28th of each month by direct credit transfer.
5. COMPANY VEHICLE
5.1 The Company shall provide the Sales Director with a Mercedes 300E motorcar and
will pay all running costs of said vehicle, including insurance and maintenance.
6. PENSION SCHEME
6.1 The Sales Director will throughout his employment with the Company be
eligible to become and remain a member of the Company’s pension scheme. The
Company will pay into the Company’s pension scheme on behalf of the Sales
Director an amount equal to 4% of his annual salary during his employment
with the Company.

35
Chapter 4  Boardroom battle!
7. HOLIDAY ENTITLEMENT
7.1 The Sales Director shall be entitled to 25 working days’ holiday in each calendar
year. This is in addition to normal public holidays.
8. CONFIDENTIALITY
8.1 In order to protect the confidentiality of the Company’s affairs, business and / or
intellectual property rights, the Sales Director hereby agrees not to disclose to
any other party during the course of his employment or thereafter any confidential
information relating to the Company nor to use any such information in any
way for any purpose following termination of employment with the Company.
This restriction is to remain valid for a period of 12 months from termination of
the Sales Director’s employment with the Company.
9. RESTRAINT OF TRADE
9.1 The Sales Director hereby covenants with the Company that he shall not for a
period of 12 months following termination of employment with the Company either
directly or indirectly engage in or be involved in any activity or business in
competition with the Company.
10. LEGAL JURISDICTION
10.1 This agreement shall be governed by English law and the parties hereby submit
to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts.
SIGNED BY THOMAS SHAPIRO
For and on behalf of Travelgraph Limited
SIGNED BY KADIR SALLEH
Of 4 Kensington Palace Gardens, London, W2 4AJ
Dated this 10th day of July 2006.
Unscramble the following, re-writing the words (which are all contained in the above agreement)
by placing the letters in the correct order. By way of illustration the first one is done for you.
Exercise 2 – vocabulary (i)
1. civseer naeetregm s e r v i c e a g r e e m e n t
2. merts dan tidinsoonc t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3. tinidisfeon _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Part 1  Business law and practice
36
4. tonymempel _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5. nuirtonemare _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6. telnettiemn e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
7. cityfitinonadel c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
8. lucenetaillt retropyp i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ p _ _ _ _ _ _ _
9. startiner fo dater r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o _ t _ _ _ _
10. sirijconduit _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
The following document is a draft letter of advice to Thomas Shapiro addressing his instructions.
It contains a number of omissions. Complete the letter by filling in the blank spaces
with appropriate words. (The necessary information to complete this exercise can be found
from the information already provided.)
Exercise 3 – letter writing
STRINGWOOD & EVANS
18 BOND STREET
LONDON
W1 1KR
+ 44 020 7538 2892
10 January 2007
T. Shapiro Esq.
Travelgraph Limited
44 Princess Diana Walk
South Kensington
London
W2 3SL
Dear Mr Shapiro,
Re. Removal of Kadir Salleh from the Board of Travelgraph Limited
I now write to advise you on the legal position concerning your wish to remove Mr Salleh
from the board.
Procedure for Removal
[1] of the Companies Act 1985 (CA) enables the [2]
of a company to remove a [3] from office. The procedure required is
basically as follows.

Chapter 4  Boardroom battle!
37
An ordinary [4] will have to be passed by the shareholders, requiring a
simple [5] (i.e. over 50 % of the votes cast). This criterion does not
appear to present a problem since Mr Salleh does not hold any [6] in the
company despite being a director. He does not therefore personally possess any voting
power with which to oppose the [7] proposing his removal.
In addition, your personal [8] amounts to 70% of the company’s
authorised and issued share capital. This means you control over 50% of the votes
available. You are therefore able to [9] the required [10] resolution
regardless of whether the other shareholders [11] for or against the resolution.
Mr Salleh does however have the right to have any written [12] he
may wish to make in his defence distributed to the [13] prior to the
resolution being [14] upon. Twenty-one days [15] is required of the
shareholders’ [16] at which the resolution will be proposed.
Possible Consequences of Removal
I have reviewed the copy of Mr Salleh’s service [17] . It is important to appreciate
that this is a three year [18] - contract and that two and a half years
of this term remains unexpired. While therefore it will be possible to [19]
Mr Salleh from the board by [20] resolution as set out above, this is likely to
prove expensive to the company. In particular, Mr Salleh will have a meritorious claim for
[21] on the basis of [22] of . In addition, there is a
six months’ [23] provision upon culmination of the three-year period. He will
therefore be able to claim damages for monies remaining payable under the agreement
(i.e. three years’ earnings). With a view to seeking to minimise the cost of Mr Kadir’s
[24] from the board I would be pleased to assist you in [25] a
mutually beneficial [26] . I look forward to receiving your further instructions.
Yours sincerely,
Select from the letter of advice you have now completed alternative words or phrases similar
in meaning to each of the following.
Exercise 4 – vocabulary (ii)
1. members of a company s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2. amount of shares a person possesses s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3. submissions r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
4. gathering of shareholders s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ m _ _ _ _ _ _
5. resolution passed by simple majority o _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6. contract for a specific period of time f _ _ _ _ - t _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Part 1  Business law and practice
38
The first parts of complete sentences are listed in the first column below. Complete each of
these sentences by matching each of these parts with its corresponding part in the second
column. By way of illustration the first one is done for you.
Exercise 5 – composition
ADVISING YOUR CLIENT
In pairs, role-play a meeting between Thomas Shapiro and his lawyer for the purpose of providing
Thomas Shapiro with advice on the law and procedure involved in removing Kadir Salleh
from the board. One of you should play the role of the client (Thomas Shapiro) and the other
the role of the lawyer. The person role-playing the client should be prepared to ask relevant
questions. The person playing the lawyer’s role should be prepared to provide relevant advice.
If you are working on your own then imagine that you are the lawyer about to meet with
Thomas Shapiro and make notes of the advice you would provide at the meeting.
Exercise 6 – role-play (i)
NEGOTIATION
An ordinary resolution has now been passed to remove Kadir Salleh from the board of directors.
In response, Kadir has appointed a firm of lawyers to represent his interests. This firm has sent a
letter of claim to Travelgraph Limited intimating that they intend to issue legal proceedings on
Kadir’s behalf for breach of contract unless satisfactory proposals for payment of compensation
are made by Travelgraph forthwith. A meeting for a ‘without prejudice’ discussion between the parties
has therefore been scheduled to take place at Stringwood & Evans’ office tomorrow morning.
Task 1
Prepare to negotiate at the meeting on behalf of Travelgraph Limited by completing the negotiation
plan on the next page. When preparing this plan you should take into account the information
already provided in this chapter.
Exercise 7–role-play (ii)
1. If a settlement is reached this will result in by English law
2. A carefully drafted confidentiality clause per s. 303 Companies Act 1985
3. Kadir Salleh’s service contract is governed by another agreement!
4. Removing a director will not prevent can protect a company’s trade
secrets
5. Shareholders can remove a director by ordinary a breach of contract claim
resolution

39
Chapter 4  Boardroom battle!
NEGOTIATION PLAN
Before engaging in negotiation on behalf of your client consider the following:
A. The client’s aims / goals. Set out below the client’s main aims / goals.
B. The opponent’s likely aims / goals. Set out below what you anticipate these will be.
C. Specific strengths in your client’s case. Identify one example.
D. Specific strengths in your opponent’s case. Identify one example.
E. Specific weaknesses in your client’s case. Identify one example.
F. Specific weaknesses in your opponent’s case. Identify one example.
G. Your strategy for achieving your client’s objectives. For instance are you going to
make an opening offer or wait for the other party to make an offer? What is your
opening offer going to be or your response to the other party’s opening offer? What
is the maximum amount you are prepared to offer? What concessions are you prepared
to make in order to achieve a settlement (e.g. will you offer a reference? Or
perhaps let the other party keep the company car?). Set out these details below.


Part 1  Business law and practice
40
Task 2
In pairs, now try role-playing the negotiation between Travelgraph’s lawyer and Kadir Salleh’s
lawyer. One of you should play the role of Travelgraph’s lawyer and the other the role of Kadir
Salleh’s lawyer. Decide between yourselves which role each person will play, then follow the
further instructions below. [If you are working on your own then imagine you are the lawyer for
Telegraph Ltd and about to meet Kadir Salleh’s lawyer to try to negotiate a settlement. Prepare
notes in readiness for the meeting, setting out details of what you intend to say and of
what questions you would ask Kadir’s lawyer. Read the section below headed ‘Further information
for Travelgraph Limited’s representative’, and take account of this further information.]
Further instructions
IF YOU ARE ACTING FOR TRAVELGRAPH LIMITED:
Read the further details below relating to your client (headed ‘Further Information for Travelgraph
Limited’s Representative’) before commencing the negotiation.
IF YOU ARE ACTING FOR KADIR SALLEH:
Read the further details below relating to your client (headed ‘Further Information for Kadir
Salleh’s Representative’) before commencing the negotiation.
DO NOT READ THE FURTHER DETAILS RELATING TO THE OTHER PARTY BEFORE CONDUCTING
THIS EXERCISE –REGARD THE OTHER PARTY’S FURTHER INFORMATION AS PRIVILEGED
INFORMATION BETWEEN THAT PARTY AND HIS/HER LAWYER.
Now try role-playing the negotiation, endeavouring to reach a mutually beneficial settlement
agreement. (You should assume that the date of the negotiation is 11 January 2007.) Take
written notes of the terms of any agreement you reach with your opponent. Compare these
notes with your opponent’s notes when you have completed the negotiation, checking that you
have both accurately recorded the same details of what has been agreed!
Task 3
Choose another colleague to play the role of your client. Report back orally to this colleague
on the outcome of the negotiation, relating clearly the details of the agreement or outcome of
the negotiation.
Task 4
Fill in the ‘Negotiation Feedback Form’ at the end of this chapter. Finally, taking account of the
answers you have provided on this form, discuss constructively with your opponent in the
negotiation your thoughts and opinions about both your own and your opponent’s negotiating
performance. (You will find this feedback exercise helpful in enhancing your skill and effectiveness
in planning and conducting future negotiations.)

Chapter 4  Boardroom battle!
41
FURTHER INFORMATION FOR KADIR SALLEH’S
REPRESENTATIVE
Kadir Salleh is in financial difficulties and is anxious to reach an agreement rather than incur
the time and cost of court action. He is however prepared to pursue litigation if a reasonable
settlement cannot be achieved. Kadir has been in discussion with a competitor since he has
felt insecure for some time at Travelgraph, the other directors having been unfriendly to him recently.
He has not as yet made any firm commitment to join any other company. He accepts
that his work performance has been poor recently due to his financial worries (caused by recent
heavy gambling in London casinos). He is therefore prepared to compromise over the
amount of compensation he will settle for. He is insistent however that the company provides
him with a favourable reference, this being important to him in seeking alternative employment.
He would be prepared to sign a confidentiality clause if Travelgraph insists on this as a
term of settlement.


FURTHER INFORMATION FOR TRAVELGRAPH LIMITED’S
REPRESENTATIVE
The board is anxious to reach an amicable settlement if possible in order to avoid protracted
proceedings in court. In addition to the potential expense of such proceedings, the board is
concerned that a court case will attract unfavourable publicity which would adversely affect
the company’s reputation and sales. Travelgraph’s profit forecast is poor for the coming year.
The shareholders believe that Kadir Salleh is at least to some extent to blame for this. The
company is not therefore prepared to offer compensation amounting to three years’ earnings.
It will nevertheless offer a reasonable amount, the board being keen to avoid a court case if
at all possible for the reasons set out above. The company would however require a confidentiality
clause to be included in any agreement reached, prohibiting Salleh from publicly disclosing
the terms of the settlement. The company would be prepared to provide a favourable reference
if this concession resulted in a satisfactory resolution of the whole matter.
Part 1  Business law and practice
42
NEGOTIATION FEEDBACK FORM
1. On a scale of 1 to 10, how successful do you think you were overall in achieving
your client’s objectives?
2. On a scale of 1 to 10, how successful do you think your opponent was in achieving
his / her client’s objectives?
3. Tick the appropriate box to indicate your opinion on how successful you were
regarding the outcome as far as monetary compensation was concerned:
a) no specific amount of monetary compensation was agreed upon
b) the amount agreed upon was far higher than I anticipated would be agreed
c) the amount agreed upon was slightly higher than I anticipated would be agreed
d) the amount agreed upon was very close to the amount I anticipated would
be agreed
e) the amount agreed upon was slightly lower than the amount I anticipated
would be agreed
f) the amount agreed upon was much lower than the amount I anticipated
would be agreed
4. How would you describe your opponent’s attitude to you in the course of the
negotiation. (For instance was it conciliatory or aggressive etc.?)
5. Which argument did you put forward which proved to be the most effective / persuasive
and why?
6. Which argument did your opponent put forward which proved to be the most
effective / persuasive and why?
7. In what way (if any) would you plan and / or negotiate differently next time?

Chapter 4  Boardroom battle!
43
Removal of a director
 A director can be removed by passing an ordinary resolution (OR) at a shareholders’
meeting, per s. 303 Companies Act 1985 (CA ’85)
 Requires simple majority (i.e. over 50% of votes cast) in favour
 Special notice of OR required (i.e. 21 days), per s. 303(2) and s. 379 CA ’85
 Director concerned is entitled to address the meeting
 If director concerned is also a shareholder then articles of company may provide for
‘weighted’ voting rights, i.e. a Bushell v Faith clause
 Shareholders’ power to remove a director under s. 303 CA ’85 does not deprive director
concerned of right to claim damages for breach of contract
 Articles of a company can also provide for a director becoming disqualified from continuing
as a director in specific circumstances (e.g. upon bankruptcy)
 Any service contract provided to a director for over five years’ duration requires approval
by shareholders (s. 319 CA ’85)
Law notes
Conditional sentences
Conditional sentences are commonly used when negotiating a settlement. For example:
If you pay within 14 days Mr Salleh will accept £100,000 in full and final settlement.
Note that in the first part of this structure we have ‘if’ and present tense followed by ‘will’
in the second clause. In this way the person making the settlement offer (the offeror) can
make it clear that the settlement being proposed is subject to a condition. (I.e. that payment
is made within 14 days.)
Conditional sentences can similarly be used to issue a warning. For instance:
If you do not accept this offer we will proceed to court.
The word should is commonly used in a professional context with this future form of
conditional sentence in place of if. This conveys a more reserved and formal impression
to the reader or listener. Thus:
Should you encounter any further difficulties in the future please inform me.
The word should is also used in a professional context in place of the word would in other
present or future forms of conditional sentences. Thus:
I should also make clear that this offer is conditional upon early acceptance.
Conditional sentences can also be used in a more hypothetical form which is also
encountered in legal negotiations. This involves the use of the word were followed by the
infinitive with ‘to’. Thus:
Grammar notes


If we were to make an offer there would have to be some assurance that this would be kept
secret.
It is also possible to invert were along with the subject and to omit if. Thus:
Were we to make an offer there would have to be some assurance that this would be kept secret.
Legal English also uses conjunctions in conditional sentences, such as:
until; although; provided that; unless; in order that; on condition that etc.
E.g. We wouldn’t make an offer unless there was an assurance that this would be kept secret.
Modal verbs (such as may, can, could, should and ought to) can also be used where a
possibility rather than a certainty is being discussed. Thus:
If you can assure us this will remain confidential we may put forward an offer.
Part 1  Business law and practice
44

45
Chapter 5 Marketing agreements
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Analyse a marketing agreement, taking account of a client’s instructions
 Consider different types of marketing agreements
 Amend a marketing agreement in accordance with a client’s instructions
 Develop vocabulary relevant to marketing agreements
 Develop grammatical and written word skills relevant to drafting legal documentation
 Become familiar with realistic legal precedents and how to use them for drafting
 Acquire practice in drafting commercial documentation and achieving clarity of meaning
in your drafting
Introduction
There are various types of marketing agreements including:
 Agency agreements
 Distribution agreements
 Franchising agreements
 Joint venture agreements
Agency agreement
A traditional sales agency agreement is an agreement whereby a company (known
as the principal) authorises another company or individual (known as the agent) to
sell the principal’s goods on its behalf. The agent thus sells the goods on behalf of
the principal (rather than purchase the goods itself). When a customer purchases
from the agent the contractual relationship (known as ‘privity of contract’) will
thereby legally exist directly between the principal and the purchaser (the agent receiving
commission on such sales).

Part 1  Business law and practice
Distribution agreement
This is an agreement whereby a company (termed the supplier) actually sells its
goods to another company (the distributor). When the distributor then sells the
goods on to its own customer there is no contract created between the supplier and
the final customer (the contract being between the distributor and its customer). The
distributor therefore receives no commission from the supplier, instead earning
profit from the ‘mark-up’ between the price it paid the supplier and the price it sold
the goods on for. (Distribution agreements must be drafted very carefully since
many agreements which restrict competition and therefore consumer choice are
now illegal under European Community law.)
Franchise agreement
A company (the franchisor) can expand its business nationally and internationally
by entering into franchise agreements with other parties (known as franchisees).
This is known as franchising a business. Franchising is appropriate to businesses
with an established brand. A franchise agreement imposes requirements on the
franchisee to operate the business in accordance with a uniform business model (for
instance by stipulating the colour scheme and interior layout of the franchisee’s
premises). The franchisee benefits however by being associated with a well recognised
brand-name. Many well-known high street brands are franchises, such as
fast-food restaurants.
Joint venture agreement
This is an arrangement in which two or more businesses agree to co-operate or in
other words ‘join forces’ on a particular business venture or project. This enables
companies to undertake initiatives which they may not have the resources to undertake
individually, sharing risks while also combining their financial and skills
resources. Care is again required in drafting joint venture agreements in order to
avoid contravening European Community law competition rules and/or US competition
law (known as ‘anti-trust’ law).
TASK 1
Answer true or false to each of the following questions based on the text above.
1. An agent purchases goods directly from a principal.
2. Under an agency agreement a contract exists between the principal and ultimate customer.
3. Under a distribution agreement the distributor purchases goods directly from a supplier.
4. An entirely unknown company would usually be a suitable business to franchise.
Exercise 1 – comprehension
46

TASK 2
Answer the following questions.
1. Name one company or brand-name you can think of which is a franchise.
2. What is an agent’s income from sales known as?
3. How does a distributor earn income on sales?
4. State one benefit to a company of entering into a joint venture agreement.
Chapter 5  Marketing agreements
47
Drafting agreements
Drafting is an important skill for a lawyer. Drafting in the legal sense means to compose
legal documentation (including for instance legal correspondence, court
orders, contracts and legislation). Precision is essential when drafting legal agreements;
otherwise there may be scope for ambiguity in the course of interpreting the
intended meaning of the terms of the agreement. This in turn can lead to subsequent
dispute between the parties to the agreement. Drafting practice provides the
opportunity to develop your skill in the use of legal English.
The following agreement relates to the appointment of an agent by an aircraft manufacturer
called Cadmium Aerospace Limited. Complete this sales agency agreement on behalf of Cadmium
Aerospace Limited by selecting the appropriate word to enter in each blank space from
the alternatives in brackets.
Exercise 2 – document completion

AGENCY AGREEMENT
THIS AGREEMENT is made on the 19th day of July 2007
BETWEEN:
(1) CADMIUM AEROSPACE LIMITED, whose registered office is at 168 Hanover
Square, London, W1 (‘the Principal’)
AND
(2) MACFADYEN AVIATION LIMITED, whose registered office is at 115 Duxford
Road, Cambridge, CM3 (‘the Agent’).

Part 1  Business law and practice
48
1. APPOINTMENT
The Principal [1] [hereby / thus / thereafter] appoints the Agent and
the Agent agrees to act as the Agent of the Principal for the purpose of promoting and
selling the Principal’s aircraft throughout Europe and North America (‘the Territory’). It
is [2] [nevertheless / whereby / further] agreed that this agreement shall be
valid for a period of two years. [3] [Hereunder / Moreover / Whereby]
the Principal agrees not to appoint any other agent in the territory and [4]
[hereof / conversely / furthermore] agrees not to seek nor enter into
sales itself within the Territory during the period of the Agreement.
2. AGENT’S OBLIGATIONS
2.1 The Agent [5] [hereunder / hereof / hereby] undertakes to use
its best endeavours to market and achieve sales of the Principal’s aircraft in the
Territory. The Agent is also [6] [henceforth / subsequently /
hereinafter] authorised to enter into contracts for the sale of the Principal’s aircraft
for and on behalf of the Principal.
2.2 [7] [Herein / Alternatively / In addition], the Agent undertakes
to provide the Principal with market reports on monthly sales and competitors’
activities.
2.3 The Agent shall make appropriate credit checks on potential customers in order
to ensure their credit-worthiness.
3. PRINCIPAL’S OBLIGATIONS
3.1 The Principal hereby agrees that [8] [hereto / during / meanwhile]
the continuance of the Agreement it will:
3.1.1 provide the Agent with training on the Principal’s aircraft;
3.1.2 provide customers with technical and servicing report;
3.1.3 provide the Agent with marketing and publicity material to assist the
Agent with marketing the Principal’s aircraft [9] [within /
nevertheless / hereafter] the Territory.
4. REMUNERATION
4.1 The Agent shall receive from the Principal in consideration of its services
hereunder commission as follows:
4.1.1 at a rate of 5% of the Net Selling Price for each single engined ‘Strato-Line’
airplane sold;
4.1.2 at a rate of 7% of the Net Selling Price for each twin engined ‘Skymaster’
airplane sold.
EXECUTED BY (Sales Director)
For and on behalf of CADMIUM AEROSPACE LIMITED
EXECUTED BY (Chief Executive Officer)
For and on behalf of MACFADYEN AVIATION LIMITED

Chapter 5  Marketing agreements
49
TASK 1
Cadmium Aerospace has now notified you that it wishes to include a further clause in the
agreement providing either party with the right to terminate the agreement at any time with
three months’ notice. Re-arrange the following clauses in the correct order to produce an
appropriate sentence which fulfils this purpose.
This agreement shall continue in force / three calendar months notice in writing / be terminated
by either party providing to the other / for a period of two years save and except
that it may
TASK 2
It has now been agreed between the two parties to the agreement that Cadmium Aerospace
may terminate the agreement at the end of the first year in the event that MacFadyen Aviation
Limited does not achieve sales of at least £750,000 by that time. Re-arrange the following
clauses in the correct order to produce an appropriate sentence which fulfils this purpose.
£750,000 within / the Principal shall be entitled / by notifying the Agent in writing accordingly
/ In the event that / to terminate this Agreement / the Agent fails to achieve a minimum total
sales amount of / twelve months of the commencement of this Agreement
Exercise 3 – sentence structure
The parties to the agreement have further agreed that the agent is to receive a bonus in addition
to the commission already agreed if the agent achieves sales exceeding £1,250,000 by
the end of the first year of the agency agreement. This bonus will be 1% of total net sales
made by the agent within this first year of the agreement.
(a) Draft a suitable clause which complies with these further instructions.
(b) Which paragraph number would be a suitable place to locate this additional clause within
the agreement?
NOTE TO READERS WORKING IN A GROUP: Compare your draft of the clause in Exercise 4(a) above with a
colleague. Consider which draft is clearest, structured best and best meets the client’s wishes. Then try
to agree a final version of the clause between you. Write out this re-drafted clause. You can then present
this re-drafted clause to the rest of your group for constructive discussion and feedback on clarity of
meaning.
NOTE TO READERS WORKING INDIVIDUALLY: Re-read your draft of the clause in Exercise 4(a) above. Be
critical of your draft, considering how you could possibly improve the structure and content. E.g. could you
make your sentences shorter? Is your wording clear in meaning? Does it fully set out what your client
intends?
Exercise 4 – drafting

Part 1  Business law and practice
Interviewing and advising
Interviewing is an important means of communication between a lawyer and client.
Effective interviewing involves a combination of general skills including those of listening,
questioning, note taking, fact gathering and assimilation. Many complaints
by clients against their lawyers relate to insufficient communication. Competence in
interviewing and advising is therefore a prerequisite to proper client care.
A properly conducted interview usually involves the following stages:
Interviewing and Advising Checklist
1. INTRODUCTION
Set the client at ease initially, exchanging ‘pleasantries’ and establishing a good rapport
with the client. (Sometimes known as the ‘meet, greet and seat’ stage.)
2. INFORMATION GATHERING
At this stage the lawyer invites the client to explain his/her problems and concerns with a
view to ascertaining the client’s aims and goals. This is primarily a listening stage.
3. ADVISING
At this stage the lawyer provides advice, addressing the client’s specific questions and
concerns. This advice should be explained clearly and accurately.
4. CONCLUSION
At this juncture the lawyer should ensure that the client understands clearly what has
been discussed and the advice which has been provided. This can often be achieved by
the lawyer providing a short ‘recap’ of his/her advice.
TASK 1
Read the following memorandum from your secretary at Stringwood & Evans.
Exercise 5 – interviewing and advising
50

Chapter 5  Marketing agreements
STRINGWOOD & EVANS
Solicitors
Client: Cadmium Aerospace Limited Date: 30 July 2007
File Reference: CA 001
Matter: Agency Agreement with MacFadyen Aviation Ltd.
The Sales Director of Cadmium Aerospace Limited, Frederick Johannsen, telephoned
this afternoon. I have made an appointment for him to see you in your office tomorrow
morning at 11.00 a.m. He wants to discuss the above mentioned agency agreement
with you. In particular, he wants you to advise him concerning:
 Whether Cadmium Aerospace can appoint other agents within Europe and North
America during the course of the agency agreement
 Whether the Principal can sell directly to customers within Europe and North
America as well as through MacFadyen Aviation Ltd while the agreement remains in
force
 Details of how the Principal is required under the agreement to assist the agent to
achieve sales
 An explanation of how the agent’s commission is to be calculated in accordance with
the agreement.
Regards,
Tracey

51
TASK 2
If you are working in a group then undertake the ‘Group exercise’ below.
If you are working on your own then undertake the ‘Individual exercise’ below.
Group exercise
Role-play the interview with Frederick Johannsen as follows. Pair up with a colleague. One of
you should play the role of the client, Frederick Johannsen, the other person playing the role
of the lawyer. The client should explain to the lawyer the matters he seeks advice on, based
on the information in the memorandum above. Take notes of the advice provided. The lawyer
should provide advice to the client, addressing the matters set out in the memorandum
above (taking account of the ‘Interviewing and Advising Checklist’). Refer to the relevant

sections of the agency agreement in support of your advice. Take notes of the information
the client provides and of the questions the client asks, along with notes of the advice you
provide.
Finally, provide feedback to your partner on his/her performance in interviewing and
advising by grading him/her under each of the four criteria in the ‘Interview and Advising
Checklist’. Grade from 1 to 5 as follows: 1 = unsatisfactory; 2 = poor; 3 = average; 4 = very
good; 5 = outstanding. Ask your partner to similarly provide feedback to you on your
performance.
Individual exercise
Firstly imagine that you are the client, Frederick Johannsen. Prepare a list of questions to ask
the lawyer advising you which address the matters of concern to you as set out in the memorandum
above.
Then assume that you are the lawyer providing advice to Frederick Johannsen. Prepare for
the interview with your client by writing out a brief summary of your advice regarding the four
questions raised in the memorandum from your secretary. (Include in your summary the relevant
paragraph numbers of the agreement which support your answer.)
Part 1  Business law and practice
52
Marketing agreements
Agency agreement
 Agent sells goods or services on behalf of a principal, the principal selling directly to
the final customer
 Privity of contract exists between the principal and the ultimate purchaser
 Agent receives commission
 Agency agreements are often more suitable for high-value items such as aero-engines etc.
 Agent’s duties include:
1. promoting the goods or services in the market place
2. providing principal with feedback information on sales and market trends
3. maintaining confidentiality regarding principal’s trade secrets
 Principal’s duties involve acting in good faith towards the agent and usually include:
1. paying commission
2. supplying advertising and promotional literature
3. supplying stock as required and after-sales service
Distribution agreement
 Supplier sells to a distributor in a particular market (often in another country), no contract
existing between the supplier and the final customer
 Distributor earns income from ‘mark-up’ between price paid to supplier for goods and
selling price to customer
Law notes

 Distributor’s duties usually include:
1. purchasing a specified minimum amount of stock from the supplier on a regular basis
2. marketing and promoting effectively goods purchased from the supplier and keeping
supplier informed of sales levels and market trends
3. ensuring that similar competitors’ products are not sold or promoted (albeit care
has to be taken not to contravene European competition law rules relating to restriction
on competition in this respect)
 Supplier’s duties usually include:
1. providing advertising and sales promotional material
2. selling a specified amount of stock regularly to the distributor
3. indemnifying the distributor from any legal liability resulting from any defect in the
products
Franchising agreement
A contractual arrangement in which a franchisor appoints a franchisee to operate as a
separate business offering the franchisor’s goods or services. The franchisee usually
pays a franchise fee as well as possibly a continuing royalty fee on sales. In return the
franchisee benefits from a recognised ‘brand-image’.
Joint venture agreement
An agreement whereby two or more separate businesses co-operate with each other on a
particular commercial venture or project. Such an agreement enables the separate
businesses to combine resources and to share financial risk for mutual benefit.
Chapter 5  Marketing agreements
53

Points to remember when drafting legal documents
Active or passive voice
Use the active voice rather than the passive when drafting legal documents. (Use of the
passive can result in longer clauses as well as ambiguity.) The object of the active verb
becomes the subject in the passive.
E.g. ‘The contract was drawn up by the solicitor’ is a passive sentence. This could be re-written
as follows to make it active: ‘The solicitor drew up the contract.’
Remember however that the passive voice is appropriate in the following circumstances:
 When the emphasis and purpose of the sentence is primarily to notify the act as
opposed to the person performing it. E.g. ‘Legal proceedings were served yesterday’;
 When the identity of the individual conducting the act is irrelevant and/or anonymous.
E.g. ‘The vehicle was wrecked’;
 When it is intended that the identity of the person conducting the act should remain
anonymous (for instance in order to prevent blame being attributed to a particular
person). E.g. ‘There was negligence’.
Grammar notes

Grammar and punctuation
Try to avoid using more words than necessary. For example, instead of ‘by means of’ the
word ‘by’ is usually sufficient. Similarly, rather than ‘on a monthly basis’ use ‘monthly’.
Avoid separating the subject and the verb and similarly the verb and the object.
E.g. ‘This agreement, unless termination has transpired on a prior date, shall terminate on
17 October 2007.’
Consider instead:
‘Unless earlier revoked, the agreement shall terminate on 17 October 2007.’
Correct punctuation is also important to clarify the intended meaning. Thus ensure fullstops
are placed correctly to signify the end of each sentence. Also use commas to signify
appropriate pauses (similar to those you would make when speaking). Commas
should also normally be used at the start of a quotation. E.g., The witness said, ‘I did not
see the other vehicle’. In addition, if using commas instead of brackets then remember to
place both commas in the appropriate part of the sentence.
E.g. ‘The law accepts, as a matter of course, that damages are recoverable for negligence.’
Be careful however to use commas appropriately. Incorrect use can result in inaccuracy
of meaning. Similarly consider whether other punctuation marks are appropriate, such
as:
 The semi-colon (;) – which can fulfil a similar function to a full-stop, enabling for instance
two closely related points to be included in one sentence.
 The colon (:) – which can be used as the prelude to a list (such as bullet points) or prior
to citing a quotation.
 The apostrophe (’) – to indicate ‘possession’ or omission of a letter (e.g. ‘doesn’t’ instead
of ‘does not’). Note however that such informal abbreviation of words will not
usually be appropriate for formal legal documents.
 The question mark (?) – place at the end of a directly posed question. E.g. ‘Did you see
the silver Ford motor car before it struck your vehicle?’
Part 1  Business law and practice
54

Chapter 5  Marketing agreements
55
Accordingly
Alternatively
As a result
As a whole
Clearly
Coincidentally
Conversely
Equally
Finally
Fundamentally
Furthermore
Further or alternatively
Henceforth
Hereby
Herein
Hereinafter
Hereinbefore
Hereof
Hereunder
However
In addition
In all the circumstances
In any event
In conclusion
In consequence thereof
In contrast
In essence
In particular
In so far as
In summary
Meanwhile
Moreover
Nevertheless
Nonetheless
On the contrary
Overall
Primarily
Secondly
Significantly
Similarly
Subsequently
Therefore
Thereto
Thus
Whereby
Vocabulary
It is fairly common in legal English for adverbs to be placed at the beginning of a sentence
as a means of connecting the sentence to the rest of the text. You have come across
some of these in the course of considering the legal documentation in this chapter. There
are a number of such sentence adverbs and adverbials which will assist you in writing
clear legal English, including the following expressions.

PART 2
Civil litigation

59
Chapter 6 Injunctions
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will be able to:
 Determine appropriate terms and vocabulary for an injunction order in compliance with
your client’s instructions
 Consider appropriate grammar including modal verbs and tenses
 Appreciate the legal aspects of an injunction order
 Consider and understand the effect of a prohibitory injunction order
 Consider and draft a prohibitory injunction order on behalf of a client
Introduction
An injunction is a court order requiring a party to do (or prohibiting a party from
doing) a particular act. Some injunctions are required extremely urgently if they are
to be effective. There is also sometimes a need to obtain an injunction in secrecy.
This need will arise where giving notice of the application to the party the injunction
is being sought against would be likely to defeat the purpose of obtaining the
injunction. In such situations the injunction application can be made to court without
providing notice of the application to that other party.
Drafting injunction orders
When applying for an injunction order it is usual practice to draft the order you are
asking the court to grant. This draft order can then be produced to the Judge to indicate
the terms of the injunction order you are seeking on behalf of your client. We
shall draft such an order shortly, but first let us consider a few ‘good practice’ points
for drafting injunction orders.

60
GOOD PRACTICE GUIDANCE FOR DRAFTING INJUNCTION ORDERS
The wording of an injunction order requires careful thought. It is necessary to state clearly and
precisely what the party the order is being made against (termed the ‘Respondent’) may do,
must do and/or must not do. There must not therefore be any uncertainty as to the meaning
of the terms of the injunction.
If there is any ambiguity in your description of what the Respondent is being prohibited from
or compelled to do then this may provide the Respondent with a legal ‘loophole’. This could
defeat the intended purpose of the injunction. (For example, by enabling the Respondent
to continue doing something which the injunction was specifically intended to prevent the
Respondent from doing.) That is why it is crucial that the terms you draft are sufficiently precise
in meaning to ensure that the injunction is legally ‘watertight’.
Nowadays the court expects the draft order to be written in plain English rather than archaic
legal language or ‘jargon’. Often the Respondent being served with an injunction will be an individual
who is not a lawyer. The terms setting out what he or she is being ordered by the court
to do or not to do must therefore be readily understandable by a layperson (particularly since
failure to comply with an injunction results in the defaulting party being in contempt of court).
Exercise 1 – reading
Facts pattern
You are now a partner in the law firm named Stringwood & Evans, located at 18
Bond Street, London, W1 1KR (telephone number 020 7538 2892). Thomas Shapiro,
Managing Director of Travelgraph Limited, has consulted you. (This is the same
client who provides you with instructions in Chapters 1 to 4 of the Business Law
and Practice Section.) Thomas Shapiro explains that Kadir Salleh, a former director
of Travelgraph, left the company last month. Shapiro and his fellow directors at
Travelgraph are very concerned however because Kadir Salleh is about to join a
competitor called Worldlink Limited.
Worldlink Limited is a major competitor of Travelgraph, their premises also
being in the city (only a few miles away in fact from Travelgraph’s office at 44
Princess Diana Walk, South Kensington, London, W2 3SL). Thomas Shapiro has
also discovered that Worldlink Limited intend to publish a new series of travel
guides of major world cities using computer files belonging to Travelgraph. Kadir
Salleh had access to these files in the course of his previous employment with
Travelgraph. Thomas Shapiro is furious to now learn that Salleh has retained
possession of these and that he has disclosed all this confidential material and
information to Worldlink Limited.
Thomas Shapiro shows you a page from Kadir Salleh’s service agreement with
Travelgraph, indicating valid restrictive covenants preventing Kadir Salleh for a period
of 12 months from:
 Working for a competitor
Part 2  Civil litigation

 Disclosing confidential information acquired by him in the course of his employment
with Travelgraph (including computer files) to Worldlink Limited or any other party
Thomas Shapiro now therefore wants you to obtain an injunction on behalf of Travelgraph
Limited against Kadir Salleh to enforce these terms, thereby preventing
Salleh from:
 Commencing work with Worldlink Limited
 Disclosing confidential information (including computer files acquired by him in
the course of working for Travelgraph Limited) to Worldlink Limited or any other
party
Assume that t,his application will be presented to the High Court in London tomorrow
(25 February 2007). Now read the following relevant excerpt from Kadir Salleh’s service
agreement with Travelgraph Limited which Thomas Shapiro has handed to you.
Chapter 6  Injunctions
61
The following is a precedent for a suitable type of injunction order. Complete the drafting of
the injunction to comply with your client’s instructions by:
1. deleting clauses in square brackets within the draft as appropriate
2. completing the blank spaces using relevant information from the text above as well as by
selecting appropriate entries from the following panel
Exercise 2 – drafting

EXTRACT FROM KADIR SALLEH’S SERVICE AGREEMENT
WITH TRAVELGRAPH LIMITED
CONFIDENTIALITY
In order to protect the confidentiality of the Company’s affairs, business
and/or intellectual property rights, the Sales Director hereby agrees not to disclose
to any other party during the course of his employment or thereafter any
confidential information (including in electronic form) relating to the Company
nor to use any such information in any way for any purpose following
termination of employment with the Company. This restriction is to remain
valid for a period of 12 months from termination of the Sales Director’s employment
with the Company.
RESTRAINT OF TRADE
The Sales Director hereby covenants with the Company that he shall not for a
period of 12 months following termination of employment with the Company
either directly or indirectly engage in, be involved in or employed by any activity
or business in competition with the Company.

Phrases for inserting in Draft Injunction Order
Contempt of Court Solicitor
Order to the Court
Respondent set aside this Order
sent to prison Respondent shall pay the Applicant
confidential information relating to Travelgraph Applicant’s
Part 2  Civil litigation
62
DRAFT INJUNCTION ORDER
IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE Claim No. 2007 HC 4045
QUEEN’S BENCH DIVISION
MR JUSTICE JACKSON
Date ___________
BETWEEN:
(1) Applicant
And
(2) Respondent
DRAFT ORDER FOR AN INJUNCTION
IMPORTANT
NOTICE TO THE RESPONDENT
[1] This Order [prohibits you from doing] [obliges you to do] (3) the acts set out in this
Order. You should read it carefully. You are advised to consult a (4) as
soon as possible. You have a right to ask the court to vary or (5) .
[2] If you disobey this Order you may be found guilty of (6)
and may be (7) or fined or your assets may be seized.
Upon hearing Counsel for the Applicant and Counsel for the Respondent,
IT IS ORDERED that:

Chapter 6  Injunctions
63
THE INJUNCTION
1. For a period of 12 months commencing from 25 February 2007 the (8)
must not: (i) Enter into or continue in the employment of (9); (ii)
Divulge to (10), their officers, employees and/or agents or to
any other person or entity any computer files(s) or (11).
COSTS OF THE APPLICATION
2. The (12) the costs of this Application.
VARIATION OR SETTING ASIDE OF THIS ORDER
The Respondent may apply (13) at any time to vary or set aside this
(14) but if he wishes to do so he must first inform the (15)
Solicitors in writing at least 48 hours beforehand.
NAME AND ADDRESS OF APPLICANT’S SOLICITORS
The Applicant’s Solicitors are:
Name: (16)
Address:
Telephone Number:
All communications to the Court about this Order should be sent to Room E15 Royal Courts of Justice,
Strand, London, WC2A 2LL quoting the case number. The office is open between 10 am and 4.30 pm
Monday to Friday. The telephone number is 020 7936 6148 or 6336.
Language practice
Answer the following questions relating to the above text on injunction orders:
1. What is a ‘legal loophole’?
2. What is meant by ‘legally watertight’?
3. What does ‘jargon’ mean?
4. What is meant by ‘a layperson’?
5. What is meant by ‘being in contempt of court’?
6. What is a ‘restrictive covenant’?
7. Under the heading ‘Notice to Respondent’ in the draft order for an injunction the Respondent
is warned that if he does not comply with the terms of the Order then ‘... your assets
may be seized’. What does this mean?
Exercise 3 – comprehension

In the sentence ‘You must not engage in employment with a competitor within a radius of 20
miles for a period of 12 months’ the word must is a modal verb. Complete the following sentences
by inserting an appropriate modal verb in each blank space.
1. The Respondent apply at any time to set aside this order.
2. You not work for a competitor for 12 months.
3. If you do disobey the injunction order your assets be seized.
4. A worker on a building site wear a safety helmet.
Exercise 4 – modal verbs
Part 2  Civil litigation
Select the correct form of the present tense, past perfect or past simple in each blank space
below to complete these sentences.
1. Kadir Salleh (leave) Travelgraph Limited last month.
2. He (join) Travelgraph Limited in 1998.
3. He (work) for Worldlink for a month.
4. After he (receive) the injunction he (consult) a solicitor.
Exercise 5 – tense review
Injunctions
 Injunctions are court orders requiring a party to do or refrain from doing something
 A court hearing will be required prior to an injunction being granted
 Injunction applications are almost invariably of an urgent nature
 Injunction applications outside office hours may be considered by a Judge via telephone
 Typical injunction orders include orders preventing:
1. individuals from contacting another person (such as where the Respondent has
previously issued physical threats to or assaulted that other person)
2. employees from working for a competitor
3. employees divulging an employer’s trade-secrets to a competitor
 Respondent is entitled to three days’ notice of injunction application prior to court
hearing the application unless secrecy is essential or matter extremely urgent (e.g.
applicant is in imminent danger of physical injury)
 An injunction order granted by the court before trial is termed an interim injunction
 A prohibitory injunction prohibits a party from doing something
 A mandatory injunction compels a party to do a specific act
Law notes
64

Modal verbs
Modal verbs can be used to express the speaker’s or writer’s standpoint, viewpoint or attitude
to the matter being referred to in the sentence. (Such as for instance where the
matter relates to an instruction, possibility, probability or requirement.) Thus in the injunction
order the modal verbs must and may define what the Respondent must, may or may
not do.
Modal verbs are placed before the subject in order to ask a question, otherwise being
placed prior to the main verb. Modal verbs have only one form and are followed by the infinitive
without ‘to’.
Modal verbs include words such as:
must; can; should; could; may; might; will; would; shall
For instance, to express:
Obligation – must; shall
Ability – can; should
Probability – will; may; might
Permission –may; can
Suggestion – should
Request – would; might
Tense review
Past simple
The past simple is used for actions regarded as completely finished. It is formed by
adding ‘ed’ for regular verbs, as for instance in walked. We use the past simple when we
are talking about completed periods in time. E.g. ‘The Judge passed sentence’.
Present perfect
The present perfect is formed by has / have + past participle. The present perfect is used
to connect the present with the past and is often used with just; since; ever; yet.
E.g. ‘The Judge has just finished summing up the case’.
Past perfect
This tense is formed by had + past participle and is used to refer to an action completed
prior to another action in the past. ‘Time’ words linked with the past perfect include
when; after; before; as soon as. E.g. ‘After the jury had heard the evidence they retired to
deliberate on the verdict’.
Grammar notes
65
Chapter 6  Injunctions

66
Chapter 7 Breach of contract claim
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Consider modern equivalent language for traditional legal terms
 Practise drafting aimed at ensuring clarity of meaning
 Consider relevant grammar including relative clauses and relative pronouns
 Draft a letter of claim
 Develop word skills specific to drafting Particulars of Claim
 Amend a precedent in order to draft Particulars of Claim
Introduction
The law of contract (‘contract law’) is an area of civil law (as opposed to criminal
law). Contract law is concerned with legal rights and remedies resulting from agreements
entered into between individuals or companies.
A contract is therefore basically a promise by one party to another which the law
recognises as enforceable. A breach of contract arises when one party alleges that
another party to an agreement has in some way failed to comply with the terms of
the agreement. Terms of an agreement may be express (i.e. specifically written or
stated) or implied. Implied terms are mainly created as a result of established caselaw
or statute. (For example when a business enters into a contract for the sale of
goods the Sale of Goods Act 1979 implies a term into the contract that the goods will
be of satisfactory quality.)
The party commencing a breach of contract claim is termed the Claimant. The
party the claim is brought against is the Defendant. A breach of contract claim is
commenced by issuing proceedings in court (usually the County Court or the High
Court for higher value claims). This is sometimes referred to as ‘bringing an action’.
The usual remedy which the court may order for breach of contract is damages.
Damages means monetary compensation, usually intended to put the party not at
fault in the same position as if the contract had been performed as agreed. (Another
remedy the court may grant in certain cases is an injunction, considered in Chapter 6.)

Chapter 7  Breach of contract claim
67
Language practice
Answer the following questions relating to the above text on contract law.
1. State two types of contract you can think of.
2. Is contract law an area of criminal or civil law?
3. What is meant by the terms of a contract?
4. What are the two main types of contract terms?
5. What is meant by case-law?
6. What is a statute?
7. Is the party bringing a claim the Claimant or Defendant?
8. What do you consider is meant by the implied term of satisfactory quality?
Exercise 1 – comprehension
Thomas Shapiro, Managing Director of Travelgraph Limited, is obviously impressed with your
abilities, having again come to see you. This time he requires your assistance concerning a
matter involving contract law.
In particular, Thomas Shapiro explains to you that Travelgraph Limited purchased two printing
machines several months ago at a cost of £45,000 each. Both Travelgraph and the seller
signed a written contract on 1 August 2007. The machines were then delivered to Travelgraph’s
premises on 7 August 2007. These printing machines were purchased for printing the
maps and tourist guides which Travelgraph publishes and sells. Thomas Shapiro is very disappointed
with these printing machines however since each one is only capable of printing 50
pages per minute. This is half the printing rate that the company which manufactured and sold
these machines claimed. (There is an express term in the contract signed on 1 August 2007
stating that each machine would be capable of printing 100 pages per minute.) Travelgraph
estimates that it will lose profit in the sum of £200,000 per year from the date of purchasing
the machines as a result of this. Thomas therefore wants you to write a letter on behalf of
Travelgraph to the company which manufactured and supplied the machines (called ‘Matrix
Printers Limited’). This is for the purpose of providing notice to Matrix Printers Limited that
Travelgraph intends to issue legal proceedings in court for breach of contract unless Matrix
Printers offers compensation to Travelgraph for loss of profit.
Complete such a letter to Matrix Printers Limited by filling in the blank spaces in the following
letter, using the selection of words and phrases in the panel.
Exercise 2 – letter writing
Drafting (i)


Words and phrases for inserting in letter
our instructions contract
breach of contract express term
legal proceedings proposals to compensate
satisfactory proposals act on behalf of
Part 2  Civil litigation
68

Chapter 7  Breach of contract claim
69
Old-Fashioned Language Equivalent Modern Language
action claim
anton piller order search order
discovery disclosure
ex parte without notice (to other parties)
inter-partes hearing hearing with notice (to other party)
interlocutory hearing interim (as opposed to final) hearing
interrogatory request for further information
leave permission
mandamus order mandatory order
mareva order (or injunction) freezing injunction
Continued
Legal proceedings
Matrix Printers Limited has not replied to the letter you prepared intimating the
claim (known as a letter of claim). It is now necessary therefore to commence legal
proceedings. In order to do so it is necessary to draft two documents in particular.
These are:
A Claim Form
Particulars of Claim
Both of these documents are known as statements of case. (Certain other court documents
are also statements of case and we will consider those later in this Litigation
Section.) ‘Statements of case’ is a relatively new legal term for these court documents,
which were previously known as ‘pleadings’. You are likely to find that
statements of case often contain a certain amount of old-fashioned language. This
old-fashioned style of language has traditionally been used by lawyers when drafting
statements of case in order to achieve precision of meaning.
There have however been recent reforms encouraging greater use of plain English
by lawyers. In particular, a procedural code known as the ‘Civil Procedure Rules’
has introduced some new terminology. You should therefore use plain English
whenever possible when drafting statements of case, while still ensuring that the
meaning of your drafting is precise and unambiguous.
Arange of words in legal English sound rather old-fashioned (such as ‘ex-parte’ and
‘pleading’). Some of these words are still used, having proved through time to be particularly
apt and descriptive, thereby having become standard or ‘stock’ phrases. You
should however always consider carefully whether there is a plain English alternative.
The following table provides some examples. The first column lists words and
phrases which have traditionally been used in statements of case over many years.
The second column of the table provides a suitable modern English equivalent for
the old-style words and phrases in the first column.

Part 2  Civil litigation
prohibition order prohibiting order
request for further and better particulars request for further information
setting down for trial listing (scheduling) for trial
specific discovery specific disclosure
subpoena witness summons
summons (to commence proceedings) claim form
summons for directions case management conference
thereafter / thereinafter subsequently / then
therein contained within
In the table below, the first column lists some further examples of old-fashioned language
which you are still likely to see today in some legal documentation. The second column provides
a selection of suitable alternative modern English words and phrases. Match each expression
in the first column with its equivalent in the second column. By way of illustration the
first one is done for you.
Exercise 3 – vocabulary
Old-Fashioned Language Equivalent Modern Language
aforesaid in private
aver / plead in public
in camera claim form
in open court stated previously
save that / save insofar noted below
Plaintiff claimant
pleading contend / allege
prescribed by provided by / indicated by
undernoted statement of case
writ except that
The following document is a claim form. It has been partially completed on behalf of your
client. Complete the claim form by entering the correct word (selected from the panel below)
in each of the shaded areas of the claim form.
Exercise 4
Drafting (ii)
70

Chapter 7  Breach of contract claim
71
Claimant claims contract
Matrix Printers Limited recover damages

The following is a precedent for drafting suitable Particulars of Claim for issuing in court on behalf
of Travelgraph along with the claim form you have now completed. Lawyers often use
precedents to assist with drafting statements of case. A precedent in this sense means a
document drafted for a previous and similar type of legal action which is suitable as a ‘template’
for the document currently required. Always remember however that a precedent will
have to be amended to suit the particular circumstances of the case you are working on.
Draft Particulars of Claim suitable for your client’s purposes by making appropriate amendments
to the precedent below, selecting the correct words or phrases from the alternatives provided
in the square brackets. This requires you to delete the words or phrases which are not correct.
You will need to take account of the information provided throughout this chapter in order to
complete this exercise. By way of illustration the first two in the heading of the Particulars of
Claim have been amended for you. (You should assume that today’s date is 8 February 2008.)
Exercise 5
PARTICULARS OF CLAIM PRECEDENT
IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE
QUEEN’S BENCH DIVISION CLAIM No. 2007 HC 1829
TRAVELGRAPH LIMITED [Claimant]
AND
MATRIX PRINTERS LIMITED [Defendant]
PARTICULARS OF CLAIM
1. The [Parties / Claimant / Defendant (1)] is and was at all material times a company
carrying on business as publishers of maps and tourist guides. The [Claimant / Defendant
/ Parties (2)] at all material times carried on business as a manufacturer and
seller of printing machines.
2. By a [arranged contract/ oral contract / written contract (3)] (‘the Contract’) entered
into between the Claimant and the Defendant and signed by both parties on [17
September 2007 / 18 January 2005 / 1 August 2007 (4)], the Defendant in the course
of its business agreed to manufacture and sell to the Claimant and the Claimant
agreed to buy from the Defendant 2 Ultra-Print 123 Series printing machines at a
price of [£45,000 / £10,000 / £80,000 (5)] each.
3. The Contract included an [implied term / actual term / express term (6)] that the
machines would each be capable of printing at a rate of [90 / 100 / 200 (7)] pages
per minute using A4 size paper.
4. The Contract included an [applied term / implied term / implicit term (8)] that the
machines would be of satisfactory quality.
5. Pursuant to the [action / contract / claim form (9)], on 7 August 2007 the Defendant
delivered to the Claimant two printing machines (‘the delivered machines’) which
the [Claimant / Defendant / Respondent (10)] installed at its registered office.
Part 2  Civil litigation
72

Chapter 7  Breach of contract claim
73
6. [In compliance with / Pursuant to / In breach of (11)] the [omitted / aforesaid / disputed
(12)] express and / or implied term, neither of the delivered machines were
capable of printing at a rate exceeding [50 / 120 / 100 (13)] pages per minute.
7. As a result of the matters set out above, the Claimant has suffered [loss and damage/
interest / compensation (14)].
PARTICULARS OF LOSS
Loss of profit
(a) From 7 August 2007 until 8 February 2008:
(i) estimated receipts from warranted output £200,000
(ii) actual receipts £100,000
£100,000
(b) Continuing from 9 February 2008 at the following annual rate:
(i) estimated receipts from warranted output £400,000
(ii) estimated actual receipts [£400,000 / £500,000 / £200,000 (15)]
£200,000
8. Further the Claimant claims interest [pursuant to / contrary to / corresponding to
(16)] section 35A of the Supreme Court Act 1981 on the amount found to be due to
the [Claimant / Respondent / Defendant (17)] at such rate and for such period as
the Court thinks fit.
AND the Claimant claims:
(1) [Money / Damages / Satisfaction (18)]
(2) Interest pursuant to section 35A of the Supreme Court Act 1981 to be assessed.
STATEMENT OF TRUTH
The Claimant believes that the facts stated in these Particulars of Claim are true.
Dated this 8th day of February 2008.
Stringwood & Evans, Solicitors, of 18 Bond Street, London.
Solicitors for and on behalf of the Claimant.
Complete the following sentences by inserting the correct pronoun in each blank space from
the panel below. (Note that some words may be applicable more than once in this exercise
while other pronouns in the panel may not be applicable to any of the blank spaces.)
Exercise 6 – relative pronouns
when which that who whom

1. The remedy _________ the court may grant for breach of contract is damages.
2. The lawyer wrote a letter to the company _________ manufactured the machines.
3. The individual against _________ a claim is commenced is known as the Defendant.
4. Thomas Shapiro, _________ is the Managing Director of Travelgraph Limited, was disappointed
with the printing machines.

Part 2  Civil litigation
74
Contract law
The Particulars of Claim should set out clearly the fundamental details of a breach of
contract claim. As illustrated in the example of a Particulars of Claim contained in this
chapter, these details should include:
Title of proceedings
Case Number [provided by the court when the proceedings are issued]
Court [here it is the High Court, Queen’s Bench Division]
Full Names of each Party to the Proceedings
Status of each Party [i.e. whether Claimant or Defendant]
The contract
Date [1 August 2007]
Parties [Travelgraph Limited and Matrix Printers Limited]
Form [i.e. whether written or oral]
Subject Matter [i.e. what the claim is for]
Consideration [i.e. a promise to confer a benefit on the other party or to incur a detriment.
A contract is usually unenforceable in law unless consideration exists. This is to
ensure that all parties to the contract are providing something in return for what they
are receiving. Here, as is commonly the case, there is consideration in the form of the
price being paid]
Terms of the contract [e.g. price agreed etc. Note that terms of the contract which are
specifically material to the claim are set out in paragraphs 3 and 4. Note that it is
usual drafting practice to set out express terms before implied terms].
Breach of the contract
It is necessary to indicate the term(s) breached, the date(s) and particulars of the
breach(es), i.e. what act(s) or omission(s) by the Defendant are being alleged by the Claimant
as having amounted to breach of contract. (These details are set out in paragraph 6.)
Loss and damage
It is also necessary to particularise the amount and nature of the loss and damage
which it is alleged resulted from breach of contract. (These details are set out here in
paragraph 7.) Even if the court determines that there has been breach of contract, the
Claimant also has to establish what is termed causation. Causation is a legal concept
whereby only losses caused as a consequence of the breach are recoverable from the
Defendant. Such losses are sometimes referred to as having a causal link with the
breach. Note that in this example past losses are set out first (i.e. losses to date)
Law notes

followed by future losses, the latter being claimed as an annual sum. This is common
drafting practice in a case such as this.
Remedies
Here the common remedies for breach of contract are indicated (paragraph 8), i.e. damages
and interest.
Statement of truth
All statements of case (including claim forms and Particulars of Claim) must contain a
statement of truth in wording similar to that indicated here. This will usually be signed by
the party whose statement of case it is (i.e. Travelgraph Limited in this case). Note that
where the party is a company, the statement of truth would be signed on behalf of the
company by a person holding a senior position within the company (such as a director or
company secretary) or by the company’s lawyer.
Chapter 7  Breach of contract claim
75
Relative clauses
Relative clauses provide a mechanism for providing additional information in a sentence
concerning a matter, object or person already referred to in the sentence. E.g. in the sentence
‘A contract is basically a promise by one party to another which the law recognises
as enforceable’ the pronoun which is used to introduce a relative clause.
There are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining. Defining relative
clauses are essential to the understanding of a sentence whereas non-defining ones are
not. In defining relative clauses commas are not used to separate the relative clause
from the rest of the sentence.
E.g. ‘Law is a subject which many people find interesting’. (Defining clause.) ‘Tony Blair, who is a
trained lawyer, has been Prime Minister since 1997’. (Non-defining clause.)
In relative clauses:
Who is used to refer to people and which to things. In defining relative clauses that can
generally be used in place of any other relative pronoun except whose. Note that whom is
used formally as the object in a sentence.
When the relative pronoun is the subject of a relative clause it cannot be omitted from
the sentence, who, which or that being required within the sentence.
E.g. ‘He’s the solicitor who drew up the contract.’ (Who cannot be left out.)
If the relative pronoun is the object of a relative cause it can be omitted.
E.g. ‘He’s the solicitor I saw.’ (Note that ‘whom’/‘who’ has been omitted.)
Note that if the subject is a person then which cannot be used. Conversely, if the subject
is a neuter object then who cannot be used. Whose is used as a relative pronoun instead
of using a possessive form. E.g. ‘Barristers spend most of their time in court. Their work
mainly involves court advocacy.’ Whose could be used to re-phrase this as ‘Barristers
whose work mainly involves court advocacy spend most of their time in court.’
Grammar notes

76
Chapter 8 Road traffic accident!
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Practise using language appropriate to legal correspondence and court proceedings
including collocations
 Practise grammar relevant to a civil case including active and passive verb structures
 Analyse the facts of a case
 Enter into legal correspondence on behalf of a client
 Review present and past tenses
A tort claim in negligence
A ‘tort’ is a breach of a duty imposed by law under what is termed ‘the law of tort’.
The law of tort imposes a variety of duties on all of us in our daily lives, covering a
variety of situations. In this chapter we consider a particularly common tort, the tort
of negligence. The purpose of the tort of negligence is to provide compensation for
harm suffered as a result of another person’s fault. For instance in circumstances
whereby someone has caused an accident or made a mistake (such as professional
negligence by a doctor or indeed by a lawyer!).
The following criteria must all be met in order to establish that the fault amounts
to the tort of negligence (normally referred to simply as ‘negligence’):
1. The proposed Defendant owed a duty of care to the Claimant. For instance in the
case we look at in this chapter the duty relied upon is one firmly established by
case-law, namely that a road user owes a duty of care to other road users.
2. The proposed Defendant breached the duty of care.
3. The damage was caused as a consequence of the Defendant having breached the
duty of care. (In other words but for the Defendant’s actions the Claimant would
not have been injured or suffered loss.) This principle is known as ‘causation’.
If the person is acting in the course of his employment at the time of committing the
negligent act then the employer is also liable for injury or loss caused as a result of
the negligence. This concept is termed ‘vicarious liability’.

Chapter 8  Road traffic accident!
77
You have been consulted by a new client named Nicholas Tiessen. Mr Tiessen has been
injured in a road traffic accident. You have agreed to act for him in pursuing compensation on
his behalf for the injuries he received in the accident. This will involve issuing legal proceedings
against the driver responsible for the accident. Firstly however you are required to send
the letter on page 74 to your client confirming your instructions.
Read this letter then consider and state whether each of the following statements are true
or false based on the contents of the letter. Explain your answer, using the text of the letter to
support it.
1. The writer of the letter is declining to act for Nicholas Tiessen.
2. The writer is a solicitor within the banking department of Stringwood & Evans.
3. The firm has a complaints handling procedure.
4. To succeed in his claim it is necessary for Nicholas Tiessen to prove liability beyond all reasonable
doubt.
5. There is a good chance that Nicholas Tiessen’s claim will be successful.
6. General damages include loss of earnings up to the date of the trial.
Exercise 1 – language practice
TASK 1
Good letter writing involves being concise. You should therefore think carefully whether a particular
word could be used in place of a clause. Enter a word in the second column below
which has the same meaning and could be used as an alternative to each of the phrases in
the first column. The first entry has been completed for you by way of illustration.
Exercise 2
Compound Simple Form
in the event that if
at a later date
as a consequence of
until such time as
similar to
at that particular time
prior to
in close proximity to
TASK 2
Now re-write the following sentence more succinctly.
American courts award damages in personal injury cases which are higher than English courts
award when determining damages in the course of making judgements in personal injury cases.


78
STRINGWOOD & EVANS
18 Bond Street
London
United Kingdom
Tel. No: +44 020 7538 2892
Mr N. Tiessen
27 London Road
Kingston Upon Thames
Surrey
KT4 2LT 30 November 2007
Dear Mr Tiessen,
Accident on 21st September 2007
Further to our meeting yesterday I write to confirm that I will act for you in pursuing a
claim against Mr Matthew Gluck and his employer concerning the accident on Friday 21st
September 2007. I am a solicitor within the Litigation Department of this firm and will be
responsible for the day-to-day work on your file. My secretary, Jennifer Henderson, will be
assisting me and can be contacted in the event that I am unavailable at any time you
contact this office.
I strive to keep all my clients fully informed and updated concerning the progress of
their cases. If you require any clarification of any matter or have any queries at any time
however please do not hesitate to contact me.
This firm aims to provide an efficient service and I am confident that we will do so in
your case. If however you have any complaints concerning the service being provided
that are not resolved to your satisfaction by myself then any such complaint should be
addressed to the senior partner, Mrs Christine Stringwood.
If your claim is successful, with liability being established on the balance of probabilities
against the Defendants, then you will be entitled to damages. On the basis of the evidence
you have provided it is my opinion that your claim has good prospects of success.
It may therefore prove possible to negotiate a settlement with the other parties’
legal representatives.
There are two main types of damages as follows:-
1. General Damages – in other words compensation for pain, suffering and loss of amenity.
2. Special Damages – meaning actual financial losses incurred up to the date of trial
(including for instance loss of earnings etc.).
I will write to you again as soon as there are any further developments with your case.
Yours sincerely,
A. Lawyer
Part 2  Civil litigation

Chapter 8  Road traffic accident!
79
Active and passive verb structures
The active voice
Using the passive verb structure when it is not essential is likely to result in your
writing being too formal. This is because it tends to de-personalise the individuals
being addressed or referred to. For example:
When you arrive you will be met by my secretary. You will be taken to my office, where
the conference with counsel will be held.
Communicating this in the active voice is friendlier and more likely to put your
client at ease. For example:
My secretary, Jennifer, will meet you when you arrive and take you to my office, where we
will be holding the conference with counsel.
Similarly, the Particulars of Claim in this chapter state that the Ford Galaxy motor
car ‘... was being driven by the First Defendant’. This is an example of the passive construction
in English and is used as standard practice in court documents and other
formal legal documentation. The auxiliary ‘be’ and the past participle are used. (The
passive can be used with any tenses and modal verbs.)
For correspondence purposes however this could be re-written in the active as ‘...
the First Defendant was driving the car’. (Here the subject in the passive becomes the
object of the active verb.)
Change the following sentences from a passive to an active construction.
1. The accident was caused by negligent driving.
2. A whiplash injury was diagnosed by a consultant orthopaedic surgeon.
3. The Claimant is being treated by a physiotherapist.
4. The extent of damage to the car will be assessed by a local garage.
Exercise 3 – verb structures
Complete the following sentences by entering the correct present or past form of the words in
brackets in the blank spaces.
1. I (have) lunch at the moment.
2. Yesterday I (drive) along Regent Street when I had an accident.
3. James (work) full-time at present.
4. At two o’clock this afternoon the aircraft (land) at Luton.
Exercise 4 – tense review

Part 2  Civil litigation
80
Legal proceedings have now been issued on behalf of Nicholas Tiessen. The following
Particulars of Claim set out details of the claim. Read the Particulars of Claim carefully then
complete the following tasks.
Exercise 5
IN THE CENTRAL LONDON COUNTY COURT CASE NO.
BETWEEN:
NICHOLAS TIESSEN CLAIMANT
And
MATTHEW GLUCK FIRST DEFENDANT
And
LONDINIUM DELIVERY COMPANY LIMITED SECOND DEFENDANT
PARTICULARS OF CLAIM
1. At about 4.00 p.m. on Friday 21 September 2007 the Claimant was driving his
Honda Accord registration number HL16 GNT along Oxford Street, London, in an
easterly direction. At all material times the Second Defendant was the owner of a
Ford Galaxy motor car registration number FT23 FLK, which was being driven by
the First Defendant as servant or agent for the Second Defendant.
2. A collision occurred when the said Ford motor car, travelling in a northerly direction
along Regent Street, drove into the Claimant’s vehicle at the junction between
Oxford Street and Regent Street. The said junction is a crossroads controlled by traffic
lights which were showing green in favour of the Claimant.
3. The collision was caused by the negligence of the First Defendant, acting in the
course of his employment.
PARTICULARS OF NEGLIGENCE
The First Defendant was negligent in that he:
(a) failed to keep any or any adequate lookout;
(b) failed to observe or heed the presence and progress of the Honda Accord motor car;
(c) drove too fast;
(d) drove into collision with the Honda Accord motor car when, by the exercise of
reasonable driving skill and care, such collision could have been avoided.
(e) failed to stop, steer, manage or control his motor vehicle in such a way as to
avoid a collision;
(f) failed to sufficiently apply the brakes of his said vehicle in time or at all.
The Second Defendant is negligent by virtue of vicarious liability, being the
employer of the First Defendant and owner of the aforesaid Ford Galaxy motor
car registration number FT23 FLK.
4. By reason of the matters aforesaid the Claimant has suffered pain and injury, loss
and damage.
80

Chapter 8  Road traffic accident!
PARTICULARS OF INJURY
The Claimant, who was born on 18 March 1971, sustained the following injuries:
The Claimant, who was wearing a seatbelt, sustained injury to his neck. Hospital
treatment was required, the Claimant having been taken by ambulance to Chelsea and
Westminster Hospital, Fulham Road, London. The Claimant was retained in hospital for
four days. Following medical examination a whiplash injury was diagnosed. The
Claimant was unable to return to work as a computer programmer for five weeks due to
continuing symptoms of neck pain, radiating to the right shoulder. This has necessitated
physiotherapy treatment, which has now alleviated the symptoms. Full particulars are
set out in the medical report of Mr Paulo Jarvis, consultant orthopaedic surgeon, dated
24 November 2007.
PARTICULARS OF SPECIAL DAMAGE
5. (1) Value of Honda Accord motor car damaged beyond repair £ 7,500
(2) Loss of earnings: 4 weeks at £1,000 per week £ 4,000
(3) Cost of ruined clothing as a result of accident (shirt and jacket) £ 200
(4) Cost of 12 sessions of physiotherapy at £25 per session £ 300
£12,000
AND THE CLAIMANT CLAIMS:
1. Damages not exceeding £50,000;
2. Interest pursuant to section 69 of the County Courts Act 1984.
STATEMENT OF TRUTH
The Claimant believes that the facts stated in these Particulars of Claim are true.
Dated this 2nd day of December 2007.
Stringwood & Evans, Solicitors, 18 Bond Street, London.
Solicitors for the Claimant
Tel. No. +44 020 7126 8983
TASK 1 –COMPREHENSION
Write out answers to the following questions.
1. Name the Defendants.
2. What make of car was your client driving?
3. On what date did the accident occur?
4. Where did the accident occur?
5. Where was Nicholas Tiessen taken immediately after the accident?

81

Part 2  Civil litigation
82
6. What is Nicholas Tiessen’s occupation?
7. How much income did Nicholas Tiessen lose as a result of the accident?
8. What is the total value of your client’s claim for special damages?
9. Why is it contended in the Particulars of Claim that the First Defendant’s employer is
vicariously liable for the accident?
10. Name one other type of accident you can think of which would conceivably involve
negligence.
Ford Galaxy
FT 23 FLK
Direction of travel
OXFORD
CIRCUS
OXFORD STREET
REGENT STREET
Diagram of Accident on Friday 21st. Sept. 2007.
Honda Accord
HL 16 GNT
TASK 2 – WRITING
1. Describe the accident in a few sentences, using your own words.
2. Briefly describe your client’s injuries, using your own words.
TASK 3 –ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
Imagine that you are about to appear in court. This is to make your submissions to the Judge
as to why you contend that the First Defendant was in breach of his duty of care towards your
client, the Claimant. Draft your submission in no more than 10 sentences, using the active
voice.

Chapter 8  Road traffic accident!
83
facts file privilege
witness accident evidence
out of court settlement case liability
damages of claim proposals statement
The first column lists the first parts of some commonly used collocations in legal English
which contain an adjective and noun or noun and noun. Complete each collocation by selecting
the correct words from the box below. By way of illustration the first entry is made for you.
Exercise 6 – adjective and noun collocations
car a c c i d e n t
legal
admissible
undisputed
client’s
independent
settlement
Now complete some commonly used collocations in legal English which contain a verb and
noun. By way of illustration the first one is done for you.
take a statement
settle the
award
settle
Exercise 7 – verb and noun collocations

Collocations
The English language contains a wide range of vocabulary. When we speak or write
in English therefore there are numerous possible word combinations from which to
choose. In legal English however it is standard practice to use a number of specific
combinations. Becoming familiar with such collocations is an effective way of building
your vocabulary.

Complete the following letter to the law firm acting for the Defendants, filling in the blank
spaces by selecting relevant phrases from those you have identified in Exercises 6 and 7.
Exercise 8 – letter writing (i)
84
Part 2  Civil litigation
admit
serve particulars
negotiate
STRINGWOOD & EVANS
18 BOND STREET
LONDON
W1 1KR
+ 44 020 7538 2892
Addison, Rais & Partners
18 Aldgate Crescent
London 16 December 2007
Dear Sir or Madam,
N Tiessen v M Gluck and Londinium Delivery Co. Ltd.
We note that you act on behalf of the Defendants in this matter. It appears clear from
the facts of the case that the First Defendant caused the [1]. We
have managed to [2] from an [3] which
appears to indicate clearly that liability will be established for negligence.
If the case proceeds to trial we are confident that the court will [4].
To avoid further unnecessary legal costs therefore we look forward to receiving your
[5] with a view to seeking to [6] of this case.
Yours sincerely,
Signature

Chapter 8  Road traffic accident!
Now imagine that you are a lawyer with Addison, Rais and Partners, the firm acting for the Defendants.
Write a letter in reply to the one you completed in Exercise 8, denying liability on behalf
of the Defendants. Use appropriate phrases from Exercises 6 and 7 in the course of completing
the letter.
Exercise 9 – letter writing (ii)
Look out for more collocations as you read through this book and come across further
legal materials. Also remember to use the glossary and a good dictionary if you are in any
doubt (such as Dictionary of Law, by L.B. Curzon). The list of collocations at the end of
this chapter will also assist you in further developing your legal English vocabulary.
The tort of negligence
A tort is a breach of a duty imposed by law. The purpose of the tort of negligence is to
compensate for harm sustained as a result of another’s fault. In order to succeed in a legal
action for negligence a Claimant must establish:
 A duty of care
 Breach of that duty of care
 Damage resulting from breach of that duty of care (causation)
Other torts include:
 Defamation – libel if defamatory comments about another are written or broadcast or
slander if spoken
 Misrepresentation – making false or misleading statements which induce someone to
enter into a contract
 Employer’s liability – a duty owed by an employer to employees to provide a safe system
of work
 Vicarious liability – liability imposed on an employer for torts by employees committed in
the course of their employment
 Breach of various statutory duties – duties of care imposed by specific Acts of
Parliament, including for instance under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Damages in tort
Damages in tort are intended to compensate the Claimant for the loss and/or injury sustained
as a result of the tort. In a personal injury case for instance (such as the one considered
in this chapter) damages consist of:
 General damages – monetary compensation to be assessed by the court, including:
compensation for pain and suffering; future medical expenses; continuing loss of
earnings etc.;
Law notes

85

 Special damages – specific financial loss incurred from date of injury to date of trial, including:
loss of earnings up to the date of trial; cost of repair of motor vehicle; medical
expenses up to date of trial etc.
Reduction in damages
A Claimant’s damages can be reduced by whatever extent the court considers appropriate
due to the concepts of:
 Contributory Negligence
Section 1 of the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 provides that a person’s
compensation ‘... shall be reduced to such extent as the court thinks just and
equitable having regard to the Claimant’s share in the responsibility for the damage’.
In other words compensation is reduced to the extent which the court considers the
Claimant was personally to blame for his loss. Damages are often reduced for instance
in personal injury claims resulting from road traffic accidents (RTAs) if the
Claimant was not wearing a seatbelt.
 Mitigation
The law usually requires a Claimant to mitigate his loss. In other words the Claimant
must take all reasonable steps to reduce or obviate the loss sustained. For example:
John seeks compensation for loss of earnings as a result of being unable to continue
in the same employment as previously following a road traffic accident. He will be expected
to try to mitigate this loss, such as for instance by re-training or obtaining suitable
alternative work.
Part 2  Civil litigation
86
Passive structures
In the Particulars of Claim in this chapter it is stated that the Ford Galaxy ‘...was being
driven by the First Defendant’. This is an example of the passive in English and could be
re-phrased for spoken English as, ‘The First Defendant was driving the car’.
The object of the active verb becomes the subject in the passive.
The passive can be used with any tenses and modal verbs.
Tense review
Present continuous
The present continuous is used to relate events which are currently occurring and is
formed by using am / is / are along with the present participle. For example:
‘I am travelling along Regent Street and having an argument with my girlfriend.’
Past continuous
The past continuous tense is formed by was / were along with the present participle. It is
used to refer to an activity in the past at a particular time. For instance, Jason Garfinkle
Grammar notes

states in his witness statement (see chapter 9) that he ‘... was driving along Oxford
Street at approximately 4.00 pm’.
The past continuous tense can also be used with the past simple tense when an action
occurs whilst another event is simultaneously taking place. Thus:
While Jason was driving along Oxford Street he saw an accident.
Chapter 8  Road traffic accident!
87
List of collocations
abandon the claim
abide by the law
accept an offer
accept liability
achieve settlement
address the court
address the meeting
adjourn the case
adjourn the meeting
admissible /
inadmissible
evidence
admit liability
admit the claim
agree evidence
agree terms
annual general meeting
appeal against the
decision
appeal against the
judgment
appear before the
court
apply the law
argue the case
arrive at a settlement
arrive at the decision
assess damages
attend the meeting
award compensation
award damages
bad accident
board / directors’
meeting
break the law
break the rules
call the meeting
call the witness
car accident
case-theory
chair the meeting
challenge ,the decision
change the law
circumstantial
evidence
citizen’s arrest
claim compensation
client’s file
close the meeting
cogent evidence
coming into force of a
statute
comply with the rules
conduct negotiation
conduct the meeting
contradictory evidence
contravene the rules
convene the meeting
corroborate the
evidence
counter-argument
County Court
cross-examination
cross-examine the
witness
Crown Court
cut-throat competition
declare a dividend
defeat a resolution
defend the case
deliver the verdict
deny liability
deny the claim
direct the jury
discredit the witness
dismiss an appeal

dismiss the claim
draft / re-draft the
contract
draft legislation
draw-up minutes
draw-up the contract
enact legislation
enforce the judgment
establish a precedent
examination in chief
examine the witness
exemplary damages
expert witness
extraordinary general
meeting
fabricate the evidence
fatal accident
file an appeal
fire / sack / dismiss
an employee
float the company
gather evidence
grant an appeal
hand down judgment
hear an appeal
hear the evidence
hearsay evidence
held in custody
High Court
hold the meeting
incriminating evidence
incur costs
independent evidence
independent witness
industrial accident
investigate the case
landmark decision
lead the witness
legal advice
legal authority
legally binding
agreement
limited company
lodge the claim
lose an appeal
lose the case
maintain / enforce law
and order
make a ruling
manage the company
move towards
settlement
multi-national
company
negotiate / re-negotiate
the contract
negotiate agreement
negotiate settlement
negotiate terms
open the meeting
oppose a resolution
ordinary shares
over-rule the decision
overturn the decision
parent company
pass a resolution
pass legislation
plead the case
preference shares
private company
pronounce judgment
pronounce sentence
propose a resolution
provide an undertaking
provide proof
punitive damages
put forward an offer
put forward proposals
put through legislation
question the witness
reach settlement
recover damages
re-examination
refer to arbitration
register the company
reject an offer
reply to
correspondence
reserved judgment
review the case
serve a statement
of case
set up a company
settle out of court
settle the case
shareholders’ meeting
Part 2  Civil litigation
88

subsidiary company
summing-up the
evidence
sum-up the case
swear in the jury
swear in the witness
take(n) into custody
taking a statement
the court will rise
under arrest
undisputed facts
unsubstantiated
allegations
vote against a resolution
vote in favour of a
resolution
win an appeal
withdraw an offer
withdraw from the case
withdraw the claim
withhold evidence
Chapter 8  Road traffic accident!
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90
Chapter 9 Trial
Learning Objectives
By completing the tasks in this chapter you will:
 Practise vocabulary and grammar required for questioning witnesses
 Understand the concepts of examination in chief and cross-examination
 Amend a witness statement to take account of correct grammar and tenses
 Analyse evidence in a case/prepare a basic case analysis
 Undertake advocacy preparation
 Conduct witness examination using appropriately structured questions and questioning
techniques
Advocacy guide
Advocacy is a skill essential to every lawyer, particularly those involved in both
civil and criminal court litigation. Effective advocacy requires the ability to present
information clearly and to put forward arguments persuasively in order to advance
a client’s case. Good advocacy involves a combination of language skills, a good
range of vocabulary and a sound grasp of grammar. Clear pronunciation is also
important. The specific procedure, rules of court and degree of formality expected
of an advocate may vary depending on which legal jurisdiction is involved. (For
instance courts in the United States of America generally require a less formal
approach in terms of dress code and manner of address than English courts.) Nevertheless
certain fundamental principles of advocacy are universally applicable.
Examination in chief
An advocate elicits evidence from his or her own witnesses by means of what is
termed examination in chief. It is important to remember that the lawyer cannot
give evidence. That is the role of the witness, not the advocate. The advocate’s job is
to get each witness to provide his or her evidence to the court. This is achieved by
asking each witness a series of questions intended to develop the client’s case.

These questions must be non-leading questions as opposed to leading questions.
A leading question is one which suggests the answer, or implies the existence of
some particular fact(s) or circumstances and usually prompts a short answer
amounting to ‘yes’ or ‘no’. For instance: ‘You saw your colleague Henry Hodson
steal the money, didn’t you Mrs Smith?’
A non-leading question on the other hand does not suggest the answer. Nonleading
questions normally start with:
 pronouns such as: ‘who’; ‘what’; ‘where’; ‘when’; ‘why’; ‘how’
 interrogatives such as: ‘please explain’
For example: ‘What happened next?’
Chapter 9  Trial
91
Read the Particulars of Claim again in the previous chapter concerning Nicholas Tiessen’s
road traffic accident claim. Then write out four non-leading questions to ask your client
Nicholas Tiessen in examination in chief.
Exercise 1
Cross-examination
Cross-examination is the stage in a trial when a witness for one party is questioned by
the other party’s lawyer. A witness is usually cross-examined after having provided
his examination in chief. A lawyer is under a duty to put his client’s case to the witness
when cross-examining. This involves putting his client’s version of events to the
witness. Well conducted cross-examination can bring further evidence to the court’s
attention which is of benefit to your client. It can also undermine the other party’s
case by revealing evidence which questions the witness’s credibility or reliability. For
instance, by showing that the witness is uncertain about what s/he actually saw, or
that s/he is an unreliable witness because of his or her character (e.g. has a criminal
conviction), or is biased. Unlike with examination in chief, it is permissible and indeed
standard practice to ask leading questions when conducting cross-examination.
Leading questions often start with words such as ‘did’, ‘was’ and ‘were’.
Now imagine that you are preparing to cross-examine Matthew Gluck, the other driver in the
road traffic accident case you considered in the previous chapter. Write out four leading questions
to ask him in the course of cross-examination which are aimed at putting your client’s
case.
(To get you started, an example would be: ‘The accident occurred because you weren’t paying
attention to where you were going, didn’t it Mr Gluck?’)
Exercise 2

Part 2  Civil litigation
Case analysis
Most cases settle before trial. Good litigators nevertheless ‘think trial’, preparing
the case on the premise that it will go to trial. This involves analysing the
evidence.
Good facts Bad Facts
TASK 3
The following document is the independent witness statement referred to at point 5 in the
Further Information Panel above. It has been drafted by another lawyer in your office who
interviewed this witness. Read the witness statement and correct it by putting the verbs in
brackets into the correct form in the spaces provided.
TASK 1
Read the following further information which has now become available concerning the car accident
case which you considered in the previous chapter.
CASE OF NICHOLAS TIESSEN v MATTHEW GLUCK
AND LONDINIUM DELIVERY CO. LTD
FURTHER INFORMATION
1. The defendants have now filed their defence (i.e. the Statement of Case which sets out the
defendants’ standpoint and response to the claim being made by the Claimant). Liability is
denied.
2. Matthew Gluck (the driver of the Ford Galaxy) insists that the traffic lights were in fact
showing green in his favour. He is also adamant that Nicholas Tiessen was driving too
fast. Also, that Tiessen failed to stop at the junction and failed to obey the traffic lights by
driving into the junction when the traffic lights were indicating red against him.
3. Matthew Gluck wears spectacles and has weak eyesight.
4. Matthew Gluck has been convicted of careless driving as a result of the accident.
5. An independent witness has come forward and provided a statement.
TASK 2
Now analyse the case on behalf of the Claimant by identifying two good facts supporting the
Claimant’s case and two bad facts detrimental to the Claimant’s case. State these in the relevant
columns below.
Tasks
92

Chapter 9  Trial
93
WITNESS STATEMENT OF JASON GARFINKLE
1. I [1] ........................ (be) a forty-seven year old dentist and live at 15 Gray’s Inn Road,
London. I make this statement concerning a road traffic accident I [2] ........................
(witness) at the junction between Regent Street and Oxford Street, London, on Friday
21 September 2007. At approximately 4.00 p.m. that day I [3] ........................
(drive) along Oxford Street towards Oxford Circus. It [4] ........................ (be) a lovely
afternoon and the sun was shining. I [5] ........................ (come) back from a dental
conference at Earl’s Court Exhibition Centre and was [6] ........................ (head) into
the West End of town to buy a birthday present for my wife. I [7] ........................
(drive) behind a blue Honda Accord motor car which [8]........................ (travel) at approximately
30 miles per hour.
2. As I [9] ........................ (approach) Oxford Circus I [10] ........................ (can) see that the
traffic lights [11] ........................ (show) green. The aforesaid Honda motor car [12]
........................ (proceed) through the traffic lights and I [13] ........................ (begin) to follow.
I then suddenly [14] ........................ (catch) sight of another vehicle off to my right, a
silver Ford Galaxy. It [15] ........................ (head) at high speed along Regent Street
towards the Honda in front of me. I [16] ........................ (can) see that the driver of the
silver Ford [17] ........................ (hold) a mobile telephone. He also [18] ........................
(appear) to be having an argument with the woman sitting in the front passenger seat
of the vehicle. He was clearly not paying attention to his driving or the traffic lights,
which were showing red from his direction. The Ford [19] ........................ (come) straight
through the traffic lights into the junction between Oxford Street and Regent Street.
3. The driver of the Ford then [20] ........................ (brake) hard but his vehicle skidded
straight into the driver’s door of the blue Honda. I was able to stop just in time to
avoid also being involved in the collision. I have no doubt that the driver of the silver
Ford was entirely to blame for the accident.
I believe that the facts stated in this witness statement are true.
Signed
Dated
Preparing for trial
The legal profession in England is sometimes described as a ‘two-tier profession’.
That is because there are two categories of lawyers, namely:
 Solicitors
 Barristers
Most advocacy in English courts is conducted by barristers, who can be thought of
as specialist court lawyers. Solicitors can also appear in court. More commonly
however a solicitor will fulfil the role of taking instructions from a client and
preparing the case. The solicitor will then instruct a barrister to provide the actual
representation in court on behalf of the client. These instructions are provided in

Part 2  Civil litigation
94
The following is a template for a brief to counsel on behalf of Nicholas Tiessen in the case of
N. Tiessen v M. Gluck and Londinium Delivery Co. Ltd. Complete this brief to counsel, providing
relevant details in under 50 words under each heading.
Exercise 3 – brief to counsel
IN THE CENTRAL LONDON COUNTY COURT CASE NO. CL4 34756
BETWEEN:
NICHOLAS TIESSEN Claimant
And
MATTHEW GLUCK 1st Defendant
And
LONDINIUM DELIVERY COMPANY LIMITED 2nd Defendant
BRIEF TO COUNSEL
Counsel has herewith:
(1) Particulars of Claim and Defence
(2) Statement of Jason Garfinkle dated 10 December 2007
(3) Various correspondence between the parties’ solicitors
Instructing solicitors act for the Claimant in this matter. Counsel is instructed to appear
on behalf of the Claimant at the forthcoming trial, listed for hearing over two days at
Central London County Court on 15 and 16 February 2008. This is a personal injury
claim relating to a road traffic accident on 21 September 2007.
ACCIDENT DETAILS
The circumstances of the accident are as follows:
writing to the barrister in a document prepared by the instructing solicitor called a
‘brief to counsel’. This is known as ‘briefing counsel’, barristers being referred to in
court as ‘counsel’.

Chapter 9  Trial
95
DETAILS OF CLAIMANT’S INJURIES
The details of the Claimant’s injuries are as follows:
EVIDENCE
The following details appear to support and strengthen the Claimant’s case:
The following details are conceivably detrimental to the Claimant’s case:
CONCLUSION
The Claimant has good prospects of success because:
.........................................................
Stringwood & Evans
Solicitors for the Claimant

Part 2  Civil litigation
Addressing the court
Advocacy also involves certain inter-personal skills, including non-verbal communication
(NVC) or ‘body language’. The following is a checklist of principles you
should bear in mind in order to become a good and persuasive advocate.
 Enunciate words clearly and speak with sufficient volume
 Address the court at an appropriate pace, ensuring that you do not speak too fast
or too slowly
 Modulate the tone and pitch of your voice to maintain the Judge’s interest
 Use the correct mode of address to the Judge (i.e. ‘Your Honour’ or ‘Your Lordship’
etc.)
 Adopt a suitable posture (for instance do not slouch or put your hands in your
pockets)
 Use appropriately formal language (neither pompous nor too colloquial)
 Demonstrate courtesy, a professional manner and ensure a smart appearance (do
not make personal comments for instance about the opposing advocate!)
 Avoid distracting mannerisms (such as hand or arm movements)
 Maintain reasonable eye contact with the Judge (while being aware that in some
cultures eye contact is regarded as threatening or disrespectful)
Advocacy practice will develop your advocacy skills, which in turn will increase your confidence
in using legal English. Now imagine that you are a barrister who has been instructed to appear
in court tomorrow on behalf of the Claimant in a case against a motor car manufacturer. You
have received the following brief to counsel from your instructing solicitor. Read this brief to
counsel. Then plan and write out several cross-examination questions to put to the defendant’s
managing director on behalf of the Claimant. (Remember to make these leading questions.)
GOOD PRACTICE TIP: Firstly determine the answers you wish to obtain and then formulate questions
which will result in the witness providing the desired answers. Try to keep your questions short.
Exercise 4 – advocacy preparation
IN THE KINGSTON UPON THAMES COUNTY COURT CASE NO. KT4 18932
BETWEEN:
FERNANDO ESTEBAN Claimant
And
HYPERFORMANCE SPORTS-CARS LIMITED Defendant
96

Chapter 9  Trial
97
BRIEF TO COUNSEL
Counsel is instructed to act on behalf of the Claimant at the forthcoming trial of this action.
The basic details of the case are as follows.
The defendant manufactures a range of expensive handbuilt sportscars, including a
model known as the ‘Mephisto’. The Claimant purchased one of these ‘Mephisto’ models
six months ago, at a cost of £40,000.
The Claimant was injured on 14 August 2007 whilst driving this newly purchased
vehicle. The Claimant sustained serious injuries. In particular a broken wrist, fractured
collar bone, broken index finger and concussion. The facts of the accident are as
follows.
The Claimant was driving his ‘Mephisto’ car towards Oxford on the M4 motorway at
a speed of approximately 70 miles per hour. The car has an automatic gearbox and top
gear was engaged. Suddenly the car engaged reverse gear, causing rapid deceleration
which resulted in the Claimant’s injuries.
The Claimant therefore contends that his injuries were caused as a direct result of the
defendant’s negligence. Also, that the vehicle was not of satisfactory quality, this being
an implied term of the Claimant’s purchase contract with the defendant pursuant to
section 14(2) of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. Counsel is therefore instructed to argue that
the defendant is liable to the Claimant for damages for personal injury and for other financial
losses incurred. The latter amount to £10,000, representing the cost of a replacement
gearbox (£4,000) and lost earnings of £6,000 (the Claimant being an accountant
and having been off work for four weeks).
Instructing solicitors have arranged for a consulting engineer to attend court tomorrow
to provide expert evidence confirming that the car suddenly engaged reverse gear.
It is the Claimant’s case that this clearly establishes negligence on the part of the defendant,
since a car should not suddenly go into reverse gear while travelling at 70 miles
per hour!
Indeed instructing solicitors believe that the defendant knew about this fault in the
gearboxes it fits to the ‘Mephisto’ models. In particular, there have been several press reports
of similar accidents having occurred in England and in the United States, whereby
the car has suddenly engaged reverse gear. Counsel is therefore asked to raise this matter
with the defendant’s managing director in the course of cross-examination.
Counsel should also be aware however that the defendant strongly denies liability,
contending that the accident was caused as a direct result of the Claimant’s own negligence.
The defendant does not dispute that the vehicle went into reverse gear immediately
prior to the accident. The defendant alleges however that this was due to the
Claimant negligently engaging reverse gear while travelling at speed, thereby inevitably
causing the accident. This is vehemently denied by the Claimant. The aforementioned
engineer who will be attending court has therefore been asked for his expert
opinion regarding this allegation. Unfortunately however the engineer has concluded
from examining the gearbox that it is impossible to state with any degree of certainty
whether the Claimant changed gear or whether the vehicle ‘slipped’ into reverse gear
due to a mechanical fault in the gearbox.
Counsel is instructed to endeavour to persuade the court to find in favour of the
Claimant and to award damages for personal injury and the other losses outlined
above.
Delaney & Co.
Solicitors for the Claimant

Part 2  Civil litigation
98
If you are working with others then undertake the ‘Group Exercise’ below. Alternatively, if you
are working on your own then undertake the ‘Individual Exercise’ below. Both exercises relate
to the case above of Fernando Esteban v Hyperformance Sports-Cars Ltd.
GROUP EXERCISE
Task 1
Allocate the following roles between yourselves:
 Counsel (i.e. barrister) for the Claimant
 Counsel for the defendant
 The Claimant
 The Defendant’s Managing Director
Task 2
Role-play the trial of Fernando Esteban v Hyperformance Sports-Cars Limited by adopting the
following procedure:
1. Person playing role of Claimant’s counsel conducts examination in chief of the Claimant.
This should be aimed at setting out the Claimant’s case. Claimant answers counsel’s questions,
improvising with further sensible facts as appropriate in addition to using the details
provided in the brief to counsel.
2. Person playing role of Defendant’s counsel cross-examines the Claimant, with a view to
discrediting the witness and/or his evidence. The cross-examination should also ‘put the
Defendant’s case’. (E.g. that the Claimant caused the accident by carelessly engaging reverse
gear himself.)
3. Person playing role of Defendant’s counsel then takes the Defendant’s managing director
through his evidence in chief. Person playing role of the managing director answers counsel’s
questions based on facts provided in the brief to counsel above and by improvising
with further facts and information as appropriate.
4. Counsel for Claimant cross-examines the managing director, seeking to repudiate the witness’s
evidence and to ‘put the Claimant’s case’ to the witness. (Including for instance
that there was a gearbox fault.)
5. Defendant’s counsel makes a short ‘closing speech’, summing up the arguments and evidence
in support of the Defendant’s case and seeking to dispute the Claimant’s claim.
6. Claimant’s counsel makes a short ‘closing speech’, summing up the arguments and evidence
in support of the Claimant’s case and seeking to contradict the Defendant’s version of events.
If there are more people available then you can add further parts to the role-play, i.e. a further
person could play the role of the expert witness (the consulting engineer). You should then decide
which party will call this further witness for examination in chief, counsel for the other party
then conducting cross-examination. A further additional person could play the role of the Judge
and decide the case, announcing his or her finding to the court! Everyone present should watch
and listen carefully throughout the ‘trial’, taking note of the evidence presented to the court.
Exercise 5 – advocacy practice

Try to arrange your group as follows for the role-play:
JUDGE
WITNESS (Claimant/Defendant’s M.D./Engineer
CLAIMANT’S COUNSEL DEFENDANT’S COUNSEL
Task 3
Ask one of your colleagues to provide you with feedback on your advocacy performance by
completing the following feedback form for you. Alternatively, use this form to provide feedback
to one of the advocates on how you assessed his/her advocacy performance.
Chapter 9  Trial
99
ADVOCACY FEEDBACK FORM
Provide feedback by grading the advocate’s performance under each of the following
criteria on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = unsatisfactory; 2 = poor; 3 = average; 4 = very
good; 5 = outstanding).
 Advocate enunciated words clearly
 Advocate spoke at sufficient volume
 Advocate spoke clearly, avoiding long silences and hesitations
 Advocate used language persuasively and expressed herself/himself clearly
 Advocate avoided distracting mannerisms
 Advocate varied his/her tone and pace in order to retain court’s interest
ADDITIONAL EXERCISE: Role-play the car crash case of Nicholas Tiessen v Matthew Gluck and
Londinium Delivery Company Limited in a similar manner to the role-play exercise above. This
will require you to agree as a group who will play the following roles:
 Counsel for the Claimant
 Counsel for the Defendants
 The Claimant (Nicholas Tiessen)
 The independent witness (Jason Garfinkle)
 The First Defendant (Matthew Gluck)
(Witness and lawyers should use the diagram of the locus (scene) of the accident, p.78, to assist
with describing events in this exercise.)
INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE
Task 1
Presume that you are acting as counsel for the Claimant in the case of Fernando Esteban v
Hyperformance Sports-Cars Limited. Plan and write out examination in chief questions aimed
at eliciting the Claimant’s evidence concerning the following:


 The Claimant’s description of the accident
 The Claimant’s version of events as to the cause of the accident (the fault in the gearbox)
 The Claimant’s response to the allegation that he was at fault for putting the car into reverse
gear while driving at high speed
 Details of the Claimant’s injuries and other losses
Task 2
Prepare and write out questions to put to the Defendant’s managing director in cross-examination
in order to put the Claimant’s case concerning:
 The alleged cause of the accident (the gearbox ‘slipping’ into reverse uninitiated)
 The alleged prior knowledge of a fault in the gearbox of the ‘Mephisto’ model
Task 3
Prepare a short ‘closing speech’ on behalf of the Claimant, setting out your arguments and referring
to the evidence in support of your client’s claim.
Task 4
Read out loud the closing speech you prepared in task 3. Ask a friend or colleague to listen to
you and then fill in the feedback form at the end of task 3 of the group exercise above for you.
Alternatively, self-assess yourself by candidly filling in the feedback form yourself. Keep these
criteria and feedback in mind as you further develop and practise your advocacy skills.
ADDITIONAL EXERCISE: Carry out a similar exercise to the one above based on the car crash
case of Nicholas Tiessen v Matthew Gluck and Londinium Delivery Company Limited as follows.
Task 1
Prepare examination in chief questions to ask the Claimant (Nicholas Tiessen) aimed at eliciting
the Claimant’s evidence concerning:
 The Claimant’s description of the accident
 The Claimant’s allegations as to why Matthew Gluck was responsible for the accident
 Details of the Claimant’s injuries
Task 2
Prepare and write out questions to put to Matthew Gluck under cross-examination in order to
put the Claimant’s case concerning:
 The allegation that Matthew Gluck drove through a red traffic light
 The allegation that Matthew Gluck was using a mobile telephone
 The allegation that Matthew Gluck was arguing with his passenger
Task 3
Carry out Tasks 3 and 4 in the first individual exercise above.
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101
Modes of address
The case you have been considering in this chapter is a County Court case. The correct
mode of address to a Judge in the County Court is ‘Your Honour’. Here there is no difference
in expression between using the vocative case (i.e. addressing the Judge as if by
name) and the accusative case (i.e. instead of ‘you’).
Higher value cases are heard in the High Court, where a Judge should be referred to as
‘My Lord / Lady’ or ‘Your Lordship / Ladyship’. Here there is a difference between
the vocative and the accusative case. In particular, ‘My Lord / Lady’ is the equivalent of
the Judge’s name (representing the vocative case), whereas ‘Your Lordship / Ladyship’ is
the equivalent of ‘you’ (i.e. the accusative case). It is however permissible to combine
both modes of address in one statement or sentence. For example: ‘My Lady, my client
has appeared before your ladyship previously.’ In addition, when referring to the Judge
in the third person the expressions ‘His Lordship / Her Ladyship’ and ‘His Honour / Her
Honour’ are used. Thus an advocate would say to a witness: ‘Please indicate to His
Honour using this diagram where you were standing when you witnessed the assault.’
A barrister addresses or refers to a fellow barrister in court as ‘My learned friend’ and
to a solicitor as ‘My friend’ (vocative case).
Law notes
Question forms
Use non-leading questions during examination in chief (unless the facts being referred to
are not in dispute). These are usually ‘open’ questions (i.e. can be responded to with a
wide variety of answers e.g. ‘What did you see?’). Such questions can begin with pronouns
such as ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘why’, ‘where’, ‘when’ and ‘how’ and combined with an auxiliary
verb to request information (e.g. ‘did’, ‘has’ or ‘was’). The question is created by inverting
the subject and auxiliary verb. Note however that when the question word is the
subject then the auxiliary ‘do’ should not be used. E.g. ‘Who said that?’
Use leading questions for cross-examination. These are generally ‘closed’ questions
(i.e. which limit the scope of possible response, thereby enabling more control over the
witness). E.g. ‘When did the accident occur?’ Aimed at eliciting specific information from
a witness, leading questions often start with words such as ‘did’, ‘was’ and ‘were’. Such
auxiliary verbs can be placed before a noun in order to invoke a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response.
(E.g. ‘Did you see the accident?’)
Remember that a question sentence can also be ended with a preposition. (E.g.
‘Where was the defendant coming from?’) In addition, a question can be conveyed by
means of the intonation in one’s voice. A rising tone towards the end of a question can
thus ‘signal’ a leading question in particular. (E.g. ‘You saw the Ford collide with the
Honda, didn’t you?’)
Grammar notes

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Chapter 10 Employment law
Learning Objectives
By completing the exercises in this chapter you will:
 Consider language and grammar appropriate to an Employment Tribunal
 Consider reported and direct speech within the context of employment law
 Use appropriate vocabulary in the course of negotiating an employment law case
 Undertake language practice in the course of an unfair dismissal claim
 Acquire an appreciation of the law of unfair dismissal and Employment Tribunal practice
and procedure
Unfair dismissal
There is a statutory right in English law not to be unfairly dismissed from employment,
as provided by s. 94 Employment Rights Act 1996. An employee normally
requires at least one year’s service with his or her employer in order to be eligible to
pursue an unfair dismissal claim. This qualifying period does not apply however in
discrimination cases (such as dismissals based on race, sex, disability, sexual orientation
or religious/belief discrimination). There is a three-month limitation period
(commencing from the date of dismissal) for issuing a claim for unfair dismissal. The
venue for hearing unfair dismissal claims is known as an Employment Tribunal (ET).
The law of unfair dismissal
To defend an unfair dismissal claim an employer must firstly satisfy the Employment
Tribunal that the employee was dismissed for a legally acceptable reason pursuant to
s. 98 of the Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA). This includes for instance conduct,
capability (including ability or professional qualifications) and redundancy.
A large percentage of unfair dismissal claims are defended on the basis of the employer
contending that the dismissal was justified on the first of these grounds,
namely conduct. In order for a dismissal on the ground of conduct to be fair in law
as opposed to unfair, it must be a reasonable response to the conduct in question.

Alternative possibilities should have been considered by the employer (such as a
written warning or demotion as opposed to dismissal).
If the ET determines that the reason for dismissal does not come within s. 98 ERA
then it will make a finding of unfair dismissal. If however it is satisfied that dismissal
was for one of the legally acceptable reasons it will then consider whether
the dismissal was fair in all the circumstances. This involves consideration of
whether the employer adopted a fair procedure in the course of dismissal. Including
for instance taking into account whether:
 A disciplinary hearing was held prior to dismissal
 The employee was provided with the opportunity to explain his or her version of
events
 The employee was provided with a right of appeal
Employment Tribunals have been provided with instrumental guidance on how to
approach misconduct cases in the case of British Home Stores v Burchell 1980 ICR,
which held that the ET should consider:
‘... whether the employer ... entertained a reasonable suspicion amounting to a belief in the
guilt of the employee of that misconduct at that time.’
This does not mean that the employer must prove guilt but rather:
(a) genuine belief that the employee is guilty of the alleged wrongdoing;
(b) that the employer had reasonable grounds upon which to sustain that belief;
(c) that the employer had carried out as much investigation into the matter as was
reasonable in all the circumstances.
An Employment Tribunal is empowered to award damages for losses such as loss of
earnings and other benefits (e.g. health insurance) to a Claimant successfully establishing
a claim for unfair dismissal.
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103
Listed in column 1 below are the first parts of six complete sentences. Complete the sentences
by matching each part with its corresponding final part in column 2. The first one is
done for you by way of illustration.
Column 1 Column 2
1. Section 94 of the Employment Rights Act within three months.
1996 provides
2. An employee normally requires one year’s service investigate the circumstances.
3. An unfair dismissal claim must be issued to be eligible to claim unfair dismissal.
4. An unfair dismissal claim is heard at state his case when considering dismissal.
5. An employer should permit an employee to the legal right not to be unfairly dismissed.
6. An employer suspecting misconduct should an Employment Tribunal.
Exercise 1 – composition

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104
Employment Tribunal case
You have been consulted by a new client named Charles Edward Scoville. Charles
has been dismissed recently by his employer, a firm of solicitors named Bannerman
and Law. You have agreed to issue legal proceedings on his behalf for unfair dismissal.
Read the following statement of your client, which your secretary has just
completed typing for you in readiness for issuing proceedings in the Employment
Tribunal. (Assume that today’s date is 5 May 2007.)
IN THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL
BETWEEN:
CHARLES E. SCOVILLE Applicant
and
BANNERMAN AND LAW (a firm) Respondent
STATEMENT OF THE APPLICANT
I, Charles Edward Scoville, of 18 Lower Richmond Road, Putney, London, SW15,
hereby states as follows.
1. I am the applicant in these Employment Tribunal proceedings. I commenced employment
with the Respondent on 16 March 2003. I was based at the firm’s Head Office
at 11 The Strand, London, WC2, where I worked until 26 April 2007 as one of a
team of four legal cashiers.
2. On Monday 26 April 2007 I arrived at the office at approximately 8.50 a.m., to start
work as usual at 9.00 a.m. I had just parked in the firm’s car-park and was entering
the building when I noticed Mr Henry Moore, the firm’s Managing Partner, running
towards me. He appeared very angry. I was then very taken aback as he grabbed my
arm while stating to me ‘You’re dismissed as of now Scoville. I want your office
keys. Don’t think you’re going anywhere, the police are on their way!’
3. I tried to explain to Mr Moore that I had done nothing wrong and didn’t understand
what all this was about. I was given no details at this stage of what I was being accused
of. All I knew was that I was being summarily dismissed.
4. It was only when the police arrived that I began to get an explanation. Detective
Constable Clouseau told me that I was being accused by Mr Moore of stealing several
million pounds of client monies. I was astounded by this. I stated in reply that I
would never dream of doing such a thing. I have worked as a legal cashier for a
number of prestigious legal and accountancy firms in the city and have an unblemished
record for my professionalism and honesty.
5. D.C. Clouseau then asked me ‘How do you account for the new Ferrari sports-car
sitting out there in the car-park then?’ I explained that I had been the very fortunate
winner of a large sum of money on the National Lottery several days previously. At
that time the only purchase I’d made from my winnings was the Ferrari, a vehicle I
have longed to own since childhood. Ironically I was intending to continue with my
job at Bannerman and Law since I love my work. I also explained this to D.C.
Clouseau and his colleague, Police Constable Capriati.
6. The following day I received a letter in the post from Bannerman and Law confirming
my dismissal with immediate effect along with a cheque for my salary up to and

Chapter 10  Employment law
105
including Monday 26 April 2007. The letter was signed by Henry Moore. That day I
visited the offices of Chameleon, who run the National Lottery. There I provided
Mandy Renwick, Chameleon’s Chief Executive, with authority to disclose information
to the police confirming my win. When I went to the police station the next day
I was relieved to be informed by the police that they had concluded their enquiries
and were now satisfied that there were no criminal charges for me to answer. They
had received written confirmation from Mandy Renwick that I had indeed recently
won the lottery.
7. I have subsequently written a letter to Bannerman and Law asking for an appeal hearing
against my dismissal. I want the opportunity to be heard and to explain to the firm
that I am entirely blameless. I have not however received any response to my letter to
date. I have many friends there and miss their companionship very much. Nevertheless,
I no longer want to work for Bannerman and Law after the way I have been treated.
8. The contents of this statement are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Signed
CHARLES E. SCOVILLE
Date
Answer the following:
1. State the commencement date and termination date of Charles Scoville’s employment with
Bannerman and Law.
2. What was Charles Scoville’s job title with Bannerman and Law?
3. What reason was Charles given for his dismissal?
4. Is the reason given for dismissal one of the legally acceptable reasons for dismissal? If so,
which one?
5. What led the Senior Partner to believe that Charles had stolen from the firm?
6. What explanation has Charles provided for the allegation made against him?
7. What proof has Charles obtained in support of his explanation?
8. State in a few sentences why you would contend that Charles has been unfairly dismissed.
Exercise 2 – comprehension
The following document is an application form used for submitting a claim for unfair dismissal
to an Employment Tribunal (ET). Boxes 1 to 10 of this application form have been completed on
behalf of Charles Scoville. In order to complete the form however it is necessary to set out details
of your client’s unfair dismissal claim in box 11. Finalise the drafting of this section of the
form by selecting the most appropriate form of each verb from the modified verbs in italics.
Exercise 3 – drafting


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Chapter 10  Employment law

Part 2  Civil litigation
108
CHARLES E. SCOVILLE v BANNERMAN AND LAW
SECTION 11
1. I to begin / beginning / began [1] employment with Law and Bannerman (‘the Respondent’)
on 16 March 2003. I employing / was employed / to employ [2] as a legal
cashier, worked / to work / working [3] in a team of four within the Respondent’s accounts
department. My work principally involved double-entry book-keeping of the
firm’s client account and client ledgers. The Respondent is an international law firm,
have / having / to have [4] several overseas offices.
2. At my annual appraisal meeting in March 2007 I was telling / to tell / told [5] by my
manager that management were very pleased with my work. I was to give / given /
give [6] a pay rise to reflect this. I have never received any disciplinary warnings.
3. However on Monday 26 April 2007 I arriving / to arrive / arrived [7] at work as usual
at about 8.50 a.m. I am in the habit of driving / drove / to drive [8] to work since there
is a staff car-park. I had just parked and was to enter / entering / enter [9] the building
when I was suddenly confronted by Mr Henry Moore, the Respondent’s Managing
Partner. He started shouting / shout / to shout [10] at me. I was shocked and confused.
Then he suddenly to tell / told / tell [11] me I was sacked. I tried to reason
with him but he was too angry to listen.
4. Shortly after that the police arrived / arrive / to arrive [12]. They inform / to inform /
informed [13] me that I was being accused of stealing a large amount of money from
the Respondent. I told Detective Constable Clouseau that was absurd. I to explaining /
explained / explain [14] that I had done nothing wrong. The police subsequently
accepted this and discontinued their enquiries.
5. I was nevertheless summarily dismiss / to dismiss / dismissed [15] on Monday 26 April
2007 for alleged gross misconduct. I therefore respectfully contend / contending / to
contend [16] that I have been unfairly dismissed. There was no valid nor acceptable
reason for my dismissal.
6. My dismissal was also procedurally unfair. In particular I was not granted a
disciplinary hearing. I was therefore to deny / deny / denied [17] the opportunity
providing / to provide / provide [18] an explanation. In addition I have been denied an
appeal hearing.
Notice of appearance
The Employment Tribunal (ET) imposes a time-limit of three weeks on an employer
in which to respond to an employee’s claim for unfair dismissal. The correct form
for providing this response is known as a ‘Notice of Appearance’.

Chapter 10  Employment law
109
Now assume that you are a lawyer in the Employment Law Department of a law firm called
Weir and Company. Weir and Company has been consulted by Bannerman and Law, who intend
to resist the unfair dismissal claim issued against them by Charles Scoville. Read the following
statement by Henry Moore, the Managing Partner who dismissed Charles Scoville. Then
complete the following Notice of Appearance form on behalf of Bannerman and Law by setting
out in box 7 of this form the Respondent’s case. You should take into account the details provided
in the Managing Partner’s statement when completing these details. (Finally check your
answer with the suggested draft in the Answer Key).
Exercise 4 – drafting
IN THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL CASE NO.
BETWEEN
CHARLES E. SCOVILLE Applicant
and
BANNERMAN AND LAW ( a firm) Respondent
WITNESS STATEMENT OF HENRY J. MOORE
I, Henry Jason Moore, of 48 The Meadows, Westminster Village, London, hereby states
as follows,
1. I am Managing Partner of the Respondent. The Respondent is a commercial law firm
with forty partners and approximately two hundred associate solicitors. We have regional
offices in Piraeus, Kuala Lumpur, Moscow and Monte Carlo. We act mainly
for clients with shipping and aviation acquisition, financing and litigation work.
2. On Monday 26th April at approximately 8.30 a.m. I was in a meeting with the Chief
Executive of Image International, the advertising agency the firm uses. This was taking
place in my office at Bannerman and Law's Head Office premises at 11 The
Strand, London. Suddenly we were interrupted by Joan Winter, my personal secretary.
Joan informed me that Geoffrey Hamilton, our Chief Accountant, needed to
speak to me very urgently. I therefore took Geoffrey's telephone call straight away.
He sounded very upset and it soon became clear why. The Finance Department had
just discovered that an unauthorised withdrawal of two million pounds had been
made from the firm's client account at some time during the weekend. Geoffrey and
his department were desperately trying to ascertain where the money had gone.
3. I immediately concluded my meeting with Gordon Manderson, Image International's
Chief Executive. I was very concerned about what Geoffrey Hamilton had
told me. I knew the situation was a very serious matter as far as the firm was concerned.
Our professional body, The Law Society, had to be informed in accordance
with our rules of conduct. Indeed I spent nearly an hour on the telephone that
morning speaking to Janet Adamson, the Senior Officer in the Professional Ethics
Department at the Law Society. She was only persuaded not to send a full team of
investigators into our office that day as a result of me providing a personal

110
Part 2  Civil litigation
undertaking. An undertaking that I and my fellow partners would restore the missing
funds in client account from our personal resources by close of business that day.
4. I then convened a video conference between the partners in London and the overseas
offices. We agreed at that time that it was crucial to find out who had misappropriated
the funds in order to assure clients of the continued integrity of the firm.
During the video conference I switched on the television in the conference room
and was horrified to see a report on the local news programme about Bannerman
and Law, solicitors and the missing £2 million.
5. As I was moving back from the television to the conference table I glanced out of
the window. That was when I saw Charles Scoville, one of our cashiers, pull up in
the carpark driving a new Ferrari 355. I knew at that moment we had found the
culprit. It was obvious for anyone to see. Charles joined Bannerman and Law several
years ago and there's no way his salary would have enabled him to drive such
a vehicle.
6. So I excused myself from the meeting and ran downstairs to reception. Charles was
just coming into the building when I got down there. I went straight up to him and
confronted him. I shouted at him that he was dismissed with immediate effect and
that I wanted his office keys. He looked very taken aback and pale as he handed
me his office keys. He was clearly upset but said nothing in reply, convincing me
further he was the thief of the £2 million.
7. Pauline, our receptionist, also looked surprised at what was going on. I told her to
telephone the police and to ask them to send an officer round straightaway to arrest
the man we now knew to be the thief of the £2 million. I then waited with
Charles Scoville to make sure he didn’t escape. Charles kept asking what this was
all about but I refused to enter into a discussion with him. I simply replied, ‘You
know what this is all about.’
8. Detective Constable Jack Clouseau arrived shortly afterwards along with Police
Constable Anne Capriati. I was surprised that they did not immediately arrest
Charles. Instead they explained to him he was not under arrest and asked him if he
would nevertheless voluntarily answer a few questions. Charles said he was happy
to do so and that he just wanted someone to explain to him what was going on.
9. I told D.C. Clouseau not to be fooled by him, but he and his colleague then went
into a nearby interview room with Charles Scoville. After telling a few clients
who'd been passing through reception what had happened I then went up to the
Human Resources Department. There I instructed the Head of Personnel to send a
letter out in the post to Charles Scoville that day confirming his dismissal and enclosing
a cheque for his salary up to that day. The letter also stated that the firm
would be taking legal proceedings against him for return of the money. I then went
back upstairs and congratulated myself on finding the culprit by pouring myself a
glass of wine from the drinks cabinet in the conference room.
10. The contents of the statement are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Signed
HENRY J. MOORE
Date

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112

Chapter 10  Employment law
113
Exercise 5 – language practice (i)
The following phrasal verbs are commonly used in legal English:
sue for damages call for the witness take down a statement draw up a court
order
Complete the following sentences by inserting the appropriate phrasal verb from those above
into each of the blank spaces below.
1. We expect the Judge to shortly.
2. My lawyer has told me he is now going to for approval by the court.
3. I have arranged for my secretary to from the independent witness.
4. If you do not compensate my client for your negligence he will .
Complete the following statements by selecting the correct expression to place in the blank
spaces from the list of single-word adverbs and multi-word adverbial expressions in the panel
below.
1. I you accept the present offer.
2. Our offer is an one.
3. I do that the contents of my statement are true.
4. The Defendant the claim against her.
5. The negotiation was .
6. You will need to your present offer if settlement is to be
achieved.
7. The Claimant was in the course of his work.
8. A Judge must be in the course of arriving at his decision.
9. An advocate must never the court.
10. The court ordered the Defendant to working for a competitor.
11. The employee was .
12. My client is hoping to .
Exercise 6 – language practice (ii)


Part 2  Civil litigation
Negotiation
The majority of cases (including Employment Tribunal cases) are settled prior to a
full hearing. This means that the parties in the case have negotiated terms of settlement,
thereby preventing the need for a court or tribunal hearing. This is sometimes
referred to as ‘settling out of court’. Negotiation can be conducted by correspondence,
telephone or by electronic communication such as e-mail as well as by means
of a personal meeting between the parties and their lawyers. In order to negotiate
effectively it is important to ascertain:
 The details of your client’s case
 The relevant law
 Your client’s aims and goals
 The strengths, weaknesses and value of your client’s case
Following further advice from Stringwood & Evans, Charles Scoville has now confirmed that he
would accept the sum of £25,000 in settlement of his claim. The following letter is addressed
to Roderick Krugman, the lawyer acting for Bannerman and Law and sets out without prejudice
proposals for settlement in accordance with Charles Scoville’s instructions. (‘Without prejudice’
means that the correspondence will remain confidential between the parties in the event
that no settlement is reached.) Complete this letter by inserting the correct words from the
box below into the corresponding spaces in the letter.
Exercise 7 – letter writing
extremely generous severely injured deliberately mislead
solemnly declare strongly suggest successfully defended
dismissed without notice totally objective settle out of court
substantially increase refrain from extremely fruitful
114
prospects of success damages award
Employment Tribunal unfairly dismissed mitigate
settlement applicant instructions
misconduct disciplinary hearing dismissal

Chapter 10  Employment law
STRINGWOOD & EVANS
18 BOND STREET
LONDON
W1 1KR
+44 020 7538 2892
30 May 2007
Weir & Co.,
45 Richmond Hill,
Richmond,
Surrey,
KT8 9BU. WITHOUT PREJUDICE
Dear Mr Krugman,
Charles E. Scoville v Bannerman and Law
We act on behalf of the [1] in the above [2] proceedings.
It appears clear from our [3] that our client has been [4] .
In particular, there does not appear to have been any valid nor acceptable reason for his
[5] . The dismissal was also procedurally unfair. For instance Mr Scoville was
not provided with the opportunity to explain, there having been no [6]
. Similarly, he was denied his legal right to have a representative present
when confronted with the allegation of [7] . We are confident therefore that
our client’s [8] are high.
Mr Scoville has not obtained further employment despite having made efforts to
[9] his loss. We are confident therefore that the Employment Tribunal would
[10] significant [11] .
Entirely without prejudice however, we would propose [12] of this matter on
the basis that your client pays the sum of £25,000 within 21 days.
Yours sincerely,
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Part 2  Civil litigation
There are different styles of negotiation. For instance you may take a co-operative, conciliatory
or competitive approach when negotiating. Adopting the latter approach involves making more
use of ‘aggressive’ vocabulary, whereas adopting a co-operative or conciliatory approach involves
more use of ‘diplomatic’ vocabulary. Note for instance the following expressions:
(a) Your offer is ridiculous.
(b) I wonder if you could reconsider your offer.
(a) is an example of aggressive vocabulary, whereas (b) is an example of diplomatic
vocabulary.
Now indicate which phrase in each of the following pairs is the diplomatic form of expression
and which one is the aggressive form (writing the initial ‘D’ alongside the diplomatic form and
‘A’ alongside the aggressive form).
(c) If settlement is not reached very soon we will proceed to a tribunal hearing.
(d) We would prefer to reach an early settlement in order to avoid a tribunal hearing.
(e) We demand that our client is provided with a reference.
(f) We are instructed to request a reference.
Exercise 8 – vocabulary
116
Employment Tribunals have jurisdiction over most employment law related cases
including unfair dismissal and discrimination in employment cases (including sex,
race and disability discrimination). Employment Tribunals usually consist of three
‘panel members’, consisting of a chairperson (who must be legally qualified as a solicitor
or a barrister) and two ‘lay’ members who are not lawyers. The Tribunal’s
decision is reached by a unanimous or majority decision. In other words if there is
disagreement between the panel members then the majority decision prevails.
The procedure for hearing tribunal cases is similar to usual court procedure (as
described in the previous chapter). Employment Tribunal proceedings are however
more informal. For instance an Applicant or Respondent is entitled to act for themselves
or appoint someone to represent them who is not legally qualified. Thus
anyone has ‘rights of audience’ in an Employment Tribunal.
Bannerman and Law have rejected the settlement offer put forward by Stringwood & Evans on
behalf of Charles Scoville. It is now necessary therefore to prepare for the Employment Tribunal
hearing.
Exercise 9 – preparing for the Employment Tribunal
The Employment Tribunal

Chapter 10  Employment law
117
1. Read carefully the following witness statements from Detective Constable Jack Clouseau
and Mandy Pauline Renwick.
2. Then complete the following case-plan on behalf of Charles Scoville in readiness for the
hearing, taking account of all the information now provided to you on the case.
IN THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL CASE NO. 128942/02
BETWEEN
CHARLES E. SCOVILLE Applicant
and
BANNERMAN AND LAW (a firm) Respondent
I, Detective Constable Jack Clouseau, care of Bow Street Police Station, Ludgate Hill,
London, hereby states as follows
1. On the morning of Monday 26 April 2007 I was on duty at Bow Street Police Station.
Acting on information received I attended the office of Bannerman and Law, solicitors,
at 11 The Strand, London at 9.45 a.m. that morning along with P.C. Capriati.
2. As we arrived a middle-aged man came to the main entrance to meet us, identifying
himself as Mr Henry Moore, Managing Partner of Bannerman and Law. He appeared
quite agitated, intimating ‘I’ve got him, the multi-million pound, Ferrari
driving swindler!’
3. Mr Moore was insisting vehemently that we should arrest another individual also in the
reception area who he kept pointing to. Mr Moore was remonstrating that this other individual,
who he referred to as Charles Scoville, had stolen £2 million from Bannerman
and Law. Mr Moore clearly wanted us to arrest this man and take him into custody.
4. P.C. Capriati tried to calm Mr Moore down while I spoke to the other man, who confirmed
he was indeed Charles Scoville. Mr Scoville also told me that he was employed
as a cashier with Bannerman and Law, had done nothing wrong and had no
idea what Henry Moore was going on about.
5. P.C. Capriati and I then invited Mr Scoville to come with us into a small empty office
adjoining the reception area. We explained to Mr Scoville that he was not under arrest
and that we merely wanted to have an informal chat with him. This was with a view
to establishing the full situation. Charles Scoville replied ‘Please, call me Charles. I am
more than happy to co-operate. I am an entirely innocent party in all this!’
6. My colleague and I therefore went into the small office with Charles Scoville and explained
to him that Mr Moore was alleging he’d misappropriated £2 million from
Bannerman and Law. Charles Scoville replied ‘That’s ridiculous, why on earth
should he think that? Oh good grief wait a minute! It’s the Ferrari isn’t it?’ He then
went on to explain that on the Wednesday of the previous week he’d been one of
three lucky jackpot winners of the national lottery and had won just over £4.8 million.
He hadn’t told anyone apart from immediate family. I asked Charles Scoville
for his full name, address and date of birth, which he provided. I then arranged for
him to attend Bow Street Police Station two days later. By then I hoped to have had
the opportunity of investigating matters further.
7. At 9 a.m. on Wednesday 28 April 2007 I attended the registered office of Chameleon
Gaming Systems at 148 The Mall, London, operators of the National Lottery. There I


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spoke to Mrs Mandy Renwick, Chief Executive of Chameleon. She confirmed to me
that Charles Scoville had indeed been a lottery winner the previous week, winning
£4.8 million.
8. Further investigation then revealed that the missing £2 million was in fact paid back
into the client account of Bannerman and Law on Tuesday 27 April 2007. Also, that it
had actually been withdrawn by another partner at the firm, who had been trading
the money speculatively on the international money market at weekends. On previous
occasions these monies had been paid back into the firm’s client account prior to
the start of the working week. However a delay in the transfer of the funds on the
night of Sunday 25 April due to a delay in the opening of the Tokyo stock exchange
had triggered this whole situation. When Charles Scoville attended Bow Street
Police Station at 4.00 p.m. on Wednesday 28 April I therefore informed him accordingly
that no further police action was being taken in this matter.
9. The contents of this statement are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Signed
D.C. Clouseau
Date
IN THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL CASE NO. 128942/02
BETWEEN
CHARLES E. SCOVILLE Applicant
And
BANNERMAN AND LAW (a firm) Respondent
I, Mandy Pauline Renwick, care of 148 The Mall, London, hereby state as follows.
1 I am Chief Executive of Chameleon Gaming Systems P.L.C., hereinafter referred to as
‘Chameleon’. Chameleon possesses the Governmental licence to operate the National
Lottery throughout the United Kingdom.
2 As requested by Mr Charles Edward Scoville I can confirm that he was one of three
‘Jackpot’ winners of the National Lottery draw on Wednesday 21 April 2007.
Mr Scoville’s winnings amounted to £4.8 million, paid to an account in his name
at Global Security Bank, 44 Piccadilly, London by telegraphic transfer on Friday
23 April 2007.
3 The contents of this statement are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Signed
M.P. RENWICK
Date

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CASE-PLAN
A. THE CLIENT’S AIMS / GOALS.
Set out below the client’s main aims / goals.
B. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF YOUR CLIENT’S CASE AND SUPPORTING
EVIDENCE.
Indicate below two arguments in favour of your client’s case. Also identify any
specific sources of evidence in support of these arguments.
C. ARGUMENTS YOU ANTICIPATE WILL BE MADE BY THE OTHER PARTY.
Provide two examples of arguments you anticipate will be made by the Respondent’s
representative. Also indicate briefly how you will counteract these in the
course of negotiation.
If you are working on your own then undertake the ‘Individual Exercise’ below. Alternatively, if
you are working in a group then undertake the ‘Group Exercise’ below. Both exercises relate
to the above case of Charles E. Scoville v Bannerman and Law.
INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE
Imagine that you are the chairperson of the Employment Tribunal hearing Charles Scoville’s
case and carry out the following tasks.
1. Consider carefully all the evidence and details of the case, taking notes of information you
consider to be relevant to the case as you read through:
 Charles Scoville’s Application;
 the Notice of Appearance;
 the witness statements.
Exercise 10 – Employment Tribunal hearing


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2. Write a Tribunal decision of approximately one page in length, referring to the evidence and
details available.
GROUP EXERCISE
Task 1
Allocate the following roles between yourselves:
 the Applicant (Charles Scoville)
 the Applicant’s Representative
 the Respondent’s Managing Partner (Henry Moore)
 the Respondent’s Representative
Task 2
Role-play the Employment Tribunal hearing of the Charles E. Scoville v Bannerman and Law
case by following the under-noted procedure:
(a) Person playing role of Respondent’s Representative conducts examination in chief of the
Respondent’s Managing Partner (Henry Moore). Endeavour to set out the Respondent’s
case. Person playing role of Henry Moore answers the Representative’s questions, improvising
with further sensible details as appropriate in addition to using the details provided
in the Applicant’s Application, the Notice of Appearance and the witness statements.
(b) Person playing the role of Charles Scoville’s Representative cross-examines Henry Moore,
with a view to contradicting his evidence and putting the Applicant’s case.
(c) Person playing the role of Charles Scoville’s Representative then calls Charles Scoville (the
Applicant) to give his evidence, taking the Applicant through his examination in chief. Person
playing the role of the Applicant answers the Representative’s questions based on the
details provided in the Applicant’s Application, the Notice of Appearance and the witness
statements as well as by using further improvised facts and information as appropriate.
(d) Person playing the role of the Respondent’s Representative then cross-examines the Applicant,
seeking to repudiate the Applicant’s evidence and to put the Respondent’s case to
the witness.
(e) The Applicant’s Representative makes a short closing speech, summing up the arguments
and evidence in support of the Applicant’s case and seeking to dispute the Respondent’s
arguments and version of events.
(f) The Respondent’s Representative makes a short closing speech, summing up the arguments
and evidence in support of the Respondent’s case and seeking to contradict the Applicant’s
case.
If there are more people within your group then you should add further roles to the role-play.
For instance a further person could play the role of Mandy Renwick. (The Applicant’s Representative
could call this further witness for examination in chief, the Representative for the
Respondent then conducting cross-examination. A further person could play the role of Detective
Constable Clouseau in a similar fashion.)
If there are remaining members of your group then appoint three of them as panel members
of the Tribunal. These three should then consider and announce a decision after hearing all
the evidence. Everyone present should watch and listen carefully throughout the hearing, taking
notes of the evidence.

Chapter 10  Employment law
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Try to arrange your group as follows for the role-play.
EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL PANEL
WITNESS (Applicant / Henry Moore / D.C. Clouseau / Mandy Renwick)
RESPONDENT’S REPRESENTATIVE APPLICANT’S REPRESENTATIVE
Charles Scoville’s case has now been heard and the Employment Tribunal has issued a written
decision (pp. 117–19).
1. Read out loud the following words from the judgment, taking care to use correct stress
patterns.
2. Write the correct stress pattern above each word in the panel. By way of example, the first
one is done for you, showing the correct stress pattern above the word ‘decision’. (The
phonetic /s/ being found in ‘si’ in this word.)
Exercise 11 – reading and pronunciation
decision (de-ci-sion) dismissal conduct considered
procedure fairness information hearing
representative misconduct investigation evidence
allegation admission employer wrongdoing
misappropriation tribunal declare Respondent
...
3. Read out the decision, paying attention to your pronunciation.
(If you are working with others then work in pairs, taking turns to read out the decision to
each other. Provide feedback to your partner on his or her pronunciation, identifying any
specific words which you consider are being incorrectly pronounced.)

122
Part 2  Civil litigation
THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL
CASE NO. 128942/02
BETWEEN
Applicant Respondent
Charles E. Scoville AND Bannerman and Law (a firm)
DECISION OF THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL
HELD AT: London (Central) ON: 27 AUGUST 2007
CHAIRMAN: Mr Claude Rumbelow MEMBERS: Thomas Stringfellow
Carol Kendall
Appearances
For Applicant: Richard Vaughan, Counsel and
Nancy Watkins, Solicitor
For Respondent: Jonathan Stevenson, Counsel and
Samantha Ponsonby, Solicitor
DECISION
The unanimous decision of the Tribunal is that: the Applicant was unfairly dismissed.
THE DECISION OF THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL
The tribunal has reached a unanimous decision in this matter. Firstly it is accepted that
there was a dismissal. What was however in dispute was whether the dismissal was
fair or unfair. The Respondent contended the former and the Applicant the latter.

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The Respondent is a city firm of solicitors, being a partnership with its head office in
London. It also has four overseas offices. The Applicant was employed as a legal
cashier for approximately 4 years prior to being dismissed by the Respondent on
26 April 2007. The Respondent contends the dismissal was justified by reason of gross
misconduct.
We are satisfied that the reason for dismissal was the employee’s conduct relating to the
alleged theft of £2 million. This is a potentially fair reason for dismissal as provided by
section 98 of the Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA). We then considered whether the
dismissal was fair in all the circumstances, as further required by section 98(4) ERA.
A relevant issue here was whether the employer had adopted a fair procedure in the
course of dismissal. The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) Code
of Practice on Disciplinary Procedure provides a helpful set of guidelines. It states that
the following matters should be taken into account by an employer in the course of taking
disciplinary action against an employee in order to ensure procedural fairness. The
employee should be provided with detailed information concerning the allegations in
advance of the disciplinary hearing (preferably in writing). The employee should also
have the opportunity to make representations in his or her own defence. The employee
is also entitled to be accompanied by a representative at a properly convened disciplinary
hearing.
We also took into account the instrumental finding in British Home Stores v Burchell
1980, as recently confirmed by Boys and Girls Society v MacDonald. This was in relation
to considering the reasonableness of the employer’s actions in dismissing the employee
in the particular circumstances.
These cases held that in order for the dismissal to be fair in a case of alleged misconduct
the employer must satisfy three criteria. Firstly that the employer genuinely believed
the employee had done wrong. Secondly that there were reasonable grounds for
that belief. Thirdly that the employer reached that conclusion of misconduct after having
carried out a reasonable investigation into the matter.
In the tribunal’s view it was clear from the evidence we heard that this dismissal was
procedurally unfair. Virtually none of the above requirements for a fair dismissal were
adhered to by the employer. The Applicant was ‘ambushed’ by Mr Moore, the Respondent’s
Managing Partner. In other words the Applicant was dismissed without being
provided with any advance notice of the allegation being made against him. Nor was
he provided with the opportunity to reply to the allegation. Similarly, details of the allegation
were not even made clear to the Applicant at the time of dismissal. Neither
was there any proper disciplinary hearing. Quite simply Mr Moore had already made
up his mind that the Applicant had stolen this money without even listening to what
he had to say in response.
By Mr Moore’s own admission he summarily dismissed the Applicant in front of
colleagues. He also divulged details of Mr Scoville’s dismissal to a number of clients in
reception. It further appears from the evidence that there was no reasonable or proper
investigation carried out. Mr Moore simply leapt to the conclusion that the Applicant
was the culprit. This procedural unfairness was then compounded by denying the
Applicant an appeal hearing.


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In further deliberating on the fairness of the dismissal in all the circumstances we took
account of the decision in Iceland Frozen Foods v Jones 1983 ICR 17. This case continues
to be recognised in law as providing the traditionally recognised test referred to as the
‘band of reasonable responses’. In other words did dismissal in the circumstances fall
within the band of reasonable responses which a reasonable employer might invoke?
This is an objective test as opposed to subjective. Therefore we would be erring in law
if we decided this case on the basis of whether we as individuals on this panel would
or would not have dismissed Mr Scoville in the circumstances. It is rather a question of
what a reasonably minded person would think.
Taking account however of the evidence, this tribunal is unanimous in deciding that
dismissal in the circumstances of this case was not a reasonable response to be expected
of a reasonable employer. We were particularly swayed here by the evidence of Mrs
Mandy Renwick, Chief Executive of Chameleon Gaming Systems, who we regarded
as a credible and helpful witness. Mrs Renwick’s evidence appears to clearly confirm
the Applicant’s version of events. We were also assisted by D.C. Clouseau’s evidence
which has satisfied us that there was in fact no wrongdoing on the part of Mr Scoville.
Indeed D.C. Clouseau’s evidence further indicates that the actual perpetrator was
one of the Respondent’s own partners.
This tribunal therefore finds that the Applicant was dismissed unfairly. I thereby declare
that this was an unfair dismissal. The Applicant was on a gross salary of £25,000
per annum, i.e. £1,500 per month net. His immediate loss of earnings from date of dismissal
until the date of this hearing therefore amount to £6,000. The Applicant remains
unemployed despite having made efforts to find similar work. The tribunal hereby
awards future loss of earnings for a period of a further eight months. The Respondent
is therefore ordered to make a total payment accordingly to the Applicant in the sum of
£18,000 within 14 days.
Claude Rumbelow
CHAIRMAN
REPORTED SPEECH
The following is an example of reported speech:
‘Henry Moore told Charles Scoville that he was being dismissed for stealing.’
In reported speech (also known as indirect speech) we describe what was said, using different
words from those actually spoken.
Exercise 12 – grammar practice

Chapter 10  Employment law
125
TASK 1
Re-phrase the following sentences to change them from direct speech into reported speech.
1. ‘I’ve got him, the Ferrari driving swindler!’
2. ‘You’re dismissed as of now Scoville!’
3. ‘I read an article in the local newspaper about your firm winning a case.’
4. ‘I was dismissed from my job recently.’
5. ‘I will try to negotiate a settlement for you.’
DIRECT SPEECH
The following is an example of direct speech:
‘You are being dismissed for stealing.’
TASK 2
Write a sentence in direct speech by indicating what the speaker might actually have said in
each of the following situations.
1. D.C. Clouseau asked Charles Scoville how he accounted for the Ferrari in the car-park.
2. Charles Scoville said that Henry Moore told him he was being dismissed and that he was
to return his office keys immediately.
3. Charles Scoville’s lawyer told him that he had a meritorious claim for unfair dismissal.
4. The Tribunal chairman said that Bannerman and Law had treated Mr Scoville reprehensibly
and that he had no hesitation in declaring that Mr Scoville had been dismissed
unfairly.
5. Charles Scoville said that he was pleased with the Tribunal’s award of £18,000.
Unfair dismissal
 Employees have the right not to be unfairly dismissed, per s. 94 Employment Rights
Act 1996 (ERA)
 One year qualifying length of service required in order to be eligible to claim unfair
dismissal
 Three months limitation period for issuing claim for unfair dismissal
 To defend an unfair dismissal claim an employer has to establish that reason for
dismissal falls within one of the acceptable reasons for dismissal as provided by
statute (s. 98 ERA), in particular:
Law notes


1. capability (e.g. ability, skills or professional qualifications)
2. conduct
3. redundancy
4. contravention of an enactment (e.g. employee is banned from driving and employed
as a delivery driver, rendering continuance of the work by that employee illegal)
5. some other substantial reason (e.g. necessary business re-organisation)
 Employment Tribunal will then consider whether dismissal was fair or unfair in all the
circumstances per s. 98(4) ERA, including for instance: whether employee was provided
with opportunity of providing his or her version of events; a fair disciplinary hearing
was held; employee was permitted to have a representative present; employee was
provided with a right of appeal etc.
Employment Tribunal
 Employment Tribunal (ET) is venue for unfair dismissal claims as well as for claims relating
to sex, race and disability discrimination in employment. ET also has jurisdiction
over claims relating to employees receiving less favourable treatment in the course of
employment on the grounds of sexual orientation or religion / beliefs.
 Appeals against ET decision must be on a point of law and submitted to the Employment
Appeal Tribunal (EAT) within 42 days of ET providing its written decision.
 Remedies ET can award for unfair dismissal include: compensation for lost earnings
and loss of other benefits (e.g. health insurance, pension and use of company car etc.)
and re-instatement.
 ET can award unlimited damages in discrimination cases.
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Reported and direct speech
Reported speech
Verbs commonly used in reported speech include ‘said’, ‘told’ and ‘explained’. Reported
speech is often found in written court and tribunal decisions as well as in witness statements
and press reports. (Note for instance the use of reported speech in the ET decision
and witness statements you have considered in this chapter.)
There are various changes made in the course of reporting an event or comment by using
reported speech. For instance:
 Pronouns usually convert from ‘I’ to ‘he’/‘she’ and ‘my’ converts to ‘his’/‘her’
 ‘Tomorrow’ becomes ‘the following day’/‘yesterday’ becomes ‘the previous day’.
 Tenses change so that:
1. the present becomes the past
2. the present perfect becomes the past perfect
3. the past simple becomes the past perfect
Grammar notes

Chapter 10  Employment law
127
 Modal verbs change so that you often find for instance that: ‘can’ becomes ‘could’;
‘will’ becomes ‘would’; ‘may’ becomes ‘might’.
 There are seven main verb structures with reported speech:
1. verb  ‘that’ (‘He said that he was leaving’)
2. verb  object  that (‘He told us that he was leaving’)
3. verb  ‘that’  ‘should’  bare infinitive (‘She told us that we should leave’)
4. verb  infinitive (‘He said he tried to arrive on time’)
5. verb  objective + infinitive (‘He told me to go’)
6. verb  ‘ing’ (‘He said he liked working’)
7. verb  gerund (‘He reported seeing the driver stop
suddenly’)
Direct speech
When writing in direct speech we repeat what was actually stated, placing those words in
quotation marks (‘ ’). The legal term ‘verbatim’ means that the written document being
referred to recites the actual words of the speaker. It is important for a lawyer to
know whether the words he is reading are ‘verbatim’ since the precise words spoken by a
party are often of crucial importance in determining the outcome of a case. (E.g. in a
breach of contract case, what exactly did the seller of a motor vehicle say about the condition
of the vehicle?)

PART 3
Law bulletin

131
Chapter 11 Law bulletin
Learning Objectives
This chapter contains a selection of articles on topical legal issues. By completing the
tasks in this chapter you will have:
 Read and considered an article on the distinction between barristers and solicitors
 Read and considered an article on witness examination in the courtroom
 Read and considered an article on the Asian legal market
 Read and considered an article on international litigation
 Practised relevant grammar exercises including tense review and comparative and
superlative forms of written and spoken English
Text 1 – solicitor or barrister?
Read the following article then complete the exercises which follow.
WHICH ROUTE–SOLICITOR OR BARRISTER?
Many students have decided on a career in the law, but are unsure
of the next step. Margot Taylor explains the pros
and cons of each branch of the profession
The two main branches of the legal profession are solicitors and barristers (advocates in
Scotland). There are also legal executives, who regard themselves as a third branch. In the
past ten years, the difference between the branches has become increasingly blurred:
solicitors can now qualify as higher court advocates, and barristers can deal directly with
some kinds of client (chiefly other professionals) without the need for the client to see a
solicitor first.
TYPE AND VARIETY OF WORK
Solicitors' work covers a broad range, including advising commercial and private
clients on business matters and property and undertaking litigation. The degree of

Part 3  Law bulletin
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specialisation of solicitors' firms varies enormously. Some offer general legal services,
from conveyancing and drafting wills to acting for defendants in criminal cases. Others
specialise in one or two areas, perhaps doing only corporate work or personal injury
work. The smaller the firm and the broader its range of work, the less likely its solicitors
will specialise in only one area.
Most barristers' work is confined to litigation, although some do largely advisory
work, for example on taxation or company matters. Traditionally barristers specialise
in one or a few areas of law, although this is not true of all. In their early years most undertake
a broad range of cases until they develop expertise in a particular area. Some
barristers in "general common law" chambers continue to have a broadly based practice.
Whether, or how much, you specialise as a barrister will depend to a large extent
on the cases you get in your early years.
So, if you do not want to do litigation, think twice before you become a barrister. Otherwise,
whether or not you specialise will not rest entirely on whether or not you join the
Bar or become a solicitor but will be influenced by the type of firm or chambers you join.
TRAINING
Beyond the academic stage the training to become a barrister or solicitor is very different.
The Bar Vocational Course is exclusively focused on the skills and knowledge
required of an advocate: litigation evidence drafting advocacy, etc. This is followed by
12 months of pupilage. The Legal Practice Course is much broader and covers business
law and practice, property and litigation and advocacy. This is followed by a two-year
training contract in a firm.
WORKING CONDITIONS
Most solicitors are salaried employees and keep office hours, report to a senior person
and work within the collective ethos of the firm. However, they generally have "billing
targets" (to achieve a number of chargeable hours) which can be stressful and require
detailed record-keeping. Barristers are self-employed but usually work out of chambers
(a group of barristers) with a clerk who takes referrals from solicitors. Theoretically free
to work as and when they please barristers must be available to take work as it comes
in. Barristers are generally paid a fee for each piece of work from which they must
deduct their share of the costs of running the chambers. A barrister's earnings are therefore
much less secure than a solicitor's, particularly in the early years.
ADVOCACY
Many barristers, particularly those doing criminal work, spend most of their time as
advocates. However, some civil practitioners spend more of their time dealing with
cases out of court. Solicitors have rights of audience in the lower courts and although
many do no advocacy some do a substantial amount.
Some solicitors qualify for rights of audience in the higher courts, with some City
firms encouraging this. The advantage of this route over qualifying as a barrister is that
you work from the base of a legal practice. It is done to enhance your work. The disadvantage
is that you are unlikely to do the same volume of advocacy as those who qualify
for the Bar. If you really only want to do advocacy, the Bar, particularly criminal
work, is probably the place for you.
CONTACT WITH CLIENTS
A solicitor has overall conduct of a case and develops a working relationship with the
client, which can be rewarding. But it can also be frustrating, particularly dealing with

Chapter 11  Law bulletin
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the more demanding clients, accounting for all client money and dealing with documentation
and costs. Abarrister is briefed by the solicitor for specific tasks, for example, drafting
a document or acting as an advocate. This would appeal to someone who dislikes
routine paperwork but can be frustrating if insufficient or wrong information is provided.
Abarrister may have little opportunity to develop any relationship with the client.
NOT A FINAL CHOICE
The division between solicitors and barristers is becoming less distinct, with solicitors
doing more advocacy and clients instructing barristers directly. Moving between the
two halves of the profession is straightforward, so a choice now will not dictate your
work for life.
Margot Taylor, Principal Lecturer, Inns of Court School of Law: The Times, 20 January
2004, Student Law, p. 11.
Answer the following questions concerning the above article.
1. Explain in a few sentences the main difference between a barrister’s work and that of a
solicitor.
2. How long does a trainee barrister’s pupillage last?
3. How long does a trainee solicitor’s training contract last?
4. Which branch of the legal profession developes a closer on-going relationship with clients
and why?
5. State two areas of law which solicitors can specialise in.
6. What factors influence the areas of legal work a barrister becomes involved in during the
initial stage of his or her career?
7. Where do barristers practise from?
8. Which branch of the legal profession do you consider yourself best suited to and why?
Discuss.
Exercise 1 – comprehension
Complete the following sentences by filling in the blank spaces with appropriate phrases from
the text.
1. Barristers’ work predominantly involves [1] , i.e. court work.
2. There are basically two types of lawyers in England, namely solicitors and [2] .
3. Solicitors are often under pressure to achieve [3] .
4. Barristers undertake a [4] course following the academic stage of
their training.
Exercise 2 – word search


Part 3  Law bulletin
134
5. Solicitors undertake a [5] course following the academic stage of
their training.
6. Solicitors have overall conduct of a case whereas barristers are [6] at specific
stages of a case.
Text 2 – techniques for cross-examining a witness
in court
Read the following article then complete the exercises which follow.
HAVING CROSS WORDS IN THE COURTROOM
Q How do you start to prepare for cross-examination?
A Practitioners prepare for cross-examination differently. Some start with the witness
statement (which stands as, in most civil cases, the evidence in chief). They then
work through the points the witness supports in the other side’s case, take out a list
of other issues that need to be challenged, mark any internal inconsistencies in the
witness statement, explore the trial bundle for documents to put to the witness, and
work out a series of questions from there.
A better approach is to start from the propositions you would like to make in the
closing submissions – and work backwards. Sometimes arguments are raised in closing
submissions that have not been put to the witnesses during cross-examination.
This is unavoidable as cases change considerably during trial. However, more often,
it is because the themes of the witnesses’ evidence had not been tied in to the closing
arguments beforehand. Alert judges are aware of this. How often have you heard in
judgments ‘XYZ was not put to the witness, so I am unable to make a finding on
that...’ or ‘counsel chose not to challenge that in evidence...’ Sometimes the failure to
challenge is deliberate; often it is not. You can reduce the risk of this happening by
tying in, from the start, the themes of your cross-examination with the bare threads
of your closing argument.
An effective way to start your preparation is to consider from the outset the theme
your series of questions is going to follow. The theme will be case-specific, designed
to deal with your client’s slant on a particular issue that the judge must consider
when reaching his decision. Equally, your theme may be based solely on discrediting
the testimony of the witness. Either way, this theme should be prevalent
throughout your questioning.
Set out your theme on a cross-examination ‘route plan’ – an overall guide to your
cross-examination from where all your notes and questions will be devised. Only once
this is prepared are you ready to start effectively preparing your cross-examination.

Chapter 11  Law bulletin
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Q How should I approach my cross-examination route plan?
A Your route plan is the guide to where you want to take this witness in front of the
judge (or jury in criminal cases). The purpose of any cross-examination is twofold: to
elicit favourable evidence and discredit evidence that is unhelpful. Anything else is a
fishing exercise, which should be avoided. Set out the following on a sheet of paper:
 Which part of this witness’s evidence in chief assists or supports your case? Usually
there are a few agreed facts – make a list of these.
 How can this witness corroborate your theory of the case? Tie these agreed facts in
with your theory of the case and consider the propositions required to turn this
witness into corroborating your client’s slant on the issues.
 What must this witness admit? Make a list of the propositions you would like this
witness to admit – these propositions should all tie in with your theme for this
witness and the overall theory of the case in closing.
 What should the witness admit? Consider what the witness cannot deny from the
agreed facts – the propositions from which he cannot possibly escape. Use these to
develop your position in other areas. These are all useful tools for effective crossexamination.
Q What tips can you give practitioners in advance of their first cross-examinations?
A Cross-examination depends on your audience. You are expected to act in a different
way before juries or lay magistrates than you are in front of a county or High Court
judge or a lawyer-led tribunal. Remember who your audience is and be flexible. On
presentation, it is usually a good idea to bear in mind the following advice:
 Make your questions leading – answers should be yes or no. If you ask an open
question, the witness can respond in any number of ways.
 Make a statement of fact and ask the witness to agree with it. The best practitioners
keep control of their witnesses by putting facts to the witness in the question and
asking them ‘do you agree?’ This leaves the witness with no room to manoeuvre
into unhelpful matters. Lead up gently to the main question with a series of agreed
facts from your route plan.
 Be confident. Advocacy is like acting – and even more so in jury trials. If you do not
project gravitas and authority the effect of your cross-examination will be lost, a jury
will not be impressed and the witness will start to take advantage.
 Be polite to the independent and expert witness, unless circumstances dictate
otherwise.
 Listen to the witness. Often cross-examiners are not listening to the witness. This is
acceptable if the witness provides you with an expected answer, but witnesses are
more often than not sophisticated and unpredictable. Listen to what they are saying
and be prepared to challenge an issue they raise for the first time.
 Do not, under any circumstances, argue with the witness. All too often cross-examiners
respond to throwaway remarks by witnesses designed to challenge propositions
put to them. If they answer a question with a question, tell them it is your role
to ask the questions and their role to answer them.
On content, remember:
 Make your strongest points at the start and end of your cross-examination.
 Keep your eye on your audience; judge the reactions. You may not need the
audience’s constant attention – you may, after all, be eliciting evidence for a closing
submission – but you do need to keep its interest or provide for it a point of
reference if you want the audience to follow your theme on closing.

Part 3  Law bulletin
 Vary the order of subject matter. This may be better done by taking it issue-by-issue
or chronologically.
 Try your best not to allow the witness to repeat his direct examination.
 Know the probable answer to each question – and devise a route plan for any unexpected
answers.
 Do not start to prepare a script of all the questions you propose to ask. It may make
you feel safer having all the questions on one sheet of paper, but it will not help you
on the day.
This column was written by Justin Michaelson (Weil, Gotshal & Manges) on behalf of
the Solicitors’ Association of Higher Court Advocates (SAHCA): Gazette, Vol. 101,
No. 13, 1 April 2004, p. 6.
Match each word from the first column below with a corresponding word in the second column.
By way of example the first one is done for you.
Exercise 3 – word collocations
witness question
open trial
cross examination
jury statement
High chief
examination in Court
Complete each blank space below by inserting a word or phrase from the text which is similar
in meaning to each of the following. (The paragraph number of the text in which the answer is
located is indicated in brackets to assist you.)
1. closing submissions c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ s (para. 2)
2. contentions p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (para. 2)
3. witnesses’ version of events witnesses’ e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (para. 2)
4. backs up your legal arguments s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ your c _ _ _ (para. 5)
5. court representation a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (para. 6)
6. advocates who question other party’s witnesses c _ _ _ _ e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (para. 6)
Exercise 4 – word search
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Chapter 11  Law bulletin
137
Text 3 – the Asian legal market
Read the following text then complete the exercises which follow.
ASIAN TIGERS PREPARE TO SPRING
AFTER A DECADE OF ECONOMIC TURMOIL, ASIA IS BUZZING.
WHILE SOME LAW FIRMS ARE CAUTIOUS ABOUT HAVING
A PRESENCE THERE, MANY WANT TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF
RISING INVESTMENT, SAYS LUCY HICKMAN
Economically speaking, Asia has had a hard time over the past few years. Deep recession
lasting nearly a decade for most Asian countries – including former linchpins
Hong Kong and Japan – political unrest for many, and then the SARS virus provided
the poisoned icing on the cake. All of this, of course, has affected lawyers.
Most international law firms with Asian offices have dug in deep to weather the
storm, often redeploying fee-earners when the worst-struck practice areas–finance and
corporate – hit rock bottom. As Don Kelly, Lovells’ regional managing partner for Asia,
says: ‘Staffing issues are an ongoing challenge. We do the best we can. Fortunately, our
people tend to be pretty flexible.
‘Our Vietnam office – which we have had for ten years – is a good example of this. In
the early years, there was lots of intellectual property and project work in the region, so
we kept it staffed up all the time. Then things went a bit quiet, so we ran the office on a
fly-in, fly-out basis. There’s a sense of revival again now and we make sure there’s always
a Lovells lawyer sitting in that office. It just won’t always be the same lawyer or
from the same practice area.’
With the economy and therefore the legal work in Japan and Hong Kong showing
definite signs of improvement, and China positively booming, it seems the law firms’
patience may be paying off.
Paul Browne, a Tokyo-based finance partner with Simmons & Simmons, says: ‘Japan
is the world’s second biggest economy but it’s been suffering in recession for ten years
or so. However, there are definitely signs of improvement in Japan – and in other parts
of Asia too – and people are generally cautiously optimistic. We’re seeing increasing investment,
which has a knock-on effect on the requirement for lawyers.’
A strange time then, perhaps, for Denton Wilde Sapte (DWS) to disband its Asian
practice, closing offices in Hong Kong, Beijing, Tokyo and Singapore, in a move affecting
12 partners and around 100 staff in total. The withdrawal follows on from the firm’s
strategy review, which was launched 18 months ago in a bid to bolster profits (see
[2004] Gazette, 16 April, 6).
DWS declined to be interviewed by the Gazette, but on announcing the closures last
month, chairman James Dallas said the Asian practice was not strategically necessary
for the sector groups on which the firm now wants to focus: energy, infrastructure
and transport; financial services; real estate; and technology, media and telecommunications.
‘We have concluded that we should withdraw from Asia and direct more resources
to areas with stronger client demand, including Europe, the Middle East, and elsewhere,’ ,
he said in a statement.

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138
Meanwhile, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer is also poised to close its three-partner
Bangkok office, which has a total staff of 81. It has already downsized its operations in
Singapore, not replacing staff when they leave.
Mr Kelly says that DWS’s withdrawal from Asia was on the cards, with numerous
CVs from DWS lawyers flying around before the announcement. However, he finds
Freshfields’ retreat from Bangkok more puzzling.
‘It’s a strange time to be pulling out of Asia. It’s been very tough over the last three
years, but recently we have seen definite signs of improvement. Firms that have been
here throughout the hard period will have spent a lot of time, money and effort, and
now is the time they may be seeing some return on that investment.’
Most agree though that south-east Asia is a hard market to crack. As Ashurst’s Japanese
group head, Alan Kitchin, says: ‘South-east Asia is very difficult. It’s very competitive
on fees. You tend to be acting more for the [local] law firms than for the banks in
that region, so it’s hard to keep the rates up. Firms in there are really struggling.’
Wong Kien Keong, Baker & McKenzie’s Asia-Pacific chairman, adds: ‘Well-known
firms have folded up their operations in some major money-centre jurisdictions like
Hong Kong and Singapore, while larger domestic firms are getting some cross-border
work which eats into the pie of the international firms.
The quality of domestic firms is also improving, particularly in Hong Kong, China,
Bangkok and Singapore.
‘The least lucrative market continues to be Manila among the countries which receive
significant foreign direct investment. Other countries on the fringe in Asia will
continue to suffer, like Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia,’ he predicts. These are all countries
where no UK firm has set up.
Perry Noble, Freshfields’ managing partner in Asia, says: ‘The economic conditions in
south-east Asia have been pretty tough. There was the economic crisis at the end of the
1990s, then the technology boom died out and there has been a lot of political unrest.
‘We have taken the decision to withdraw from the Bangkok market, or we are at least
considering it in principle. From my point of view, no one makes any money in that
part of Asia and I have a responsibility to the partners to get the best return on their investment.’
He says the economic conditions recently have made the decision about where to
invest more difficult. ‘It’s not necessarily that I believe there will be no growth in
south-east Asia – it probably is improving – but the prospects don’t justify that level of
investment.’
Since 1997, Lovells has had an office in Singapore which acts as a hub, handling
work throughout south-east Asia.
Mr Kelly says his firm is considering a series of strategic alliances in the regions,
which should open up the local markets without the financial risk of opening offices in
jurisdictions such as Thailand and Indonesia.
‘It may well be that we will be looking to do more with local firms. We would like to
have more presence there but short of opening a new office. It remains difficult around
there,’ he says.
Lovells’ director of international projects, Marc Bartel, adds: ‘There is a buzz about
some parts of the region, but you might have a flavour of the month with people looking
to revive deals in one place, then, because of a bit of political instability, the focus
changes. We are keeping our ears to the ground on this one.’
Ashurst, which has offices in Singapore and Tokyo, has no intention of pulling out of
Asia.
Mr Kitchin explains that, as the Asian market generates an enormous amount of
work for its other offices, including London, and that at least three of Ashurst’s top
20 clients are Japanese, the firm is planning to expand its Asian operations.

He says: ‘We are looking at China. We have never merged; we like to do things ourselves
and every year we open a new office. We don’t want to compromise our quality
by being all over the place for the sake of it, but China is a difficult market not to be in
because so many clients want to do business there.’
Since its 2001 entry to the World Trade Organisation, China has become one of the
world’s fastest-moving economies, with year-on-year growth of gross domestic product
at 8%, foreign direct investment (FDI) at 57%, foreign trade at 40% and industrial
output at 17%. Law firms not yet established there want to be, and those already there
are looking to expand – with the obvious exception of DWS.
With the opening up of international trade, and massive inward investment, foreign
investors are attracted to what they see as a largely untapped market and a low manufacturing
cost base.
The Chinese government’s push to transform the energy markets has rejuvenated the
sector, while the liberalisation of the Chinese banking system allows foreign banks to
provide local currency business to Chinese clients. And since the business and regulatory
environment is not as developed as in more sophisticated markets, there is also a
need for lawyers to advise not just on expansion and investment but also on restructuring
and reorganisation.
Mr Keong says: ‘The most lucrative Asian legal market remains China. It has the
highest amount of FDI in the world. The Chinese legal market is possibly one of the
largest in the world, because it requires a great deal of financial and legal skills to lift its
economic standard to a level closer to the developed world.’
Michael Liu, head of Allen & Overy’s Asian corporate group, says that to gain a firm
foothold in the Chinese market, one must not look at China as being independent from
Hong Kong – sovereignty of which was handed back to the Chinese by the British
seven years ago.
‘We need to think of our Chinese practice as one team in three locations. Beijing is the
government seat, and Shanghai and Hong Kong are the major commercial centres. You
need full service capability in all three cities to cover the Chinese market effectively.
‘Hong Kong remains a key world financial and business centre, but it is now just one
piece of a bigger jigsaw.’
The firm’s head of Asia practice, Brian Harrison, says: ‘As our clients are stepping up
their presence in the Chinese mainland market, we will follow suit and further expand
our presence there. On the other hand, there are also business opportunities to serve
the needs of Chinese companies which are revitalising in preparation for further market
competition. So the timing is ripe for us.’
Freshfields has had offices in Beijing and Shanghai since 1993, and Mr Noble says
China is an important part of the firm’s plans.
He says that 75% of the work done by the firm’s 18-partner Hong Kong office has a
Chinese connection.
‘China has been important for all businesses in Hong Kong. SARS didn’t help and
Hong Kong has been dire for a long time, but the work coming from China has been a
real relief for everybody.
‘Hong Kong is a small market and ever since its return to China, the economic conditions
have been poor. Combine that with the fact the area is massively over-lawyered and
you get everyone cutting each other’s throats on the price of work. It has been very tough.’
What could escalate the Asian legal market’s revival are plans by the Japanese and
South Korean governments to allow foreign law firms to form full partnerships
with – and also employ – local lawyers. It is expected that the restrictions will be lifted
next year, says Mr Browne.
‘Deregulation will improve things. We have a joint venture with a big Japanese law
firm and to them the prospect of deregulation is an exciting one because they are very
Chapter 11  Law bulletin
139

Part 3  Law bulletin
international in their outlook. At the moment though, we are not considering a full
partnership. We are very happy with the model we have got,’ he says.
Mr Kelly says rumours are rife of plans by English law firms to merge with Japanese
firms – although he declines to name names.
For Lovells though, a full merger is not on the cards, with the firm preferring to introduce
local talent on a lateral-hire basis.
‘We want Japanese law capability but cherry-picking individuals is certainly where
we would like to start. Then we will see how it goes.’
In south-east Asia, the cautious approach of retreating firms like DWS has yet to be
weighed against the go-getting strategies of others. But given the speed of developments
in the region, it should not be too long before the winning strategy reveals itself.
Lucy Hickman, freelance journalist: Gazette, Vol. 101, No. 20, 20 May 2004, pp. 24 – 7.
1. Which areas of legal practice have been most adversely affected throughout Asia as a result
of recession?
2. Which country has the second largest economy?
3. In which country is demand for legal work ‘booming’?
4. Name an Asian country in which no UK law firm has set up.
5. What does ‘FDI’ stand for?
6. What are foreign law firms likely to be able to do in the near future which could assist in
reviving the Asian legal market?
Exercise 5 – comprehension
Find alternative words or phrases from the text meaning the same as the following.
1. transitory basis (para. 3)
2. thriving (para. 4)
3. plan (para. 6)
4. retreat (para. 8)
5. reduced (para. 9)
6. likely (para. 10)
Exercise 6 – vocabulary
140

Chapter 11  Law bulletin
141
Complete the following sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct tense
forms.
1. Since 2001 China’s economy [1] (develop) fast.
2. The partners [2] (meet) at 3.00 pm last Friday.
3. Several law firms have [3] (open) offices in Beijing recently.
4. At least one law firm has recently [4] (closing) an office in Singapore.
5. Demand for legal work in Hong Kong is [5] (show) signs of improvement.
6. The Chinese legal market is [6] (provide) increasing work for foreign law firms.
Exercise 7 – tenses
Written and spoken English commonly includes expressions (idioms) which are intended to
convey a meaning other than the literal interpretation. There are a number of examples of idioms
within the text. For example: ‘... the SARS virus provided the poisoned icing on the
cake’. The words ‘poisoned icing’ are in fact used to relate to the reader that the SARS virus
was a further factor contributing to recession in Asian markets rather than having anything to
do with actual icing on a cake!
TASK 1
Match each of the expressions in the first column below with its corresponding meaning in the
second column. By way of illustration the first one is done for you.
Exercise 8 – idioms
weather the storm reduced
hit rock bottom difficult market to enter
on the cards monitor events
downsized survive a difficult situation
hard market to crack currently popular
ear to the ground likely to happen
flavour of the month to be at the lowest point
TASK 2
Now complete the following sentences by filling each of the gaps with an appropriate idiom
from the panel below.
bury the hatchet on the grapevine redtape
Scot free raining cats and dogs eager beaver


1. I have heard that he has been appointed as a Judge.
2. It became cloudy and started .
3. The Defendant got off .
4. The new lawyer works very hard, he’s an .
5. They stopped arguing and agreed to .
6. The civil service is sometimes said to be full of .
Part 3  Law bulletin
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There are a number of examples of comparatives and superlatives in the text. The following
are examples of superlatives:
‘... the worst-struck practice areas ...’ and ‘We do the best we can’.
TASK 1
Use the superlatives from the box below to complete the following phrases.
Exercise 9 – comparatives and superlatives
fastest highest most least
1. China has the amount of foreign domestic investment (FDI) in the world.
2. The lucrative market is Manila.
3. The lucrative market is China.
4. China has become one of the world’s moving economies.
The following is an example of a comparative:
‘Resources should be directed to areas with stronger client demand.’
TASK 2
Use the comparatives from the box below to complete the following sentences. (Note that
some words in the box may be required more than once whereas others may not be required.)
more bigger stronger closer
1. Hong Kong is part of a jigsaw.
2. Economic conditions have made decisions about where to invest difficult.
3. The business and regulatory environment is developed within sophisticated
markets.
4. Some law firms are directing resources to areas with client demand.
Note that ‘as’ can be used to compare two similars. E.g. ‘Tokyo is as expensive as London.’ It can also be
used negatively. E.g. ‘Regional law firms don’t usually have as many branch offices as the larger city firms.’

Chapter 11  Law bulletin
143
Text 4 – international litigation
Read the following text then complete the exercises which follow.
SHOPPING AROUND
THE ALLURE OF SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGES HAS PROMPTED MANY
CLAIMANTS TO SCOUR THE GLOBE FOR THE MOST
ADVANTAGEOUS ARENA IN WHICH TO FIGHT THEIR LEGAL
BATTLES, REPORTS NIGEL HANSON
Contingency fees, jury trials for all civil cases and the chance to win substantial
punitive damages are just some of the advantages of litigating in the US
As globalisation shrinks the world, lawyers are increasingly shopping around for the
best forum for their clients’ litigation. Claimants who play their cards right can scoop
greater damages, while expense and frustration await those unaware of the vagaries of
international law.
City solicitors say the recent collapse of multinationals, such as Italian dairy giant
Parmalat, has created opportunities, particularly for US firms, as global investors
scramble to protect their interests – usually by joining class actions in the US.
Meanwhile, the recent decision in David Van Der Velde (deceased) v Philip Morris has
driven home the limitations of forum shopping for individual litigants (see [2004]
Gazette, 5 February, 6).
The claim was brought by Gabriella Van Der Velde, whose husband’s illness and
death were allegedly caused by smoking cigarettes manufactured and sold by US tobacco
company Philip Morris.
Although her husband lived all his life in England, she tried to sue in the US, where
higher damages are available.
A New York district court decided that the US was not the appropriate
jurisdiction – forum non conveniens – because England had the ‘most significant factual
relationship’ to the litigation. Her shopping sortie failed, but it highlighted the trend
for seeking an ideal forum abroad.
Adam Johnson, a litigation partner at City firm Herbert Smith, says the US has long
been considered a favourable forum for claimants, particularly in personal injury (PI)
cases.
Contingency fees, jury trials for all civil cases and the chance to win substantial
punitive damages – often awarded as multiples of any compensatory damages – are just
some of the advantages.
In addition, US discovery rules give claimants wider pre-trial disclosure, increasing
pressure on defendants to settle.
Mr Johnson says: ‘In the US, you have to give full disclosure of documents and oral
discovery for witnesses through depositions.
‘All potentially relevant witnesses are subjected to extensive cross-examination by
the claimant’s lawyers to fish around for evidence that might be relevant. All these
things make litigation in the US very attractive for claimants and very unattractive for
defendants, and this is what gives rise to forum shopping.’
Conversely, he says Italy is often considered a good place to defend a case because
bureaucratic delays may postpone the outcome for years.

Part 3  Law bulletin
144
Mr Johnson says more forum shopping has emerged in the wake of the financial
crises engulfing Enron, Worldcom and Parmalat.
US law firms such as Milberg Weiss now specialise in securities claims on behalf of
disgruntled investors. ‘They will set up class actions, typically brought in New York,
and invite investors from around the world to join in,’ says Mr Johnson. ‘Effectively, it’s
inviting people to forum-shop in America.’
Jeremy Sharman, a litigation partner at London-based intellectual property specialists
Bird & Bird, says forum shopping can deliver specific procedural advantages.
He explains: ‘In some countries, there’s no obligation to produce any damaging documents.
That’s completely different from the UK. It may have an impact in cases where
you didn’t want certain documents to come to light.’
Defamation is a growth area for the cross-border shoppers. Dan Tench, a partner in
the media litigation department at London firm Olswang, says the recent proliferation
in international claims is largely the result of the impact of Internet publishing, combined
with political developments such as the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the
US and the fragmentation of the former Soviet Union.
The case of Gutnick v Dow Jones & Co (see [2003] Gazette, 25 April, 6) confirmed that a
businessman allegedly defamed in an article published by the Wall Street Journal online
was allowed to take proceedings in Australia against the Web site’s US-based publisher,
Dow Jones, because several of the Web site’s subscribers lived there.
In addition to the impetus from Internet cases, the press has recently published allegedly
defamatory stories linking prominent Arabs with al-Qaeda, and Russian businessmen
with corruption and arms dealing.
Many such cases, says Mr Tench, have been litigated in London because, in contrast
with PI, England is a better forum for defamation claims than most others, notably the
US.
Moreover, many of the world’s newspapers are published in London, providing a
necessary jurisdictional connection.
Suing for defamation in the US is notoriously difficult because defendants are protected
by the first amendment of the US constitution – which protects free speech – and
the so-called Sullivan defence, which requires public figures to prove actual malice.
Mr Tench says: ‘These are the factors that are driving the international claim. Our
regime in England and Wales is still pretty favourable to claimants. We don’t have the
broad, "public figure" defence.
‘I think people also feel there is perhaps more reliability or predictability here than in
some other jurisdictions, such as France.’
But Mr Tench adds that while libel clients are flocking to London, they need to be
sure that any judgment obtained will be enforceable where it matters.
‘There is no point in being able to bring a defamation case in England but not being
able to get enforcement abroad,’ he says.
In a case in 1995, a US court in Maryland reviewed sceptically the development of
English libel law down the centuries before refusing to enforce a defamation judgment
obtained in London on policy grounds. Mr Tench says it shows US judges’ ‘uneasiness’
about English law’s comparatively pro-claimant approach.
Forum shopping also pays dividends in intellectual property (IP) cases.
Until about 2010, when it is expected that a unified European Union (EU) patent system
will be introduced, the EU’s treatment of patents looks set to remain fragmented.
Clive Thorne, an IP partner at City firm Denton Wilde Sapte, says that under the existing
European patent convention, each EU member state’s approach to patent litigation
is different.
‘The interesting thing is that courts in each member state of the EU jurisdiction can,
and do, reach different decisions on the validity of a patent,’ he says.

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145
Differences also arise over cost, speed and remedies. ‘Germany is very
expensive – you have to pay a very significant court fee up front,’ Mr Thorne says.
‘Some say the UK is expensive, but I’m not convinced. Reforms brought in by the
patent judges have got it running very smoothly and efficiently, although it is perhaps
a little more expensive litigating here than in Holland.’
Dutch courts are far more likely than others to grant wide-reaching injunctive relief,
intended to be enforceable in other jurisdictions.
Gill Doran, head of family law at City firm Withers, says choice of jurisdiction can affect
a financial settlement following divorce. Scandinavian countries, for example, have
no concept of spousal maintenance.
Ms Doran says: ‘I can think of one example where a husband definitely started proceedings
in Sweden because that was a favourable jurisdiction to him compared with
England, where maintenance is payable.’
Pre-empting the other side by starting proceedings in a chosen forum can be a decisive
factor, particularly since the implementation of a convention known widely as
‘Brussels II’, which requires the court first seized of certain actions to try them to the
exclusion of others.
Many clients would be unaware, Ms Doran adds, that a pre-nuptial agreement
signed in New York has full force there but would be given much less weight in England
should the couple emigrate.
‘Forum shopping can make a huge difference,’ she says. ‘Normally, it has to be
thought about a long way ahead to get the most advantage. It often requires someone
going home for some period of time to fulfil the requirements and benefits of their own
jurisdiction.
‘It sounds incredibly calculated, but it is jurisdiction shopping – or jurisdiction
planning.’
However, tactical awareness can mean the difference between keeping and losing
children. Marcus Dearle, another partner at Withers, says potential surrogate mothers
who visit California are often ‘blissfully ignorant’ that their surrogacy contract will be
fully binding there and they can be forced to give up the child they are carrying by the
courts.
In England and Wales, however, a surrogate mother who wants to keep the baby
immediately after giving birth is likely to be allowed to do so.
Forum shopping, in brief, is something nobody can afford to overlook. As Mr Dearle
says: ‘It is potentially big business. Savings or gains amounting to millions of pounds
can be made. Modern telecommunications, globalisation and cheaper travel have made
the world a much smaller place.
‘Lawyers and their clients will increasingly need to be internationally aware of the
concept in the 21st century.’
Nigel Hanson: Gazette, Vol. 101, No. 9, 4 March 2004, pp. 10 – 11.

The infinitive is the basic form of a verb. A gerund is usually a verb used as a noun ending
in ‘ing’.
Verbs which can be followed by infinitives include:
Exercise 10 – gerunds and infinitives
afford agree appear arrange ask attempt begin choose
dare decide expect fail forget happen intend manage
neglect offer prepare pretend promise refuse
admit avoid consider delay detest dislike endure enjoy
escape finish forgive imagine mention resist suggest understand
Verbs which can be followed by the gerund ‘ing’ form include:
like love hate prefer continue try
Verbs which can be followed by either gerunds or infinitives include:
Complete the following summary of the text by inserting in each blank space the appropriate
gerund or infinitive form of the words in brackets.
TEXT SUMMARY
Lawyers now consider [1] (shop around) when [2] (deal) with
litigation cases. They are sometimes provided with a choice as to which country
[3] (take) a case to. Solicitors sometimes suggest for instance
[4] (bring) a class action in New York. Solicitors usually prefer however to
[5] __________ (starting) a defamation case in the UK because [6] (sue) for
defamation in the US is usually more difficult.
Discourse markers are used to connect sentences and to indicate additional information.
Legal English uses a number of discourse markers in this way with words such as:
‘moreover’; ‘furthermore’; ‘further or alternatively’ etc.
Discourse markers can usually be placed in various positions within a sentence and can be
used for a variety of specific purposes, including to: focus the reader on a particular issue,
contrast issues or ideas, provide emphasis or to structure information.
Exercise 11 – discourse markers
146
Part 3  Law bulletin

There are a significant number of examples of discourse markers being used in these ways
throughout the text. For instance:
 Cause and effect: ‘As globalisation shrinks the world, lawyers are increasingly shopping
around ...’
 Contrast: ‘Although her husband lived all his life in England, she tried to sue in the US ...’
 Addition: ‘In addition, US discovery rules give Claimants wider pre-trial disclosure ...’
Further typical discourse markers in legal English include:
 with reference to; regarding; as regards (for focusing and linking)
 firstly; to begin with; finally (for structuring)
 as a result; therefore; consequently (for sequencing in a logical order)
Complete the following sentences by selecting appropriate discourse markers from the panel
below.
1. it is hereby agreed that this amount will be in full and final settlement.
2. I would like to introduce the main speaker.
3. It will not be necessary to take this matter any further.
4. The Claimant is a wealthy man of the damages awarded to him.
5. Damages awards are usually higher in US courts. it may be more
convenient to issue legal proceedings in England.
6. He is a good barrister. He is not popular with colleagues in chambers.
Chapter 11  Law bulletin
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INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE
1. If you are working on your own, prepare a short letter of advice to a client explaining the main
issues to be considered when deciding which country to commence legal proceedings in.
2. Read the Group Exercise below. Write an opinion on the four issues indicated by bulletpoints.
Discuss this opinion with a colleague or friend.
GROUP EXERCISE
1. Work in pairs, discussing your views and opinions on the relative merits and disadvantages
of the UK and US court systems. Consider for instance issues such as:
 Should US courts continue to award very large punitive awards (some of which amount to
billions of dollars). Are these awards in the public interest?
 Should English courts award punitive damages?
Exercise 12 – discussion

however as a result to begin with / firstly
therefore furthermore on the other hand

 Is it right that individuals should be able to ‘shop around’ internationally to find the most
financially advantageous legal jurisdiction in which to bring their claims?
 Should contingency fees (arrangements whereby a lawyer works on a no win – no fee
basis and takes a percentage of the damages, often 25%, if the claim is successful) be
permitted?
2. Prepare and make a presentation either individually or in pairs to the rest of your group on
‘The future of international litigation’. (Address issues such as whether you think that
issuing court proceedings in other countries will become an increasing trend, which areas
of legal practice will be most affected and why.)
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149
Appendix 1
Study and research guide
Throughout this book you have been presented with legal and linguistic skills practice,
including in reading, writing, drafting and advocacy. Such practice should
assist in developing your competence in using legal English both in legal study and
in legal practice. The purpose of this section of the book is to provide you with a
further appreciation of the sources of law and their relative importance. Certain features
of the text of law and where to locate it will also be considered.
Sources of United Kingdom law
Legislation
United Kingdom (UK) law is primarily created by legislation. The sources of legislation
are:
European Union legislation
Legislation enacted by or delegated by the UK Parliament
The ultimate source of UK law is now legislation created by the European Union.
The UK largely lost ‘sovereignty’ over its law-making process as a result of becoming
a signatory to the European Union (previously known as the European
Community) on 1 January 1973. In particular, the UK Parliament granted overriding
law-making authority to the European Union by enacting the European
Communities Act 1972. The EU has its own Parliament, its Secretariat being based
in Luxembourg, committee meetings usually being held in Brussels.
European Union law
Primary European Union (EU) law consists mainly of treaties. Rights provided under
primary EU law are directly enforceable through UK courts if domestic law
does not specifically grant those rights.
Secondary EU law takes the form of:
 Regulations: a Regulation is entirely binding upon the UK as a member state of
the EU. It is directly applicable in UK law without the need for the UK Parliament
to enact the regulation through domestic legislation. Regulations are directly
applicable, both against the state (known as being directly applicable)
and against individuals and companies (known as being horizontally applicable).
An example of a Regulation is the free movement of workers within the
EU regulation.

 Directives: a Directive imposes a binding duty on member states to implement
the provisions contained within the Directive. A Directive is not however directly
imposed. Instead, the member state is responsible for determining the form and
method by which to implement the provisions of the Directive into its domestic
law. A Directive is said to have ‘vertical effect’ since it ‘directs’ a member state to
incorporate the Directive into its own law.
 Decisions: these are binding and include decisions from:
(a) The Commission (based in Brussels, consisting of ‘commissioners’ and which
represents the EU as a whole)
(b) Decisions of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) based in Luxembourg (e.g.
decisions in competition law cases)
 Recommendations and Opinions: issued by the Commission or the Council (consisting
of Ministers from member states and which adopts legislation proposed
by the Commission). Such Recommendations and Opinions are persuasive in
nature rather than binding. (The ECJ adjudicates on disputes between member
states relating to alleged violations of treaties as well as making rulings on the
correct interpretation of EU legislation.)
English (UK) law
UK legislation is created by the UK Parliament (Parliament). This legislation is in
the form of ‘statutes’, also known as ‘Acts of Parliament’. There is in addition a subordinate
source of law which is drawn-up under powers specifically delegated by
particular statutes. (For instance ‘statutory instruments’ are a main source of this
‘secondary’ legislation, often containing the ‘small-print’ of a statute). There is no
written constitution in England whereby a Supreme Court is empowered to declare
a blatantly unfair Act of Parliament invalid (such as exists in the USA). (Also note
that in the US each state has its own law-making powers and justice system. There
is however an over-riding system of ‘Federal law’ as well as a more centralised appeal
court system consisting of an Appeals Court and ultimately the Supreme
Court.)
Case-law
There is a general principle in English law that courts must interpret the wording
of legislation literally (i.e. by attributing the literal meaning to each word, regardless
of how perverse an interpretation that may lead to). Courts are provided
with some assistance in interpreting the meaning and intended purpose of legislation.
E.g.
 The statute may provide definitions of words or clauses used within the statute
 The Interpretation Act 1978 (which provides definitions for a range of standard
words and phrases commonly used in statutes)
 English dictionaries
 Hansard (transcripts of the actual debates by members of Parliament concerning
the particular legislation and its enactment)
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English courts are required to interpret legislation in accordance with the Human
Rights Act 1998. They are also required to interpret statutes in accordance with
European Union law. This means that UK courts are now adopting the European
approach to interpretation (i.e. by interpreting legislation in light of the intended
purpose of the legislation as opposed to purely on a literal interpretation).
There are many instances however in which the intended purpose or specific
meaning of legislation is in doubt and has to be further interpreted. Similarly, the
law often has to be interpreted in relation to specific circumstances. It is the courts
which then interpret the law. In doing so, an English court adheres to the doctrine of
binding precedent. This is a concept whereby a Judge is bound to rule consistently
with previous decisions by a higher court on similar points of law and circumstances
when making a finding in a particular case. It is very unusual however for
two cases to be exactly the same in terms of facts and circumstances and lawyers
will often try therefore to distinguish a previous court decision which is adverse to
their particular case. If satisfied that the present can be distinguished from an earlier
case (i.e. a precedent) then the precedent need not be binding on the present case in
regard to determining its decision.
Areas of law
In broad terms, English law can be classified into civil law and criminal law.
Civil law
Civil law is concerned with the legal rights and obligations of individuals and
organisations in relation to each other and includes a wide range of law including:
 tort law (e.g. the car crash case in Chapter 8)
 contract (e.g. the case in Chapter 7)
 employment law (Chapter 10)
 land law
 company and commercial law.
Thus the remedy in civil law usually involves monetary compensation, i.e. damages
and/or some other remedy such as an injunction.
Criminal law
Criminal law addresses law enforcement in the sense of the state or police authority
prosecuting individuals or organizations for having committed crimes.
Crimes can involve violence, for instance grievious bodily harm (GBH) and murder.
A crime can also be committed in the course of commercial activity however,
such as by committing fraud. In criminal law a Defendant is charged with a crime
and prosecuted. The prosecution is brought by a prosecutor. The Defendant will
plead guilty or not guilty. He or she will then be found guilty or not guilty by the
court, being convicted if found guilty and acquitted if found not guilty. Rather than
damages being awarded the Defendant will then be sentenced by way of punishment.
(Although the court may also make a compensation order, requiring the
convicted person to pay some monetary compensation to his victim.)
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The court system
Civil courts
The High Court
The High Court of England and Wales consists of three divisions, namely:
Chancery (Ch) Division; Family Division; Queen’s Bench (QB) Division.
The Chancery Division hears actions such as bankruptcy, copyright and mortgage
cases. The Family Division deals with matrimonial cases, i.e. divorce etc. The
Queen’s Bench Division deals with higher value and more complex civil cases (such
as tort cases for personal injury worth over £50,000) and breach of contract cases
(such as the case of Travelgraph v Matrix Printers in Chapter 7).
The County Court
There are approximately 250 County Courts throughout England and Wales. They
generally handle lesser value civil claims (e.g. personal injury cases worth under
£50,000 and breach of contract claims up to £15,000).
Tribunals
There are a range of tribunals for various matters such as immigration, rent reviews
and employment law cases. The latter are known as Employment Tribunals (you
considered an Employment Tribunal case in Chapter 10).
Court of Appeal (civil division)
Hears appeals from the lower courts, i.e. County and High Courts.
House of Lords
Ultimate UK appeal court. Appeals to the House of Lords (HL) are only possible on
a point of law. A HL case is usually heard by five ‘Lords of Appeal in ordinary’
(more commonly referred to as ‘Law Lords’).
European Court of Justice
A court or tribunal may refer a case to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for clarification
of any aspect of EU law if necessary in order to deliver its judgment.
Criminal courts
Magistrates’ Courts
Generally hear less serious criminal cases
Crown Courts
Crown Court cases are heard in front of a Judge and jury, the Judge adjudicating
and directing on the law and a jury deciding on the facts of the case. Crown Courts
also hear appeals from Magistrates’ Courts.
Court of Appeal (criminal division)
Hears appeals from the Crown Court
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Appendix 1  Study and research guide
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Finding the law
UK statutes are published by Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO) as well as in
publications such as Halsbury’s Statutes (which summarises and explains English
law in straightforward English). There are also various series of law reports including
The All England Law Reports (All ER) and The Weekly Law Reports (WLR). (A law
report is a transcript of the court’s decision in a particular case). Quality newspapers
such as The Times and The Financial Times regularly report cases in abbreviated
form. Developing the habit of reading law reports will assist in further developing
your vocabulary. Electronic sources via the internet are however an increasingly
effective way of conducting legal research. Some of the most useful of these sources
are therefore provided in the following section.
Electronic sources
A number of ‘on-line’ resources are fee-paying subscription services. However a
wide range of legal databases are available free on-line. The following is a nonexhaustive
list of legal resources available free on the internet. You should however
always satisfy yourself of the suitability of the sources you access.
www.curia.eu.int (ECJ judgments)
www.hmso.gov.uk
www.parliament.uk
www.lawreports.co.uk
www.courtservice.gov.uk (Court forms and judgments etc)
www.companieshouse.org.uk/
www.thelawyer.com/
There are also a number of ‘link-sites’ and ‘gate-ways’ which may assist in locating
useful legal websites. For instance:
www.ials.sas.ac.uk/eagle-i.htm (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies)
www.venables.co.uk/legal
www.bailii.org
www.barcouncil.org.uk (The Bar Council)
www.lawsociety.org.uk/home.law (The Law Society)
www.law.cam.ac.uk/jurist/index.htm
House of Lords
Final appeal venue for criminal cases. (Appeal must be on a point of law.)

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Law analysis and study
When researching law or undertaking the study of law (whether at undergraduate
or post-graduate level) you will obviously encounter statutes and case-law.
Reading statutes
The excerpt on p. 156 shows the first page of a typical statute, namely the Human
Rights Act 1998. Most statutes are referred to by their ‘short title’ in this way. The longer
title which follows then describes in more detail the purpose and aims of the statute.
Reading case-law
Note carefully the name of the case. This includes the names of the parties
(Claimant’s name followed by Defendant’s name) followed by what is known as the
citation. This normally includes the year of the case report along with details of the
volume / page number of the law report series where the report can be located.
When referring to a case it is necessary to cite the case, in other words provide the
case citation, for example: Series 5 Software Ltd v Clarke (1996) 1 All ER 853 (indicating
the names of the parties and where the case can be found, i.e. in volume 1 of the
All England Law Reports at page 853).
When reading a case also note carefully the court which decided the case (taking
account of its authority, i.e. is it a High Court or a House of Lords decision). Many
case reports have a headnote which can be very useful since this provides a summary
of the facts and decision. It will also set out the fundamental legal principles on
which the judgment is based (known as the ratio decidendi).
When writing coursework etc. grammar remains important, as does the need to
use plain English which is clear in meaning and concise. As a general rule however
remember that academic English involves using the ‘third person’ (e.g. ‘he’, ‘they’
and ‘it’ etc. as opposed to ‘I’ or ‘you’ etc.) and the ‘passive’ voice instead of the
‘active’ voice.
Finally, keep a written record of your legal research. The following form may
assist you with this.

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RESEARCH SHEET
Summary of the purpose of the research

Appendix 1  Study and research guide
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Search words (identify here the main area of law or subject of the problem – e.g. if researching
law concerning car crashes words such as ‘personal injury’, ‘tort’,’negligence’
and ‘accident’ would be relevant search words)
Research trail (details of cases read and other legal materials read such as statutes and
their sources)
Details of research findings and conclusions

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158
Appendix 2
Glossary
The following is a glossary (guide) of legal terminology. Please note however that this glossary is
for guidance only and is not intended as an exhaustive or comprehensive source of definitions.
The meanings provided are those commonly associated with the words and phrases in a legal
context and it should be borne in mind that those same words and phrases may have a different
meaning in a different context.
Acknowledgement of Service Court form
used by a party to legal proceedings to confirm
receipt of a Statement of Case (such as a claim
form).
Acquittal A finding by a court of not guilty to
a criminal charge.
Action Legal proceedings / Claim.
Advocacy Representing a party by means of
spoken submission to a court or tribunal.
Advocate A court lawyer.
Affidavit A written statement sworn on oath.
Agenda An itinerary or list of matters for discussion
at a meeting.
Aggravated Damages Additional compensation
awarded by a court to compensate for
particularly objectionable conduct on the part
of the Defendant.
Agreement Contract or arrangement agreed
orally or in writing between different parties.
Alibi A defence to a criminal charge based on
the contention that the accused was elsewhere
when the crime is alleged to have been committed.
Appeal Challenge to the validity or correctness
of a decision of a court or tribunal (usually
based on the contention that the law was incorrectly
interpreted).
Appellant Term used to describe a party appealing
against a court or tribunal decision.
Applicant Person or organisation commencing
Employment Tribunal proceedings or
making an application to court for a specific
remedy prior to trial.
Arrest The physical seizure of an individual
(normally by a policeman) on suspicion of a
crime having been committed by that individual
or to prevent a crime being committed.
Attorney American term for lawyer.
Bail The release of an individual from police
custody pending further appearance by that
person in court or at a police station.
Barrister A lawyer who is a specialist court
advocate and referred to as ‘counsel’ (often being
instructed by a solicitor to appear in court
on behalf of a client).
Brief to Counsel Set of instructions prepared
by a solicitor and provided to a barrister, setting
out details of a case (including relevant facts
and law etc.) to enable the barrister to provide
representation in court on behalf of a client.
Burden of Proof Term used to indicate
which party the onus is placed on to establish
or prove a case and to what degree. E.g. in a
civil case the burden of proof is on the
Claimant to establish the case on the ‘balance

of probabilities’ (whereas in a criminal case
the prosecution must normally establish the
case beyond all reasonable doubt).
Case-law Law created by court decisions, i.e.
law created by cases which provide precedents
of relevance for future legal disputes (see
‘Precedent’ below).
Cause of Action The legal grounds or basis
of a claim or ‘action’ commenced in court (e.g.
breach of contract).
Case A legal dispute between specific parties.
Certificate of Incorporation Certificate issued
by the Registrar of Companies confirming
that a company has been incorporated (i.e.
legally recognised as having been created).
Chambers Has two main meanings: (1) to refer
to a hearing in private as opposed to in
open court (ref. to as being ‘in chambers’) and
(2) to refer to a barrister’s place of work (‘counsel’s
chambers’).
Charge Allegation (usually in writing) of specific
criminal conduct against an individual.
(That individual is then said to have been
‘charged’ – such as with theft for instance.)
Civil Action / Proceedings Legal action based
on a civil right (as opposed to a criminal action)
such as breach of contract, for instance.
Claim Form Court form used to commence
legal proceedings in court.
Class Action A legal action commenced in
the name of one or a few named Claimants on
behalf of a class of Claimants.
Client Term used by lawyers to refer to their
‘customers’.
Common Law Legal rules and principles
founded on court decisions as opposed to
statutes or similar written laws or regulations.
Conference with Counsel Meeting between a
barrister and a client (usually in the presence of
a solicitor).
Contempt of Court Refusal or failure to comply
with a court order or requirement.
Contingency Fees Fees charged by a lawyer
for legal work which are based on a percentage
of the damages recovered on behalf of that
client. (Generally only permissible in the USA
albeit contingency fees can be charged in Employment
Tribunal cases in the UK.)
Contract A legally enforceable agreement.
Contributory Negligence Degree to which a
Claimant is deemed to have contributed to or
caused the accident or degree of injury for
which damages are being claimed. (Damages
can be reduced to reflect this degree of contributory
negligence.)
Conviction A finding by a court or tribunal
that an individual is guilty of the offence
charged. (That person is then said to have been
‘convicted’ of the offence charged–e.g. theft.)
Corroboration Evidence from an independent
source which substantiates a party’s
version of events.
Costs Term used to refer to legal costs or expenses
of legal work conducted by lawyers on
behalf of clients.
Counsel Term used to refer to a barrister.
(Barristers awarded the distinction of being
known as ‘Queen’s Counsel’ are known as
‘senior counsel’; also a term in the US for an
attorney.)
Counsel’s Opinion Legal advice proposed by
a barrister.
Counterclaim A claim by a Defendant in
legal proceedings who in turn alleges that he
has a legal claim against the Claimant.
County Court Civil court which usually deals
with lower value civil cases.
Court List List or schedule prepared by a
court which provides details of the date and
time that each trial or hearing is scheduled for.
Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority
(CICA) A Government scheme to provide
monetary compensation to victims of crimes of
violence.
Appendix 2  Glossary
159

Cross-Examination Questioning of a witness
in court by a party other than the party, calling
that particular witness to provide evidence.
Crown Court Criminal court of the Supreme
Court of England and Wales with jurisdiction
over the most serious criminal cases. (There are
a number of Crown Courts located throughout
England and Wales.)
Custodial Sentence A sentence of imprisonment
by a court or tribunal.
Damages Monetary compensation (such as
for personal injury).
Defence Statement of case setting out the legal
grounds and details on which a Defendant
is defending legal proceedings being pursued
against that Defendant.
Defendant The party to legal proceedings
against whom the claim is being made by the
Claimant.
Deposition A written or recorded witness
statement taken on oath.
Directions A list of steps or instructions,
usually issued by a court, setting out the specific
actions which each party in a legal action
is required to comply with prior to the case
being heard in court. (In order to ensure that
the legal proceedings concerned proceed efficiently
and that the parties in the case have
properly prepared their cases in readiness for
trial.)
Director Individual with management responsibilities
within a company. (All directors
of a company are collectively referred to as the
‘board of directors’.)
Disbursements Costs incurred in the course
of legal work other than a solicitor’s fees (e.g.
travelling expenses and fees payable to expert
witnesses).
Discontinuance A situation whereby the
Claimant in civil proceedings voluntarily confirms
that the case is no longer being pursued
(i.e. is being ‘discontinued’).
Disclosure Revealing to another party to legal
proceedings the past or present existence of
evidential material (usually documents) which
may be relevant to the case.
Discovery The process whereby each party to
legal proceedings reveals details of documentation
and information in their possession which
may be relevant to the case. (Thereby providing
another party in the case with the opportunity
to inspect or obtain copies of such material. The
court usually orders that discovery should take
place simultaneously between the parties.)
District Judge A judicial officer of the County
Court who acts as judge in many straightforward
County Court cases.
Documentary Evidence Evidence in written
form (e.g. letters and contracts etc.).
Evidence Information and material (such as
witness testimony and documentation) relevant
to a case and on which a court or tribunal
bases its findings.
Evidence in Chief Evidence elicited from a
witness by the party calling that witness.
Examination in Chief Questioning of a witness
in court by the party calling that particular
witness to give evidence.
Exemplary Damages Additional compensation
awarded by a court amounting to more
than the actual losses sustained by a party and
intended as a penalty to reflect the court’s particular
disapproval of the Defendant’s conduct.
(Usually only awarded in US courts, where
some exemplary damages awards have
amounted to hundreds of millions of dollars.)
Ex parte A hearing in court which takes place
with one of the parties to the proceedings being
absent. (A more modern equivalent phrase
now commonly used is ‘without notice’.)
Expert Witness Witness called to provide
evidence involving professional expertise in a
particular field which is relevant to a particular
case (e.g. a doctor).
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160

Express Term Term or provision in an agreement
which is specifically (i.e. expressly) stated
or written.
Extraordinary General Meeting Any general
(shareholders’) meeting of a company other
than its Annual General Meeting (AGM).
Further and Better Particulars More specific
detail or information of a specific aspect of the
case referred to in the statements of case (court
documents). (Such further detail or information
will usually be provided in response to a
request by a party for such further detail or information
in order to clarify the claim being
made.)
General Damages Compensation which can
only be determined by reference to previous
cases of a similar nature or by the court (including
for instance damages for pain and
suffering).
High Court Civil court which deals with
higher value civil cases.
I.e. Abbreviation for Latin phrase ‘id est’ and
meaning ‘that is’ or ‘in other words’.
Illegal Against the law. (E.g. stealing is illegal.)
Implied Term Term of an agreement not expressly
stated but recognised in law by virtue
of the obvious understanding between the parties
or by their conduct or the circumstances of
the agreement. (An implied term can also be
imposed by statute, e.g. implied term of satisfactory
quality.)
In Camera In private. (E.g. a court hearing
closed to the public is sometimes referred to as
being ‘in camera’.)
Injunction A court order compelling a person
to do or refrain from doing something.
In Open Court A trial or court hearing in
public.
Instructions to Counsel Written information
prepared by a solicitor and provided to a barrister
to enable that barrister to provide advice
to a client or to draft legal documentation on
behalf of a client. Such ‘instructions to counsel’
usually include a summary of the facts of the
case, relevant law and any relevant supporting
documentation.
Interim Order An order made by a court
prior to the final trial or hearing of a particular
case (e.g. an order for directions setting out the
further steps each party is required to take
prior to trial).
Interlocutory Application / Hearing / Order
An application to court, court hearing or court
order made prior to trial.
Inter partes Term used to refer to a court
hearing at which all parties are present (as opposed
to an ‘ex-parte’ hearing at which at least
one party is absent).
Interrogatory A request for further information.
Issue (of Proceedings) To commence legal
proceedings by lodging relevant papers at
court (such as a claim form). (This is referred to
as ‘issuing proceedings’.)
Judge Trier or adjudicator of a case responsible
for making findings of law (and sometimes
of fact albeit also see ‘jury’ below).
Judg(e)ment A decision or declaration of the
court, usually setting out the court’s findings
and details of any damages (compensation) or
other remedy which the court has decided to
grant to any party in the case.
Jurisdiction The authority to decide and enforce
the law. (E.g. the County and High Courts
have jurisdiction to try breach of contract cases
in England and Wales.)
Jury Group of individuals (usually 12) who
make findings of fact in the most serious criminal
cases (usually in the Crown Court in
England and Wales).
Intellectual Property Law relating to copyright,
rights to inventions (patents) and
trademarks etc.
Law A system of rules and regulations governing
and determining permissible conduct
within society.
Appendix 2  Glossary
161

Leading Question A question which suggests
the answer or which implies the existence of
some particular fact(s) or circumstances.
Leave Permission. (E.g. to seek ‘leave of the
court’ is to seek permission of the court.)
Legal Privilege A legal right to refuse to disclose
or produce documentation or other
evidence on the basis of some special interest
recognised by law. (Typically relating to the
legally recognised right for discussions and
correspondence between lawyer and client to
remain ‘privileged’ and thus protected from
disclosure.)
Letter Before Action Correspondence sent by
a prospective Claimant or his legal advisor intimating
to another party an intention to
commence legal action against that other party
along with brief details of the proposed legal
action. (Note that a more modern equivalent is
‘letter of claim’.)
Letter of Claim Modern term for ‘letter before
action’ (see above).
Liability Legal responsibility to comply with
or discharge a legal obligation or indebtedness.
Limitation Period The time-limit prescribed
by law in which a Claimant must commence a
claim in court. Failure to issue the claim in
court within this time-limit will usually result
in the Claimant losing the legal right to pursue
that particular claim. (E.g. the limitation period
for a personal injury claim is three years in the
UK.)
Listing for Trial Procedure for providing the
court with final documentation and information
in order to enable the court to finalise a
date for trial.
Litigant A party to legal proceedings (i.e. to
litigation – see below).
Litigation Legal action / proceedings involving
a dispute between parties.
Liquidated Damages A term used to refer to
a specifically quantifiable amount of monetary
compensation which a Claimant is seeking
from another party. (I.e. a sum which can be
precisely calculated as opposed to an amount
which is variable at the court’s discretion.)
Locus Location of an incident, particularly of
an accident.
Magistrates’ Court Criminal Court in England
and Wales which tries the relatively less
serious criminal cases. (Usually conducted by a
‘Magistrate’.)
Member A company shareholder.
Minutes Record of matters discussed and
decided in the course of directors’ and shareholders’
meetings.
Minor An individual under 18 years of age.
Mitigation A term used in criminal law to
refer to submissions seeking to justify or at
least provide some explanation for a party’s
conduct and aimed at persuading a court or
tribunal to show some sympathy towards that
party. (See also ‘Mitigation of Damages’
below.)
Mitigation of Damages A term used in civil
law to refer to efforts made by a Claimant to
minimise or alleviate loss and damage sustained.
Negligence Used in a legal sense to refer to a
failure to comply with a duty of care towards
others imposed by law or by generally accepted
standards.
Oral Evidence Spoken (as opposed to documentary)
evidence.
Party Person or organisation entering into an
agreement or engaged in legal proceedings.
Plaintiff Person or party commencing a legal
action. Note that the term ‘Claimant’ is now
used in English courts in place of ‘Plaintiff’ (the
term ‘Plaintiff’ still being in general use however
in American courts).
Pleadings A term previously used to refer to
the court documents setting out each party’s
case and now largely superseded by the term
‘Statements of Case’.
Appendix 2  Glossary
162

Poll Means of voting at shareholders’ meetings
whereby votes on a particular resolution
are counted on the basis of the number of voting
shares held by each person voting (as
opposed to ‘on a show of hands’).
Precedent Existing document, draft or court
decision which is relevant to and used as the
basis for subsequent legal drafting or decisions.
(‘Doctrine of Precedent’ refers to a concept
whereby previous court decisions establish the
general legal position for subsequent legal disputes
involving similar circumstances.)
Privilege (See ‘Legal Privilege’ above.)
Proceedings Term used to refer to an ongoing
court action (known as court or legal proceedings).
Proxy An individual appointed to represent a
shareholder at a shareholders’ meeting.
Quantum (of Damages) The level or amount
of monetary compensation (damages) awarded
by a court or agreed between the parties to a
case by negotiation.
Quash Over-rule or annul a previous court
decision.
Queen’s Counsel A title bestowed on barristers
who have demonstrated a high level of
professional expertise and competence. Barristers
appointed as ‘Queen’s Counsel’ may use
the letters ‘QC’ after their names and are sometimes
referred to as ‘silks’ or ‘Leading Counsel’.
Quorum Minimum number required to be
present at a meeting in order for decisions
taken at that meeting to be valid.
Registered Office Official address of a company
as recorded with the Registrar of
Companies at which official documents and legal
proceedings can be served on a company.
Registrar of Companies Official responsible
for maintaining the ‘Company Registry’
recording details of incorporated companies.
Remedy The specific means by which a party
receives restitution or satisfaction for loss
caused by another. (E.g. the usual remedy for
personal injury is damages.)
Resolution A decision made by members of a
company.
Respondent Person defending an application
to court for a specific order or defending Employment
Tribunal proceedings.
Return Date Date set by a court for an interlocutory
hearing.
Restrictive Covenant Clause to prevent an employee
competing etc. with his/her employer.
Rights of Audience Right to appear in and
address a particular court or tribunal.
Service Provision or delivery of court documentation
(such as a claim form or notice of a
forthcoming court hearing etc.). A person receiving
such documentation is referred to as
having been ‘served’.
Set Aside A subsequent order or direction
from a court cancelling a previous judgment or
order (referred to as ‘setting aside’ the previous
order or direction).
Setting Down for Trial Now usually referred
to as ‘listing for trial’. (See ‘Listing for Trial’
above.)
Settlement An agreement reached between
parties to a legal dispute which concludes that
dispute.
Shareholder Owner of shares in a company
(i.e. who is a ‘member’ of that company).
Solicitor A lawyer who prepares cases and
legal transactions on behalf of a client (often instructing
a barrister to provide representation
in court).
Special Damages Actual financial losses which
can be specifically ascertained as having been incurred
between the date the cause of action arose
and the date of trial. (E.g. loss of earnings up to
trial and property damage sustained etc.)
Standard of Proof The criterion or degree of
proof required in order for a party to establish
its case. (E.g. in civil cases the standard of proof
Appendix 2  Glossary
163

Appendix 2  Glossary
164
is ‘on the balance of probabilities’ whereas in a
criminal case it is usually ‘beyond all reasonable
doubt’.)
Statute Legislation in the form of written
laws and regulations (such as ‘Acts of Parliament’
created by the UK Parliament).
Stay A halt to court proceedings. Proceedings
which are thus ‘stayed’ do not continue any further
(although a stay can subsequently be ‘lifted’
to enable those proceedings to continue).
Strike Out To ‘strike out’ means that the court
has ordered that a particular aspect of a case
(such as particular written details in a statement
of case) is to be removed from the court records
and can therefore no longer be relied upon. The
court can strike out an entire case if a party is
sufficiently dilatory in complying with steps
required by the court, thereby effectively terminating
those proceedings.
Subpoena Witness summons requiring a witness
to attend court to give evidence.
Sue Informal term meaning to issue legal
proceedings.
Testimony Statement or assertion made to a
court by a witness.
Tort A breach of a duty imposed by civil law
(e.g. negligence).
Unliquidated Damages Damages (monetary
compensation) which cannot be precisely
quantified upon commencement of legal proceedings
(as opposed to liquidated damages
which can–see above).
Vicarious Liability A legal concept whereby
a person or entity can be held liable for the
fault or wrongdoing of another. (A typical example
of this is an employer being liable for
the negligence of an employee acting in the
course of his employment, i.e. vicariously
liable.)
Without Prejudice A legal concept whereby
oral or written communication can be entered
into between parties with a view to reaching a
negotiated settlement. I.e. on the basis that the
details of such communication cannot be disclosed
to the court or relied upon in court in
the event that a settlement is not achieved.
Writ Court form traditionally used to commence
legal proceedings in court. (Note that
claim forms are now used far more commonly
for commencing legal proceedings.)

165
Appendix 3
Answer key
Chapter 1
Exercise 2
1. Each shareholder’s liability is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares
held by him/her
2. £50,000
3. Form 10; Form 12; Memorandum of Association; Articles of Association
4. The Memorandum and Articles of Association
5. No– a sole director cannot also be the company secretary
6. Certificate of Incorporation
Exercise 3
Memorandum of Association
(1) Maplink Limited
(2) Maplink Limited
(3) limited
(4) £250,000
(5) DIMITRIS YAVAPRAPAS, THE MANOR, 2 QUEEN ELIZABETH STREET,
LONDON, SE1 5NP
(6) GISELA WIRTH, 15 ROBIN HOOD WAY, MANSFIELD, NOTTINGHAM, NG2
7CX
(7) TWENTY-FIVE THOUSAND
(8) TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY THOUSAND
Form 10

Appendix 3  Answer key
166

Appendix 3  Answer key
167

Appendix 3  Answer key
168

Appendix 3  Answer key
169
Form 12
(1) Maplink Limited
(2) Stringwood & Evans, 18 Bond Street, London, W1 1KR; Tel – 020 7538 2892 –DX
Number 12432 – DX Exchange London 1
Exercise 4
1. appeal against
2. went against
3. decide against
4. enter into
5. negotiate with
6. act for
1. (c) resolved 4. (c) presented 7. (d) resolutions
2. (b) appointed 5. (b) convened 8. (a) declared
3. (d) registered 6. (b) provided
Chapter 2
Exercise 1
Chapter 3
Exercise 2
(1) Notice (3) passing (5) special
(2) for the purpose of (4) resolutions (6) appointed
Exercise 2
1. Conducting (or holding) a meeting
2. Over 50% of the votes cast
3. This means that each person present at the meeting has one vote, votes being
counted on a ‘show of hands’
4. To avoid the need for directors to travel to attend a meeting in a particular place
(which may be particularly inconvenient for instance if some directors are based
abroad)
5. For any reason connected with the management of the company. E.g. to consider
appointing further directors or to change the name of the company
6. The minimum number required to be present in order for decisions taken at the
meeting to be valid
Continued

Appendix 3  Answer key
170
Exercise 3
(1) noted (5) director (9) show
(2) declared (6) chairman (10) closed
(3) proposed (7) unanimously
(4) ordinary (8) special
(7) Travelgraph (9) vote
(8) convene (10) member
Exercise 4
1. The vote being 100% for or against the resolution
2. Member of a company
3. A situation whereby the number of votes for and against a resolution are exactly
the same
4. An additional vote, usually provided to the chairman in the event that there is a
deadlock of votes (as referred to in question 3 above). The casting vote is then
used to break such a deadlock (but cannot be used to create a deadlock)
5. To arrange / provide notice of a meeting
6. No. (However it is permissible for a company to stipulate in its articles that, in
order to qualify to become a director, an individual must own a specified minimum
shareholding)
7. 14 days
8. 21 days – because a special resolution (to change the name of the company) is being
proposed at the meeting and a special resolution requires 21 days’ notice.
(Note however that this notice requirement can be avoided provided at least 95%
of the shareholders agree to shorter notice)
9. Any member entitled to vote at the meeting may appoint someone else (who
need not be a shareholder) to go along to the meeting and vote on their behalf.
The notice calling an extraordinary general meeting (EGM) must make clear that
each member has the right to appoint a proxy. (Note that there is a growing trend
for notices of company meetings to be provided to members electronically)
Exercise 5
(1) in (4) regarding (7) to
(2) of (5) by (8) From
(3) with (6) from

Appendix 3  Answer key
171
Exercise 6
Form 288a
(1) 04041969
(2) Kadir
(3) Salleh
(4) 4 Kensington Palace Gardens
(5) London
(6) W2 4AJ
(7) United Kingdom
Form NC 19
(1) Maplink Limited
(2) Extraordinary General (delete Annual General / General)
(3) 44 Princess Diana Walk, South Kensington, London, W2 3SL
(4) 15th day of May 2006
(5) Travelgraph Limited
Chapter 4
Exercise 1
1. 10 July 2006 (clause 2.1)
2. three years (clause 2.1)
3. to promote and develop business (clause 3.1.1)
4. £75,000 per annum (clause 4.1)
5. company vehicle (clause 5) and pension scheme (clause 6)
6. yes – there is a restraint of trade clause preventing Kadir Salleh from competing
for 12 months (clause 9)
7. English law (clause 10)
8. He does not hold any shares in the company despite being a director. A Bushell v
Faith clause would not therefore be of any assistance to him
1. service agreement
2. terms and conditions
3. definitions
4. employment
5. remuneration
6. entitlement
7. confidentiality
8. intellectual property
9. restraint of trade
10. jurisdiction
Exercise 2

Appendix 3  Answer key
172
Exercise 3
(1) Section 303 (10) ordinary (19) remove
(2) shareholders (11) vote (20) ordinary
(3) director (12) representations (21) compensation
(4) resolution (13) shareholders (22) breach of contract
(5) majority (14) voted (23) notice
(6) shares (15) notice (24) removal
(7) resolution (16) meeting (25) negotiating
(8) shareholding (17) agreement (26) settlement / agreement
(9) pass (18) fixed-term
Exercise 4
1. shareholders 3. representations 5. ordinary resolution
2. shareholding 4. shareholders’ meeting 6. fixed-term contract
Exercise 5
1. another agreement
2. can protect a company’s trade secrets
3. English law
4. a breach of contract claim
5. per s. 303 Companies Act 1985
Chapter 5
Exercise 1
Task 1
1. false 2. true 3. true 4. false
Task 2
1. Many ‘high street’ brands – e.g. McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)
2. commission
3. From the ‘mark-up’ between the price paid to the supplier and the sales price to
the distributor’s ultimate customer
4. Sharing of risk / cost / knowledge / skills etc.

Appendix 3  Answer key
173
Exercise 2
(1) hereby (4) furthermore (7) In addition
(2) further (5) hereby (8) during
(3) Moreover (6) henceforth (9) within
Exercise 3
Task 1
This agreement shall continue in force / for a period of two years save and except
that it may / be terminated by either party providing to the other / three calendar
months notice in writing.
Task 2
In the event that / the Agent fails to achieve a minimum total sales amount of /
£750,000 within / twelve months of the commencement of this Agreement / the
Principal shall be entitled / to terminate this Agreement / by notifying the Agent in
writing accordingly.
Exercise 4
(a) Suggested draft:
The Principal further agrees to pay a bonus to the Agent amounting to 1% of total
net sales in the event that: the agent achieves sales exceeding £1,250,000 within the
first year from commencement of this Agreement.
(b)
At the end of clause 4 entitled ‘REMUNERATION’, possibly adding a further
paragraph marked ‘4.2’.
Chapter 6
Exercise 2
(1) Travelgraph Limited (4) Solicitor (7) sent to prison
(2) Kadir Salleh (5) set aside this order (8) Respondent
(3) prohibits you from doing (6) Contempt of Court (9) Worldlink Limited
(delete ‘obliges you to do’)
Continued

Appendix 3  Answer key
174
Exercise 3
1. A situation whereby the law is unclear or has not been drafted with sufficient
precision. Such a ‘legal loophole’ can result in the law being interpreted in a way
which results in possible evasion of the purpose or protection which the law was
intended to provide.
2. This means that the court order or legal document has been drafted to cover
every possible eventuality and to prevent the purpose of the order or document
being defeated (such as by a ‘legal loophole’ as described above).
3. Jargon means professional or technical terminology used by professionals in that
particular field. Legal jargon therefore refers to professional expressions commonly
used by lawyers.
4. A member of the public who is not a member of a particular profession.
5. This means failing to comply with some important requirement or condition
which has been imposed by a court. In practice this usually relates to being in
breach of the terms of a court order.
6. A legally enforceable term (usually contained in a person’s contract of employment
or service contract) which prevents a person working for a competitor or
competing with a former employer for a specified period of time.
7. This means that assets belonging to the Respondent can be physically taken from
the Respondent by order of the Court in the event that the Respondent does not
comply with the injunction order. (Including for instance in this case any computer
disks or files etc. belonging to Travelgraph Limited.)
(10) Worldlink Limited (13) to the Court (16) Name– Stringwood &
Evans ; Address – 18 Bond
Street, London, W1 1KR ;
Tel No – 020 7538 2892
(11) confidential information (14) Order
relating to Travelgraph
(12) Respondent shall pay (15) Applicant’s
the Applicant
Exercise 4
1. may 2. must 3. may 4. must / should
Exercise 5
1. left 2. joined 3. has worked 4. received / consulted

Appendix 3  Answer key
175
Chapter 7
Exercise 1
1. Examples of types of contract include: employment; sale of goods; hire of goods;
supply of services; agency; lease
2. Civil law
3. The specific details of what has been agreed between the parties (typically including
price, delivery time, quantity of goods purchased and payment details etc.)
4. Implied and express
5. Law established through court decisions (see Appendix 1 for more details)
6. An Act of Parliament (see Appendix 1 for more details)
7. The Claimant
8. There is an implied term in law that goods sold in the course of a business must
be of satisfactory quality. I.e. that the goods are of a standard which a reasonable
person would regard as satisfactory. (Taking account for instance of matters such
as how the goods were described, their price and fitness for all purposes for
which goods of that type are commonly used)
Exercise 2
1. act on behalf of 4. express term 7. satisfactory proposals
2. contract 5. breach of contract 8. legal proceedings
3. our instructions 6. proposals to compensate
Exercise 3
Old-Fashioned Language Equivalent Modern Language
aforesaid stated previously
aver / plead contend / allege
in camera in private
in open court in public
save that / save insofar except that
Plaintiff claimant
pleading statement of case
prescribed by provided by / indicated by
undernoted noted below
writ claim form

Appendix 3  Answer key
176
Exercise 4
(1) damages (3) Claimant (5) recover
(2) contract (4) claims (6) Matrix Printers Limited
Exercise 5
The correct words or phrases (i.e. those which should not have been deleted) are as
follows
(1) Claimant (7) 100 (13) 50
(2) Defendant (8) implied term (14) loss and damage
(3) written contract (9) Contract (15) £200,000
(4) 1 August 2007 (10) Claimant (16) pursuant to
(5) £45,000 (11) In breach of (17) Claimant
(6) express term (12) aforesaid (18) Damages
Exercise 6
1. which / that 2. that / which 3. whom 4. who
Chapter 8
Exercise 1
1. False – (sentence 1 confirms that the writer will act for Nicholas Tiessen)
2. False – (the writer is a solicitor within the Litigation Department – paragraph 1)
3. True – (explained in paragraph 3)
4. False – (see 1st sentence in paragraph 4)
5. True – (see 2nd sentence in paragraph 4)
6. False – (see 5th paragraph)
Exercise 2
Task 1
Compound Simple Form
in the event that if
at a later date later
as a consequence of because

Appendix 3  Answer key
177
Task 2
Suggested answer:
American courts award higher damages in personal injury cases then English
courts.
(Please note that the sentence can be re-written in alternative ways which may be equally
suitable)
Exercise 3
1. Negligent driving caused the accident.
2. A consultant orthopaedic surgeon diagnosed a whiplash injury.
3. A physiotherapist is treating the Claimant.
4. A local garage will assess the extent of damage to the car.
Exercise 4
1. am having 2. was driving 3. works 4. landed
Exercise 5
Task A
1. Matthew Gluck (1st Defendant) and Londinium Delivery Company Limited
(2nd Defendant)
2. Honda
3. 21 September 2007
4. At the junction between Oxford Street and Regent Street
5. Chelsea & Westminster Hospital
6. Computer programmer
7. £4,000
8. £12,000
9. Since the 1st Defendant (Matthew Gluck) was acting in the course of his employment
with Londinium Delivery Company Limited when the accident
occurred
10. Possible answers include: professional negligence; clinical negligence; an accident
in the workplace; a train accident; an aircraft accident etc.
until such time as until
similar to like
at that particular time then
prior to before
in close proximity to near

Appendix 3  Answer key
178
Exercise 6
car accident admissible evidence client’s file
legal privilege undisputed facts independent witness
Exercise 7
take a statement settle out of court serve particulars of claim
settle the case negotiate settlement award damages
admit liability
Exercise 8
(1) car accident (3) independent witness (5) settlement proposals
(2) take a statement (4) award damages (6) negotiate settlement
Chapter 9
Exercise 2
Task 2
Examples include:
GOOD FACTS BAD FACTS
Defendant does not have good eyesight Defendant alleges traffic lights were green in
his favour
Defendant has been convicted of careless Defendant alleges Claimant was driving too
driving fast
(this will assist in establishing liability
against him in the civil case)
Defendant drove into the side of the Defendant alleges Claimant went through a
Claimant’s vehicle, which appears red traffic light
to support the Claimant’s version
of events
Task 3
(1) am (3) was driving (5) was coming
(2) witnessed (4) was (6) heading

Appendix 3  Answer key
179
Continued
Chapter 10
Exercise 1
1. Section 94 of the Employment Rights Act 1996 provides / the legal right not to be
unfairly dismissed.
2. An employee normally requires one year’s service / to be eligible to claim unfair
dismissal.
3. An unfair dismissal claim must be issued / within three months.
4. An unfair dismissal claim is heard at / an Employment Tribunal.
5. An employer should permit an employee to / state his case when considering
dismissal.
6. An employer suspecting misconduct should / investigate the circumstances.
Exercise 2
1. 16 March 2003 and 26 April 2007
2. Legal cashier
3. Theft of client monies
4. Yes – conduct
5. The fact that he’d turned up for work driving a new Ferrari
6. Having recently won the National Lottery
7. A letter from the organisers of the National Lottery confirming his win
8. Bannerman and Law:
failed to conduct a proper investigation prior to dismissing Charles
did not give Charles an opportunity to provide an explanation
did not hold a disciplinary hearing
dismissed Charles in public
Overall there was no valid or acceptable reason for the dismissal, which was also
procedurally unfair
Exercise 3
(1) began (3) working (5) told
(2) was employed (4) having (6) given
(7) was driving (12) proceeded (17) was holding
(8) was travelling (13) began (18) appeared
(9) approached (14) caught (19) came
(10) could (15) was heading (20) braked
(11) were showing (16) could

Appendix 3  Answer key
180
Exercise 4
Suggested draft for Section 7 of the Notice of Appearance (Form IT3):
1. The Respondent is a city firm of solicitors with its head-office in London and four
overseas offices. The firm has 40 partners and approximately 22 associate solicitors.
The Respondent specialises in international corporate and commercial work.
2. On 26 April 2007 the Respondent’s Managing Partner, Henry Moore, became
aware that £2 million had been misappropriated from the firm’s client account. It
was essential that the source of this theft be ascertained without delay in order to
safeguard the firm’s reputation.
3. The Respondent denies that the Applicant was unfairly dismissed as alleged. The
aforesaid Henry Moore made a valid managerial decision to dismiss the Applicant
based on reasonable suspicion of gross misconduct. It was reasonable for
Henry Moore to come to the conclusion that the Applicant had stolen the missing
£2 million. The Applicant was ostentatiously displaying wealth, having arrived
at work on 26 April 2007 in a new Ferrari motor car. He did not explain to the Respondent
that he had won the National Lottery. The Applicant was therefore responsible
for his dismissal as a result of his own actions.
4. Convening a disciplinary hearing would have been fruitless in the particular circumstances.
The Applicant was therefore summarily dismissed on 26 April 2007.
The Respondent had reasonable grounds to believe that the Applicant was guilty
of gross misconduct. The Respondent was accordingly entitled to dismiss the Applicant,
the dismissal being fair and reasonable in all the circumstances.
(7) arrived (11) told (15) dismissed
(8) driving (12) arrived (16) contend
(9) entering (13) informed (17) denied
(10) shouting (14) explained (18) to provide
Exercise 5
1. call for the witness 3. take down a statement
2. draw up a court order 4. sue for damages
Exercise 6
1. strongly suggest 5. extremely fruitful 9. deliberately mislead
2. extremely generous 6. substantially increase 10. refrain from
3. solemnly declare 7. severely injured 11. dismissed without notice
4. successfully defended 8. totally objective 12. settle out of court

Appendix 3  Answer key
181
Exercise 8
(c) aggressive form (‘A’)
(d) diplomatic form (‘D’)
(e) aggressive form (‘A’)
(f) diplomatic form (‘D’)
Exercise 11
(Large and small markings above each group of words represent the main and lesser stress
patterns, respectively.)
de-ci-sion mis-con-duct de-clare
pro-ced-ure ad-mis-sion con-si-dered
re-pre-sen-ta-tive tri-bu-nal hear-ing
al-le-ga-tion con-duct e-vi-dence
mis-a-pro-pri-a-tion in-for-ma-tion wrong-do-ing
dis-mis-sal in-ves-ti-ga-tion Re-spon-dent
fair-ness em-ploy-er
Exercise 12
Suggested answers:
Task 1
1. Henry Moore said that he had got the Ferrari driving swindler.
2. Scoville was told that he was being dismissed immediately.
3. He read the article in the local newspaper about the firm winning a case.
4. Charles Scoville said that he had been dismissed from his job recently.
5. The solicitor said that she would try to negotiate a settlement for him.
Task 2
1. ‘How do you account for the Ferrari in the car-park?’
2. ‘You are being dismissed so return the office keys immediately.’
Exercise 7
(1) applicant (5) dismissal (9) mitigate
(2) Employment Tribunal (6) disciplinary hearing (10) award
(3) instructions (7) misconduct (11) damages
(4) unfairly dismissed (8) prospects of success (12) settlement
– . – – . – – .
– . – – . – – . –
– – . – – – . – . –
– –. – . – .– –
– – – – . – – – . – – . –
– . – – – – . – – . –
. – – . –

Appendix 3  Answer key
182
Law bulletin
Text 1 – ‘Which route – solicitor or barrister?’
Exercise 1
1. A barrister usually provides representation in court (i.e. is a court advocate). A
solicitor is usually the first point of contact for a client and prepares the client’s
case, briefing a barrister to actually appear in court on behalf of the client
2. One year
3. Two years
4. Solicitors, since they usually take initial instructions from the client and brief a barrister
for specific tasks, particularly to provide advocacy in court on behalf of a client
5. There are various specialist areas including: corporate work; personal injury;
mergers and acquisitions; residential and commercial property; employment law;
criminal law; company and commercial law
6. Factors such as the areas of work which the barrister’s chambers specializes in
and the type of work the barrister is instructed to undertake in the first few years
of practice
7. Chambers
8. Over to you on this one!
Exercise 2
1. litigation/advocacy
2. barristers
3. billing targets
4. bar vocational
5. legal practice
6. briefed/instructed
Text 2 – ‘Having cross words in the courtroom’
Exercise 3
witness statement cross examination High Court
open question jury trial examination in chief
Exercise 4
1. closing submissions 3. witnesses’ evidence 5. advocacy
2. propositions 4. supports your case 6. cross-examiners
3. ‘You have a meritorious claim for unfair dismissal Mr Scoville.’
4. ‘Bannerman and Law have treated Mr Scoville reprehensibly and I have no hesitation
in declaring that Mr Scoville has been unfairly dismissed.’
5. ‘I am pleased with the Tribunal’s award of £18,000.’

Appendix 3  Answer key
183
Text 3 – ‘Asian tigers prepare to spring’
Exercise 5
1. finance and corporate
2. Japan
3. China
4. Places such as Myanmar / Laos / Cambodia
5. Foreign direct investment
6. form full partnerships with local lawyers or employ local lawyers
Exercise 6
1. fly-in, fly-out basis 3. strategy review 5. downsized
2. booming 4. withdraw 6. on the cards
Exercise 7
1. has developed 3. opened 5. showing
2. met 4. closed 6. providing
Exercise 8
Task 1
weather the storm / survive a difficult situation
on the cards / likely to happen
hit rock bottom / to be at the lowest point
downsized / reduced
hard market to crack / difficult market to enter
ear to the ground / monitor events
flavour of the month / currently popular
Task 2
1. on the grapevine 3. Scot free 5. bury the hatchet
2. raining cats and dogs 4. eager beaver 6. red tape

Appendix 3  Answer key
184
Exercise 9
Task 1
1. highest 2. least 3. most 4. fastest
Text 4–‘Shopping around’
Task 2
1. bigger 2. more 3. more 4. stronger
Exercise 10
1. shopping around 3. to take 5. start
2. dealing 4. bringing 6. suing
Exercise 11
1. Furthermore 3. therefore 5. On the other hand
2. To begin with / firstly 4. as a result 6. however

185
Index
Acknowledgement of Service 157
acquittal 157
active voice 53–4, 79, 154
Acts of Parliament see statutes
addressing the court 96
adverbs 15, 55
advising 50–2
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS)
Code of Practice on Disciplinary Procedure 123
advocacy 90–101, 132, 133, 135, 158
agency agreement 45, 48–9, 52
agreements, drafting of 47
All England Law Reports (All ER) 153, 154
annual accounts 6, 15
annual general meeting (AGM) 22, 161
appeal hearing 123
apostrophe 20, 54
articles (of company) see Articles of Association
Articles of Association 6, 14, 22, 32, 43
articles of incorporation 6
audio-visual conferencing 16
bankruptcy 152
barristers 93–4, 116, 131–3, 158, 159, 161, 163
‘billing targets’ 132
binding precedent 151
boardroom disputes 32–43
board meetings 6, 16–19, 21
characteristics of 16–17
‘body language’ see non-verbal communication
Boys and Girls Society v MacDonald 123
breach of contract 33, 43, 66–7, 73, 74, 75, 152,
159, 161
remedies for 75
breach of duty 76, 85, 164
brief to counsel 94–5, 96–7, 158
British Home Stores v Burchell 1980 ICR 103, 123
Bushell v Faith clause 32, 43
bylaws 6
case analysis 92
case-law 150, 154, 159
case-plan 119
casting vote 22
causation 74, 76, 85
Certificate of Incorporation 6, 27, 159
citation 154
civil courts 152, 159, 161
civil law 151, 152
Civil Procedure Rules 69
claim form 69, 71, 158, 159, 161, 163, 164
clauses 49, 50
collocations 83–4, 85, 136
list of 87–9
colon 54
combining nouns 19–20
commas 54
commercial law 151
Commission, the (EU) 150
Companies Acts 5, 32, 43
Companies House 6
company
chairman 22
change of name 23, 24, 25, 27, 30
characteristics of 5, 14–15
constitution 30
formation of 5–15
law 5, 22, 151
limited 5, 14–15
officers 6
pension scheme 34
private 5
public 5
secretary 6, 75
vehicle 34
comparatives 142
compensation 66, 67, 76, 85, 86, 126, 151, 158, 160,
161, 163, 164
compound nouns 20
conditional sentences 43–4
confidentiality 34, 52, 61
clause 42
conjunctions 44
consideration 74
contingency fees 143, 148, 159
contract law 66, 67, 74–5, 151
contracts 66, 67, 74, 158, 159
contributory negligence 86, 159
convening meetings 30
copyright cases 152, 161
counsel see barristers
court of appeal 152
court system, the 152–3
criminal courts 152–3, 162

Index
186
criminal law 151
cross-examination 91, 101, 120, 143, 160
techniques 134–6
damage 74, 80, 85
damages 33, 43, 78, 81, 85–6, 97, 103, 143, 151, 159,
160, 161, 163
aggravated 158
exemplary 160
general 85, 161
in tort 85–6
liquidated 162
mitigation of 162
special 86, 163
unliquidated 164
deadlock 22
decisions 150
defamation 85, 144
disbursements 160
discourse markers see sentence connectors
directives 150
direct speech 125, 127
directors 6, 14, 16, 17, 19, 22, 30, 32, 75, 160
appointment of 23, 24, 25, 27
removal of 32–3, 36–7, 38, 43
directors’ meetings 16, 21
disciplinary hearing 103, 108, 123, 126
discrimination 116, 126
dismissal, acceptable reasons for 125
distribution agreement 46, 53
dividend 15
divorce 145, 152
duty of care 76, 85, 162
electronic sources 153
employer’s liability 85
Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) 126
employment law 102–6, 151
Employment Rights Act (ERA) 1996 102, 103, 123, 125
Employment Tribunal (ET) 102, 103, 104–5, 108, 114,
116–24, 126, 152, 158, 159, 163
decision 122–4
hearing 119–21
English law 150–3
European Community law competition rules 46, 53
European Communities Act 1972 149
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 150, 152
European Union 149
European Union law 149, 151
evidence in chief 134, 160
examination in chief 90–1, 101, 120, 160
expert evidence 97
expert witness 135, 160
extraordinary general meeting (EGM) 22, 23, 30, 161
Form 10 6, 7, 14
Form 12 6, 7, 14
forum non conveniens 143
forum shopping 43–5
franchise agreement 46, 53
full stops 54
gerunds 146
grounds for dismissal 102
Halsbury’s Statutes 153
Hansard 150
headnotes 154
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 85
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO) 153
High Court 152, 154, 161
House of Lords 152, 153, 154
Human Rights Act 1998 151, 154
hyphenated nouns 19–20
Iceland Frozen Foods v Jones 1983 ICR 124
idioms 141–2
incorporated companies 5, 6
information gathering 50
injunction orders, drafting of 59–60, 61–3
injunctions 59–64, 66, 151, 161
inseparable particles 15
intellectual property 144, 161
inter-personal skills 96
Interpretation Act 1978 150
interpreting legislation 150–1
interviewing 50–2
joint venture agreement 46, 53
land law 151–2
law analysis 154–5
law of tort 76, 151, 152 see also torts
Law Reform (Contributory Negligence)
Act 1945 86
law reports 153, 154
leading questions 91, 101, 135, 162
legal executives 131
legal privilege 162
legal proceedings 69, 162, 163
legislation 149–51, 164
literal interpretation of 150, 151
letter of advice 36–7
letter of claim 68, 69, 162
limitation period 162
limited liability 5
limited liability companies, characteristics
of 14–15
litigation 90, 92, 131, 132, 143, 144–5, 162
loss 74, 80, 86, 103, 126, 163
marketing agreements 45–53
members’ meetings see also shareholders’ meetings
Memorandum of Association 6, 7, 14

Index
187
minutes 17–18, 23, 30, 162
preparing 24–5
misrepresentation 85
mitigation 86, 162
modes of address (in court) 96, 101
mortgage cases 152
multi-national companies 16
negligence 76, 80, 85, 97, 162, 164
negotiation 38–42, 43, 114, 163, 164
styles of 116
negotiation feedback form 40, 42
non-leading questions 91, 101
non-verbal communication (NVC) 96
Notice of Appearance 108, 119
notice of meeting 22, 23–4
Opinions 150
Particulars of Claim 69, 72, 74, 75, 79, 80–1, 86
particulars of injury 81
passive voice 53–4, 79, 86, 154
past continuous tense 86–7
past perfect 64, 65, 126
past simple 64, 65, 87, 126
personal injury claims 143, 144, 152
personal liability 14
plain English 60, 69–70, 153, 154
plural nouns 20
poll 22, 162
possessive forms 20
post-meeting documentation 27, 30
post-meeting requirements 26–7
precedents 72, 151, 159, 163
pre-nuptial agreement 145
prepositions 26–7, 30–1
US usage of 31
present continuous tense 86
present perfect 65
private limited company 14
privity of contract 45, 52
pronouns 126
prosecution 151
proxy 24, 163
public limited company 14
punctuation 54
question forms 101
question mark 54
quorum 6, 18, 25, 30, 163
quotations 54
quotation marks 127
ratio decidendi 154
Recommendations 150
Registrar of Companies 6, 15, 27, 159, 163
regulations 149, 159, 161, 164
relative clauses 75
relative pronouns 31, 73, 75
reported speech 124–5, 126–7
research sheet 156
resolutions 16, 19, 22, 30, 163
elective 22
extraordinary 22
ordinary 22, 24, 30, 32, 43
special 22, 24, 30
written 22
restraint of trade 35, 61
restrictive covenants 60
right of appeal 103, 108, 126
rights of audience 116, 132, 163
Sale of Goods Act 1979 66, 97
semi-colon 54
sentence connectors (discourse markers) 146–7
separable particles 15
service agreement 33, 34–5, 61
service contract 30, 43
settlement 40, 43, 163, 164
settling out of court 114
share capital 14, 15, 30
shareholders 5, 6, 14, 15, 21, 22, 30, 32, 163
shareholders’ meetings 16, 21–30, 32, 43, 163
share values 15
shares 5, 6, 14, 15
show of hands 16, 22, 163
simple majority 16, 19, 22, 43
solicitors 93–4, 116, 131–3, 158, 159, 161, 163
standard of proof 163–4
statements of case 69, 72, 92, 158, 161, 162, 164
statement of truth 75
statutes 150, 151, 153, 154, 159, 164
statutory duties 85
stock phrases 69–70
subpoena 164
superlatives 142
Supreme Court 150
Supreme Court Act 1981 73
surrogacy laws 145
terms of agreement
express 66, 74
implied 66, 74, 97
terms of engagement 34
terms of settlement 114
third person, the 154
torts 76, 85, 163 see also law of tort
treaties 149
tribunals 152, 158, 159 see also Employment Tribunal
unanimous agreement 26, 116, 122, 124
unfair dismissal 102–12, 116, 122–4, 125–6
United Kingdom law, sources of 149–53
US competition law 46

verbatim, meaning of 127
ver,b, auxiliary 101
verbs
infinitives 146
modal 64, 65, 79, 86, 127
multi-word 14, 15
phrasal 113
tenses 64, 65, 79, 86, 126, 141
vicarious liability 76, 80, 85, 164
vocabulary building 83, 85, 153
voting 16, 19, 22, 163
rights 15, 22, 30, 32
Weekly Law Reports (WLR) 153
without prejudice proposals 114, 164
witness statements 92, 93, 117–18, 120, 126, 134, 160
Index
188


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