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国际条约惯例  
关税与贸易总协定
作者:赵丽娜律师发布   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-03-29 14:00:00

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

关税与贸易总协定

Signatory: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Date of Signature: 10/30/1947
Validity Status: Valid
缔约方: 关贸总协定
缔约时间: 10/30/1947
效力状态: 有效

Text

正文

The Governments of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Kingdom of Belgium, the United States of Brazil, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, the Republic of Chile, the Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, the Czechoslovak Republic, the French Republic, India, Lebanon, the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Kingdom of Norway, Pakistan, Southern Rhodesia, Syria, the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America:
Recognizing that their relations in the field of trade and economic endeavour should be conducted with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, developing the full use of the resources of the world and expanding the production and exchange of goods,
Being desirous of contributing to these objectives by entering into reciprocal and mutually advantageous arrangements directed to the substantial reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade and to the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international commerce,
Have through their Representatives agreed as follows:
    缔约各国政府,
    认为在处理它们的贸易和经济事业的关系方面,应以提高生活水平、保证充分就业、保证实际收入和有效需求的巨大持续增长、扩大世界资源的充分利用以及发展商品的生产与交换为目的。
    切望达成互惠互利协议,导致大幅度地削减关税和其它贸易障碍,取消国际贸易中的歧视待遇,以对上述目的作出贡献。
    经各国代表谈判达成如下协议:
PART I
    第一部分
Article I    General Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment
1. With respect to customs duties and charges of any kind imposed on or in connection with importation or exportation or imposed on the international transfer of payments for imports or exports, and with respect to the method of levying such duties and charges, and with respect to all rules and formalities in connection with importation and exportation, and with respect to all matters referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article III,* any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by any contracting party to any product originating in or destined for any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product originating in or destined for the territories of all other contracting parties.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not require the elimination of any preferences in respect of import duties or charges which do not exceed the levels provided for in paragraph 4 of this Article and which fall within the following descriptions:
(a) Preferences in force exclusively between two or more of the territories listed in Annex A, subject to the conditions set forth therein; 
(b) Preferences in force exclusively between two or more territories which on July 1, 1939, were connected by common sovereignty or relations of protection or suzerainty and which are listed in Annexes B, C and D, subject to the conditions set forth therein;
(c) Preferences in force exclusively between the United States of America and the Republic of Cuba;
(d) Preferences in force exclusively between neighbouring countries listed in Annexes E and F.
3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to preferences between the countries formerly a part of the Ottoman Empire and detached from it on July 24, 1923, provided such preferences are approved under paragraph 5 , of Article XXV which shall be applied in this respect in the light of paragraph 1 of Article XXIX.
4. The margin of preference* on any product in respect of which a preference is permitted under paragraph 2 of this Article but is not specifically set forth as a maximum margin of preference in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement shall not exceed:
(a) in respect of duties or charges on any product described in such Schedule, the difference between the most-favoured-nation and preferential rates provided for therein;  if no preferential rate is provided for, the preferential rate shall for the purposes of this paragraph be taken to be that in force on April 10, 1947, and, if no most-favoured-nation rate is provided for, the margin shall not exceed the difference between the most-favoured-nation and preferential rates existing on April 10, 1947;
(b) in respect of duties or charges on any product not described in the appropriate Schedule, the difference between the most-favoured-nation and preferential rates existing on April 10, 1947.
In the case of the contracting parties named in Annex G, the date of April 10, 1947, referred to in subparagraph (a) and (b) of this paragraph shall be replaced by the respective dates set forth in that Annex.
    第一条  一般最惠国待遇
    1.在对输出或输入、有关输出或输入及输出入货物的国际支付转帐所征收的关税和费用方面,在征收上述关税和费用的方法方面,在输出和输入的规章手续方面,以及在本协定第三条第2款及第4款所述事项方面,一缔约国对来自或运往其它国家的产品所给予的利益、优待、特权或豁免,应当立即无条件地给予来自或运往所有其它缔约国的相同产品。
    注指有注释和补充规定,见附件九。以下同。
    2.任何有关进口关税或费用的优惠待遇,如不超过本条第4款规定的水平,而且在下列范围以内,不必按本条第1款的规定予以取消:
    (甲)本协定附件一所列两个或两个以上的领土之间专享的现行优惠待遇,但以不违反这个附件所订的条件为限;
    (乙)本协定附件二、附件三和附件四所列已于1939年7月1日以共同主权、保护关系或宗主权互相结合的两个或两个以上的领土之间专享的现行优惠待遇,但以不违反这些附件所订的条件为限;
    (丙)美利坚合众国和古巴共和国之间专享的现行优惠待遇;
    (丁)本协定附件五和附件六所列的毗邻国家之间专享的现行优惠待遇。
    3.原属于奥托曼帝国后于1923年7月24日分离出来的国家之间实施的优惠待遇,如能按本协定第二十五条第5款的规定予以批准,应不受本条第1款规定的约束。对这个问题运用本协定第二十五条第5款,应参考本协定第二十九条第1款。
    4.按本条第2款可以享受优惠待遇的任何产品,如在有关减让表中未特别规定所享受的优惠就是优惠最高差额,则应按以下规定办理:
    (甲)对有关减让表内列明的任何产品的关税和费用,这一产品的优惠差额应不超过表列的最惠国税率与优惠税率的差额;表中对优惠税率若未作规定,应以1947年4月10日有效实施的优惠税率作为本条所称的优惠税率;
    表中对最惠国税率若未作规定,其差额应不超过1947年4月10日所实施的最惠国税率与优惠税率的差额;
    (乙)对有关减让表内未列明的任何产品的关税和费用,这一产品的优惠差额应不超过1947年4月10日所实施的最惠国税率与优惠税率的差额。
    对于本协定附件七所列的各缔约国、本款(甲)项及(乙)项所称1947年4月10日的日期,应分别以这个附件所列的日期代替。
Article II    Schedules of Concessions
1. (a) Each contracting party shall accord to the commerce of the other contracting parties treatment no less favourable than that provided for in the appropriate Part of the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement.
(b) The products described in Part I of the Schedule relating to any contracting party, which are the products of territories of other contracting parties, shall, on their importation into the territory to which the Schedule relates, and subject to the terms, conditions or qualifications set forth in that Schedule, be exempt from ordinary customs duties in excess of those set forth and provided therein.   Such products shall also be exempt from all other duties or charges of any kind imposed on or in connection with the importation in excess of those imposed on the date of this Agreement or those directly and mandatorily required to be imposed thereafter by legislation in force in the importing territory on that date.
(c) The products described in Part II of the Schedule relating to any contracting party which are the products of territories entitled under Article I to receive preferential treatment upon importation into the territory to which the Schedule relates shall, on their importation into such territory, and subject to the terms, conditions or qualifications set forth in that Schedule, be exempt from ordinary customs duties in excess of those set forth and provided for in Part II of that Schedule.  Such products shall also be exempt from all other duties or charges of any kind imposed on or in connection with importation in excess of those imposed on the date of this Agreement or those directly or mandatorily required to be imposed thereafter by legislation in force in the importing territory on that date.  Nothing in this Article shall prevent any contracting party from maintaining its requirements existing on the date of this Agreement as to the eligibility of goods for entry at preferential rates of duty.
2. Nothing in this Article shall prevent any contracting party from imposing at any time on the importation of any product:
(a) a charge equivalent to an internal tax imposed consistently with the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article III* in respect of the like domestic product or in respect of an article from which the imported product has been manufactured or produced in whole or in part;
(b) any anti-dumping or countervailing duty applied consistently with the provisions of Article VI;*
(c) fees or other charges commensurate with the cost of services rendered.
3. No contracting party shall alter its method of determining dutiable value or of converting currencies so as to impair the value of any of the concessions provided for in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement.
4. If any contracting party establishes, maintains or authorizes, formally or in effect, a monopoly of the importation of any product described in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement, such monopoly shall not, except as provided for in that Schedule or as otherwise agreed between the parties which initially negotiated the concession, operate so as to afford protection on the average in excess of the amount of protection provided for in that Schedule.  The provisions of this paragraph shall not limit the use by contracting parties of any form of assistance to domestic producers permitted by other provisions of this Agreement.*
5. If any contracting party considers that a product is not receiving from another contracting party the treatment which the first contracting party believes to have been contemplated by a concession provided for in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement, it shall bring the matter directly to the attention of the other contracting party.  If the latter agrees that the treatment contemplated was that claimed by the first contracting party, but declares that such treatment cannot be accorded because a court or other proper authority has ruled to the effect that the product involved cannot be classified under the tariff laws of such contracting party so as to permit the treatment contemplated in this Agreement, the two contracting parties, together with any other contracting parties substantially interested, shall enter promptly into further negotiations with a view to a compensatory adjustment of the matter.
6. (a) The specific duties and charges included in the Schedules relating to contracting parties members of the International Monetary Fund, and margins of preference in specific duties and charges maintained by such contracting parties, are expressed in the appropriate currency at the par value accepted or provisionally recognized by the Fund at the date of this Agreement.  Accordingly, in case this par value is reduced consistently with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund by more than twenty per centum, such specific duties and charges and margins of preference may be adjusted to take account of such reduction;  provided that the CONTRACTING PARTIES (i.e., the contracting parties acting jointly as provided for in Article XXV) concur that such adjustments will not impair the value of the concessions provided for in the appropriate Schedule or elsewhere in this Agreement, due account being taken of all factors which may influence the need for, or urgency of, such adjustments.
(b) Similar provisions shall apply to any contracting party not a member of the Fund, as from the date on which such contracting party becomes a member of the Fund or enters into a special exchange agreement in pursuance of Article XV.
7. The Schedules annexed to this Agreement are hereby made an integral part of Part I of this Agreement.
    第二条  减让表
    1.(甲)一缔约国对其它缔约国贸易所给的待遇,不得低于本协定所附这一缔约国的有关减让表中有关部分所列的待遇。
    (乙)一缔约国领土的产品如在另一缔约国减让表的第一部分内列名,当这种产品输入到这一减让表所适用的领土时,应依照减让表的规定、条件或限制,对它免征超过减让表所列的普通关税。对这种产品,也应免征超过于本协定签订之日对输入或有关输入所征收的任何其它税费,或免征超过于本协定签订之日进口领土内现行法律规定以后要直接或授权征收的任何其它税费。
    (丙)一缔约国领土的产品如在另一缔约国减让表的第二部分内列名,当这种产品输入到这一减让表所适用的领土,按照本协定第一条可以享受优惠待遇时,应依照减让表的规定、条件或限制,对它免征超过减让表所列的普通关税。对这种产品,也应免征超过于本协定签订之日对输入或有关输入所征收的任何其它税费,或免征超过于本协定签订之日进口领土内现行法律规定以后要直接或授权征收的任何其它税费。但本条的规定并不妨碍缔约国维持在本协定签订的关于何种货物可按优惠税率进口的已有规定。
    2.本条不妨碍缔约国对于任何输入产品随时征收下列税费:
    (甲)与相同国产品或这一输入产品赖以全部或部分制造或生产的物品按本协定第三条第2款所征收的国内税相当的费用;
    (乙)按本协定第六条征收的反倾销税或反贴补税;
    (丙)相当于提供服务成本的规费或其它费用。
    3.缔约国不得变更完税价格的审定或货币的折合方法,以损害本协定所附这一缔约国的有关减让表所列的任何减让的价值。
    4.当缔约国在形式上或事实上对本协定有关减让表列名的某种产品的进口建立、维持或授权实施某种垄断时,这种垄断平均提供的保护,除减让表内有规定或经原谈判减让的各缔约国另有议定的以外,不得超过有关减让表所列的保护水平。但本条的规定,并不限制缔约国根据本协定的其它规定,向本国生产者提供任何形式的援助。
    5.如果一缔约国相信某一产品应享受的待遇在本协定所附另一缔约国的减让表所订的减让中已有规定,并认为另一缔约国未给予此种待遇时,这一缔约国可以直接提请另一缔约国注意这一问题。后一缔约国如同意减让表所规定的待遇确系对方所要求的待遇,但声明:由于本国法院或其它有关当局的决定,按照本国税法有关产品不能归入可以享受减让表的应有待遇的一类,因而不能给予这项待遇时,则这两个缔约国,连同其它有实质利害关系的缔约国,应立即进一步进行协商,以便对这一问题达成补偿性的调整办法。
    6.(甲)缔约国若是国际货币基金的成员国,其减让表所列的从量关税和费用以及其维持的从量关税和费用的优惠差额,系以这一国家的货币按照国际货币基金在本协定签订之日所接受或临时认可的平价表示。因此,当这项平价按国际货币基金协定的规定降低达20%时,上述从量关税和费用以及优惠差额可根据平价的降低作必要的调整;但须经缔约国全体(指按本协定第二十五条采取联合行动的缔约各国)同意这种调整不致损害本协定有关减让表及本协定其它部分所列减让的价值,而对于与调整的必要性和紧迫性有关的一切因素,都应予以适当考虑。
    (乙)对于不是国际货币基金成员国的缔约国,自其成为国际货币基金的成员国或按照本协定第十五条签订特别汇兑协定之日起,上述规定也应适用。
    7.本协定所附的各减让表,应视为本协定第一部分的组成部分。
PART II
    第二部分
Article III    National Treatment on Internal Taxation and Regulation
1. The contracting parties recognize that internal taxes and other internal charges, and laws, regulations and requirements affecting the internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use of products, and internal quantitative regulations requiring the mixture, processing or use of products in specified amounts or proportions, should not be applied to imported or domestic products so as to afford protection to domestic production.*
2. The products of the territory of any contracting party imported into the territory of any other contracting party shall not be subject, directly or indirectly, to internal taxes or other internal charges of any kind in excess of those applied, directly or indirectly, to like domestic products.  Moreover, no contracting party shall otherwise apply internal taxes or other internal charges to imported or domestic products in a manner contrary to the principles set forth in paragraph 1.*
3. With respect to any existing internal tax which is inconsistent with the provisions of paragraph 2, but which is specifically authorized under a trade agreement, in force on April 10, 1947, in which the import duty on the taxed product is bound against increase, the contracting party imposing the tax shall be free to postpone the application of the provisions of paragraph 2 to such tax until such time as it can obtain release from the obligations of such trade agreement in order to permit the increase of such duty to the extent necessary to compensate for the elimination of the protective element of the tax.
4. The products of the territory of any contracting party imported into the territory of any other contracting party shall be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to like products of national origin in respect of all laws, regulations and requirements affecting their internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use.  The provisions of this paragraph shall not prevent the application of differential internal transportation charges which are based exclusively on the economic operation of the means of transport and not on the nationality of the product.
5. No contracting party shall establish or maintain any internal quantitative regulation relating to the mixture, processing or use of products in specified amounts or proportions which requires, directly or indirectly, that any specified amount or proportion of any product which is the subject of the regulation must be supplied from domestic sources.  Moreover, no contracting party shall otherwise apply internal quantitative regulations in a manner contrary to the principles set forth in paragraph 1.*
6. The provisions of paragraph 5 shall not apply to any internal quantitative regulation in force in the territory of any contracting party on July 1, 1939, April 10, 1947, or March 24, 1948, at the option of that contracting party;  Provided that any such regulation which is contrary to the provisions of paragraph 5 shall not be modified to the detriment of imports and shall be treated as a customs duty for the purpose of negotiation.
7. No internal quantitative regulation relating to the mixture, processing or use of products in specified amounts or proportions shall be applied in such a manner as to allocate any such amount or proportion among external sources of supply.
8. (a) The provisions of this Article shall not apply to laws, regulations or requirements governing the procurement by governmental agencies of products purchased for governmental purposes and not with a view to commercial resale or with a view to use in the production of goods for commercial sale.
(b) The provisions of this Article shall not prevent the payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers, including payments to domestic producers derived from the proceeds of internal taxes or charges applied consistently with the provisions of this Article and subsidies effected through governmental purchases of domestic products.
9. The contracting parties recognize that internal maximum price control measures, even though conforming to the other provisions of this Article, can have effects prejudicial to the interests of contracting parties supplying imported products. Accordingly, contracting parties applying such measures shall take account of the interests of exporting contracting parties with a view to avoiding to the fullest practicable extent such prejudicial effects.
10. The provisions of this Article shall not prevent any contracting party from establishing or maintaining internal quantitative regulations relating to exposed cinematograph films and meeting the requirements of Article IV.
    第三条  国内税与国内规章的国民待遇
    1.缔约各国认为,国内税和其它国内费用,影响产品的国内销售、推销、购买、运输、分配或使用的法令、条例和规定,以及对产品的混合、加工或使用须符合特定数量或比例要求的国内数量限制条例,在对进口产品或国产品实施时,不应用来对国内生产提供保护。
    2.一缔约国领土的产品输入到另一缔约国领土时,不应对它直接或间接征收高于对相同的国产品所直接或间接征收的国内税或其它国内费用。同时,缔约国不应对进口产品或国产品采用其它与本条第1款规定的原则有抵触的办法来实施国内税或其它国内费用。
    3.与本条第2款有抵触的现行实施的国内税,如果是1947年4月10日有效的贸易协定中所特别规定允许征收的,而且在有关贸易协定中还规定了凡已征收这种国内税的产品,它的进口关税即不能任意增加,则征收这种国内税的缔约国,可以推迟实施本条第2款的规定,直到在贸易协定中所承担的义务得到解除,它能够增加进口关税以补偿国内税保护因素的取消之时为止。
    4.一缔约国领土的产品输入到另一缔约国领土时,在关于产品的国内销售、推销、购买、运输、分配或使用的全部法令、条例和规定方面,所享受的待遇应不低于相同的国产品所享受的待遇。但本款的规定不应妨碍国内差别运输费用的实施,如果实施这种差别运输费用纯系基于运输工具的经济使用而与产品的国别无关。
    5.缔约国不得建立或维持某种对产品的混合、加工或使用须符合特定数量或比例的国内数量限制条例,直接或间接要求某一特定数量或比例的条例对象产品必须由国内来源供应。缔约国还不应采用其它与本条第1款规定的原则有抵触的办法来实施国内数量限制条例。
    6.本条第5款的规定不适用于1939年7月1日,或1947年4月10日,或1948年3月24日(各缔约国可以从这三个日期中自行选择一个日期)在一个缔约国领土内有效实施的国内数量限制条例;但这种条例如与本条第5款的规定有抵触,不应采取损害进口货的利益的办法来加以修改,应该把它们当做关税来进行谈判。
    7.任何对产品的混合、加工或使用须符合特定数量或比例要求的国内数量限制条例,在实施时不得把这种数量或比例在不同的国外供应来源之间进行分配。
    8.(甲)本条的规定不适用于有关政府机构采购供政府公用、非商业转售或非用以生产供商业销售的物品的管理法令、条例或规定。
    (乙)本条的规定不妨碍对国内生产者给予特殊的补贴,包括从按本条规定征收国内税费所得的收入中以及通过政府购买国产品的办法,向国内生产者给予补贴。
    9.各缔约国认为,规定国内物价最高限额的管理办法,即使符合本条的其它规定,对供应进口产品的缔约国的利益,可能产生有害的影响。因此,实施这种办法的缔约国,应考虑出口缔约国的利益,以求在最大可能限度内,避免对它们造成损害。
    10.本条的规定不妨碍缔约国建立或者维持符合本协定第四条要求的有关电影片的国内数量限制条例。
Article IV    Special Provisions relating to Cinematograph Films
If any contracting party establishes or maintains internal quantitative regulations relating to exposed cinematograph films, such regulations shall take the form of screen quotas which shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) Screen quotas may require the exhibition of cinematograph films of national origin during a specified minimum proportion of the total screen time actually utilized, over a specified period of not less than one year, in the commercial exhibition of all films of whatever origin, and shall be computed on the basis of screen time per theatre per year or the equivalent thereof;
(b) With the exception of screen time reserved for films of national origin under a screen quota, screen time including that released by administrative action from screen time reserved for films of national origin, shall not be allocated formally or in effect among sources of supply;
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (b) of this Article, any contracting party may maintain screen quotas conforming to the requirements of subparagraph (a) of this Article which reserve a minimum proportion of screen time for films of a specified origin other than that of the contracting party imposing such screen quotas;  Provided that no such minimum proportion of screen time shall be increased above the level in effect on April 10, 1947;
(d) Screen quotas shall be subject to negotiation for their limitation, liberalization or elimination.
    第四条  有关电影片的特殊规定
    缔约国在建立或维持有关电影片的国内数量限制条例时,应采取符合以下要求的放映限额办法:
    (甲)放映限额可以规定,在不短于一年的指定时间内,国产电影片的放映应在各国电影片商业性放映所实际使用的总时间内占一定量低比例;
    放映限额应以每年或其相当期间内每一电影院的放映时间作为计算基础。
    (乙)除根据放映限额为国产电影片保留的放映时间以外,其它放映时间,包括原为国产电影片保留后经管理当局开放的时间在内,不得正式或实际上依照电影片的不同来源进行分配。
    (丙)虽有本条(乙)项的规定,任一缔约国可以维持符合本条(甲)项要求的放映限额办法,在实施这项办法的国家以外,对某一国家的电影片保留一最低比例的放映时间。
    (丁)放映限额的限制、放宽或取消,须通过谈判确定。
Article V    Freedom of Transit
1. Goods (including baggage), and also vessels and other means of transport, shall be deemed to be in transit across the territory of a contracting party when the passage across such territory, with or without trans-shipment, warehousing, breaking bulk, or change in the mode of transport, is only a portion of a complete journey beginning and terminating beyond the frontier of the contracting party across whose territory the traffic passes. Traffic of this nature is termed in this article "traffic in transit".
2. There shall be freedom of transit through the territory of each contracting party, via the routes most convenient for international transit, for traffic in transit to or from the territory of other contracting parties.  No distinction shall be made which is based on the flag of vessels, the place of origin, departure, entry, exit or destination, or on any circumstances relating to the ownership of goods, of vessels or of other means of transport.
3. Any contracting party may require that traffic in transit through its territory be entered at the proper custom house, but, except in cases of failure to comply with applicable customs laws and regulations, such traffic coming from or going to the territory of other contracting parties shall not be subject to any unnecessary delays or restrictions and shall be exempt from customs duties and from all transit duties or other charges imposed in respect of transit, except charges for transportation or those commensurate with administrative expenses entailed by transit or with the cost of services rendered.
4. All charges and regulations imposed by contracting parties on traffic in transit to or from the territories of other contracting parties shall be reasonable, having regard to the conditions of the traffic.
5. With respect to all charges, regulations and formalities in connection with transit, each contracting party shall accord to traffic in transit to or from the territory of any other contracting party treatment no less favourable than the treatment accorded to traffic in transit to or from any third country.*
6. Each contracting party shall accord to products which have been in transit through the territory of any other contracting party treatment no less favourable than that which would have been accorded to such products had they been transported from their place of origin to their destination without going through the territory of such other contracting party.  Any contracting party shall, however, be free to maintain its requirements of direct consignment existing on the date of this Agreement, in respect of any goods in regard to which such direct consignment is a requisite condition of eligibility for entry of the goods at preferential rates of duty or has relation to the contracting party's prescribed method of valuation for duty purposes.
7. The provisions of this Article shall not apply to the operation of aircraft in transit, but shall apply to air transit of goods (including baggage).
    第五条  过境自由
    1.货物(包括行李在内)、船舶及其它运输工具,经由一缔约国的领土通过,不论有无转船、存仓、起卸或改变运输方式,只要通过的路程是全部运程的一部分,而运输的起点和终点又在运输所经的缔约国的领土以外,应视为经由这一缔约国领土过境,这种性质的运输本条定名为"过境运输"。
    2.来自或前往其它缔约国领土的过境运输,有权按照最便于国际过境的路线通过每一缔约国的领土自由过境。不得以船舶的国籍、来源地、出发地、进入港、驶出港或目的港的不同,或者以有关货物、船舶或其它运输工具的所有权的任何情况,作为实施差别待遇的依据。
    3.缔约国对通过其领土的过境运输,可以要求在适当的海关报关;但是,除了未遵守应适用的海关法令条例的以外,这种来自或前往其它缔约国领土的过境运输,不应受到不必要的耽延或限制,并应对它免征关税、过境税或有关过境的其它费用,但运输费用以及相当于因过境而支出的行政费用或提供服务成本的费用,不在此限。
    4.缔约国对来自或前往其它缔约国领土的过境运输所征收的费用及所实施的条例必须合理,并应考虑运输的各种情况。
    5.在有关过境的费用、条例和手续方面,一缔约国对来自或前往其它缔约国的过境运输所给的待遇,不得低于对来自或前往任何第三国的过境运输所给的待遇。
    6.一缔约国对经由另一缔约国领土过境的产品所给的待遇,不应低于这些产品如未经另一缔约国领土过境,而直接从原产地运到目的地时所应给予的待遇。但是,如果直接运输是某些货物在进口时得以享受优惠税率的必要条件或与缔约国征收关税的某种估价办法有关,则缔约国得保留其在本协定签订之日已实施的有关直接运输的那些规定。
    7.本条的规定不适用于航空器的过境,但对空运过境货物(包括行李在内)则应适用。
Article VI    Anti-dumping and Countervailing Duties
1. The contracting parties recognize that dumping, by which products of one country are introduced into the commerce of another country at less than the normal value of the products, is to be condemned if it causes or threatens material injury to an established industry in the territory of a contracting party or materially retards the establishment of a domestic industry. For the purposes of this Article, a product is to be considered as being introduced into the commerce of an importing country at less than its normal value, if the price of the product exported from one country to another
(a) is less than the comparable price, in the ordinary course of trade, for the like product when destined for consumption in the exporting country, or,
(b) in the absence of such domestic price, is less than either
(i) the highest comparable price for the like product for export to any third country in the ordinary course of trade, or
(ii) the cost of production of the product in the country of origin plus a reasonable addition for selling cost and profit.
Due allowance shall be made in each case for differences in conditions and terms of sale, for differences in taxation, and for other differences affecting price comparability.*
2. In order to offset or prevent dumping, a contracting party may levy on any dumped product an anti-dumping duty not greater in amount than the margin of dumping in respect of such product.  For the purposes of this Article, the margin of dumping is the price difference determined in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.*
3. No countervailing duty shall be levied on any product of the territory of any contracting party imported into the territory of another contracting party in excess of an amount equal to the estimated bounty or subsidy determined to have been granted, directly or indirectly, on the manufacture, production or export of such product in the country of origin or exportation, including any special subsidy to the transportation of a particular product. The term "countervailing duty" shall be understood to mean a special duty levied for the purpose of offsetting any bounty or subsidy bestowed, directly, or indirectly, upon the manufacture, production or export of any merchandise.*
4. No product of the territory of any contracting party imported into the territory of any other contracting party shall be subject to anti-dumping or countervailing duty by reason of the exemption of such product from duties or taxes borne by the like product when destined for consumption in the country of origin or exportation, or by reason of the refund of such duties or taxes.
5. No product of the territory of any contracting party imported into the territory of any other contracting party shall be subject to both anti-dumping and countervailing duties to compensate for the same situation of dumping or export subsidization.
6. (a) No contracting party shall levy any anti-dumping or countervailing duty on the importation of any product of the territory of another contracting party unless it determines that the effect of the dumping or subsidization, as the case may be, is such as to cause or threaten material injury to an established domestic industry, or is such as to retard materially the establishment of a domestic industry.
(b) The CONTRACTING PARTIES may waive the requirement of subparagraph (a) of this paragraph so as to permit a contracting party to levy an anti-dumping or countervailing duty on the importation of any product for the purpose of offsetting dumping or subsidization which causes or threatens material injury to an industry in the territory of another contracting party exporting the product concerned to the territory of the importing contracting party. The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall waive the requirements of subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, so as to permit the levying of a countervailing duty, in cases in which they find that a subsidy is causing or threatening material injury to an industry in the territory of another contracting party exporting the product concerned to the territory of the importing contracting party.*
(c) In exceptional circumstances, however, where delay might cause damage which would be difficult to repair, a contracting party may levy a countervailing duty for the purpose referred to in subparagraph (b) of this paragraph without the prior approval of the CONTRACTING PARTIES;  Provided that such action shall be reported immediately to the CONTRACTING PARTIES and that the countervailing duty shall be withdrawn promptly if the CONTRACTING PARTIES disapprove.
7. A system for the stabilization of the domestic price or of the return to domestic producers of a primary commodity, independently of the movements of export prices, which results at times in the sale of the commodity for export at a price lower than the comparable price charged for the like commodity to buyers in the domestic market, shall be presumed not to result in material injury within the meaning of paragraph 6 if it is determined by consultation among the contracting parties substantially interested in the commodity concerned that:
(a) the system has also resulted in the sale of the commodity for export at a price higher than the comparable price charged for the like commodity to buyers in the domestic market, and
(b) the system is so operated, either because of the effective regulation of production, or otherwise, as not to stimulate exports unduly or otherwise seriously prejudice the interests of other contracting parties.
    第六条  反倾销税和反补贴税
    1.各缔约国认为,用倾销的手段将一国产品以低于正常价值的办法挤入另一国贸易内,如因此对某一缔约国领土内已建立的某项工业造成重大损害或产生重大威胁,或者对某一国内工业的新建产生严重阻碍,这种倾销应该受到谴责。本条所称一产品以低于它的正常价值挤入进口国的贸易内,系指从一国向另一国出口的产品的价格。
    (甲)低于相同产品在出口国用于国内消费时在正常情况下的可比价格;或
    (乙)如果没有这种国内价格,低于:
    (1)相同产品在正常贸易情况下向第三国出口的最高可比价格;或
    (2)产品在原产国的生产成本加合理的推销费用和利润。
    但对每一具体事例的销售条件的差异、赋税的差异以及影响价格可比性的其它差异,必须予以适当考虑。
    2.缔约国为了抵销或防止倾销,可以对倾销的产品征收数量不超过这一产品的倾销差额的反倾销税。本条所称的倾销差额,系指按本条第一款的规定所确定的价格差额。
    3.一缔约国领土的产品输入到另一缔约国领土时,对这种产品征收的反补贴税,在金额上不得超过这种产品在原产国或输出国制造、生产或输出时,所直接或间接得到的奖金或补贴的估计数额。一种产品于运输时得到的特别补贴,也应包括在这一数额以内。"反补贴税"一词应理解为:为了抵销商品于制造、生产或输出时所直接或间接接受的任何奖金或补贴而征收的一种特别关税。
    4.一缔约国领土的产品输入到另一缔约国领土,不得因其免纳相同产品在原产国或输出国用于消费时所须完纳的税捐或因这种税捐已经退税,即对它征收反倾销或反补贴税。
    5.一缔约国领土的产品输入到另一缔约国领土,不得因抵销倾销或出口补贴,而同时对它既征收反倾销税又征收反补贴税。
    6.
    (甲)一缔约国对另一缔约国领土产品的进口,除了断定倾销或补贴的后果会对国内某项已建的工业造成重大损害或产生重大威胁,或者严重阻碍国内某一工业的新建以外,不得征收反倾销税或反补贴税。
    (乙)为了抵销倾销或补贴对另一个向进口缔约国领土输出某一产品的缔约国的领土内某一工业造成的重大损害或产生的重大威胁,缔约国全体可以解除本款(甲)项规定的要求,允许这一进口缔约国对有关产品的进口征收反倾销税或反补贴税。如果缔约国全体发现某种补贴对另一个向进口缔约国领土输出有关产品的缔约国的领土内某一工业正在造成重大损害或产生重大威胁,它们应解除本款(甲)项规定的要求,允许征收反倾销税。
    (丙)然而,在某些例外情况下,如果延迟将会造成难以补救的损害,一缔约国虽未经缔约国全体事前批准,也可以对本款(乙)项所述的目的而征收反贴补税,但这项行动应立即向缔约国全体报告,如未获批准,这种反贴补税应即予撤销。
    7.凡与出口价格的变动无关,为稳定国内价格或为稳定某一初级产品生产者的收入而建立的制度,即令它有时会使出口商品的售价低于相同产品在国内市场销售时的可比价格,也不应认为造成了本条第六款所称的重大损害,如果与有关商品有实质利害关系的缔约各国协商后确认:
    (甲)这一制度也曾使商品的出口售价高于相同产品在国内市场销售时的可比价格,而且(乙)这一制度的实施,由于对生产的有效管制或其它原因,不致于不适当地刺激出口,或在其它方面严重损害其它缔约国的利益。
Article VII    Valuation for Customs Purposes
1. The contracting parties recognize the validity of the general principles of valuation set forth in the following paragraphs of this Article, and they undertake to give effect to such principles, in respect of all products subject to duties or other charges* or restrictions on importation and exportation based upon or regulated in any manner by value.  Moreover, they shall, upon a request by another contracting party review the operation of any of their laws or regulations relating to value for customs purposes in the light of these principles.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES may request from contracting parties reports on steps taken by them in pursuance of the provisions of this Article.
2. (a) The value for customs purposes of imported merchandise should be based on the actual value of the imported merchandise on which duty is assessed, or of like merchandise, and should not be based on the value of merchandise of national origin or on arbitrary or fictitious values.*
(b) "Actual value" should be the price at which, at a time and place determined by the legislation of the country of importation, such or like merchandise is sold or offered for sale in the ordinary course of trade under fully competitive conditions. To the extent to which the price of such or like merchandise is governed by the quantity in a particular transaction, the price to be considered should uniformly be related to either (i) comparable quantities, or (ii) quantities not less favourable to importers than those in which the greater volume of the merchandise is sold in the trade between the countries of exportation and importation.*
(c) When the actual value is not ascertainable in accordance with subparagraph (b) of this paragraph, the value for customs purposes should be based on the nearest ascertainable equivalent of such value.*
3. The value for customs purposes of any imported product should not include the amount of any internal tax, applicable within the country of origin or export, from which the imported product has been exempted or has been or will be relieved by means of refund.
4. (a) Except as otherwise provided for in this paragraph, where it is necessary for the purposes of paragraph 2 of this Article for a contracting party to convert into its own currency a price expressed in the currency of another country, the conversion rate of exchange to be used shall be based, for each currency involved, on the par value as established pursuant to the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund or on the rate of exchange recognized by the Fund, or on the par value established in accordance with a special exchange agreement entered into pursuant to Article XV of this Agreement.
(b) Where no such established par value and no such recognized rate of exchange exist, the conversion rate shall reflect effectively the current value of such currency in commercial transactions.
(c) The CONTRACTING PARTIES, in agreement with the International Monetary Fund, shall formulate rules governing the conversion by contracting parties of any foreign currency in respect of which multiple rates of exchange are maintained consistently with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund.  Any contracting party may apply such rules in respect of such foreign currencies for the purposes of paragraph 2 of this Article as an alternative to the use of par values. Until such rules are adopted by the Contracting Parties, any contracting party may employ, in respect of any such foreign currency, rules of conversion for the purposes of paragraph 2 of this Article which are designed to reflect effectively the value of such foreign currency in commercial transactions.
(d) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require any contracting party to alter the method of converting currencies for customs purposes which is applicable in its territory on the date of this Agreement, if such alteration would have the effect of increasing generally the amounts of duty payable.
5. The bases and methods for determining the value of products subject to duties or other charges or restrictions based upon or regulated in any manner by value should be stable and should be given sufficient publicity to enable traders to estimate, with a reasonable degree of certainty, the value for customs purposes.
    第七条  海关估价
    1.缔约各国承认本条下列各款规定的估价一般原则有效;
    缔约各国还承担义务,保证对所有以价值作为输出入征收关税和其它费用或实施限制的依据的产品,实施这些原则,另外,经另一缔约国提出要求,缔约各国应根据这些原则检查各自国家有关海关估价的法令或条例的执行情况,缔约国全体可以要求缔约各国就执行本条规定所采取的步骤提供报告。
    2.(甲)海关对进口商品的估价应以进口商品或相同商品的实际价格,而不得以国产品的价格或者以武断的或虚构的价格作为计证关税的依据。
    (乙)"实际价格"系指,在进口国立法确定的某一时间和地点,在正常贸易过程中,在充分竞争的条件下,某一商品或相同商品出售或兜售的价格。由于这一商品或相同商品的价格在具体交易中系随数量而转移,为统一计,本条所称的价格系指下述数量之一的价格:
    (1)可比数量,或(2)与输出国和输入国贸易之间出售较大商品数量相比,不致使进口商不利的那种数量。
    (丙)按照本款(乙)项的规定不能确定实际价格时,海关的估价应以可确定的最接近于实际价格的相当价格为根据。
    3.海关对进口产品的估价,不应包括原产国或输出国所实施的但对进口产品已予免征,或已经退税,或将要予以退税的任何国内税。
    4.(甲)除本款另有规定者外,当一缔约国为了本条第2款的目的,须将另一国货币表示的价格折成本国货币时,它对每一有关货币所使用的外汇折合率,应以符合国际货币基金协定条款规定的平价或以基金认可的汇率为根据,或以符合本协定第十五条签订的特别外汇协定规定的平价为根据。
    (乙)如果没有规定的平价或认可的汇率,则折合率应有效地反映这种货币在商业交易中的现行价值。
    (丙)对按国际货币基金协定条款的规定可以保留多种折合率的外币,缔约国全体在取得国际货币基金的同意后,应制订管理缔约各国折合这种外币的规则。缔约国为了本条第2款的目的,可以对这种外币实施这种规则,以代替平价的使用。在缔约国全体未通过这些规则以前,缔约国为了本条第2款的目的,可以对这种货币采用旨在有效反映这种货币在商业交易上的价值而制订的折合规则。
    (丁)本款的规定不得解释为要求缔约国改变在本协定签订之日已在其领土内实施的为海关目的所使用的货币折合办法,如果这种改变会普遍增加应纳关税的效果。
    5.如果产品系以价值作为征收关税和其它费用或实施限制的依据,则确定产品价值的根据和方法必须稳定,并应广为公告,以便贸易商能够相当准确地估计海关的估价。
Article VIII    Fees and Formalities connected with Importation and Exportation*
1. (a) All fees and charges of whatever character (other than import and export duties and other than taxes within the purview of Article III) imposed by contracting parties on or in connection with importation ,or exportation shall be limited in amount to the approximate cost of services rendered and shall not represent an indirect protection to domestic products or a taxation of imports or exports for fiscal purposes.
(b) The contracting parties recognize the need for reducing the number and diversity of fees and charges referred to in subparagraph (a).
(c) The contracting parties also recognize the need for minimizing the incidence and complexity of import and export formalities and for decreasing and simplifying import and export documentation requirements.*
2. A contracting party shall, upon request by another contracting party or by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, review the operation of its laws and regulations in the light of the provisions of this Article.
3. No contracting party shall impose substantial penalties for minor breaches of customs regulations or procedural requirements.  In particular, no penalty in respect of any omission or mistake in customs documentation which is easily rectifiable and obviously made without fraudulent intent or gross negligence shall be greater than necessary to serve merely as a warning.
4. The provisions of this Article shall extend to fees, charges, formalities and requirements imposed by governmental authorities in connection with importation and exportation, including those relating to:
(a) consular transactions, such as consular invoices and certificates;
(b) quantitative restrictions;
(c) licensing;
(d) exchange control;
(e) statistical services;
(f) documents, documentation and certification;
(g) analysis and inspection;  and
(h) quarantine, sanitation and fumigation.
    第八条  规费和输出入手续
    1.(甲)缔约国对输出入及有关输出入所征的除进出口关税和本协定第三条所述内地税以外的任何种类的规费和费用,不应成为对国产品的一种间接保护,也不应成为为了财政目的而征收的一种进口税或出口税。
    (乙)各缔约国认为,本款(甲)项所称规费和费用的数量和种类有必要予以减少。
    (丙)各缔约国认为,输出入手续的负担和繁琐,应降低到最低限度;
    规定的输出入单证应当减少和简化。
    2.经另一缔约国或经缔约国全体提出请求,一缔约国应根据本条的规定检查它的法令和规章的执行情况。
    3.缔约国对违反海关规章和手续的轻微事项,不得严加处罚。特别是对海关单证上的某种易于改正和显无欺骗意图或重大过失的漏填、误填,更不应课以超过警告程度的处罚。
    4.本条的规定应适用于政府当局在有关输出入方面所实施的规费、费用、手续及规定,包括有关输出入的下述事项:
    (甲)领事事项,如领事签证发票及证明;
    (乙)数量限制;
    (丙)许可证;
    (丁)外汇管制;
    (戊)统计事项;
    (己)文件、单据和证明;
    (庚)分析和检查;
    以及
    (辛)检疫、卫生及熏蒸消毒。
Article IX    Marks of Origin
1. Each contracting party shall accord to the products of the territories of other contracting parties treatment with regard to marking requirements no less favourable than the treatment accorded to like products of any third country.
2. The contracting parties recognize that, in adopting and enforcing laws and regulations relating to marks of origin, the difficulties and inconveniences which such measures may cause to the commerce and industry of exporting countries should be reduced to a minimum, due regard being had to the necessity of protecting consumers against fraudulent or misleading indications.
3. Whenever it is administratively practicable to do so, contracting parties should permit required marks of origin to be affixed at the time of importation.
4. The laws and regulations of contracting parties relating to the marking of imported products shall be such as to permit compliance without seriously damaging the products, or materially reducing their value, or unreasonably increasing their cost.
5. As a general rule, no special duty or penalty should be imposed by any contracting party for failure to comply with marking requirements prior to importation unless corrective marking is unreasonably delayed or deceptive marks have been affixed or the required marking has been intentionally omitted.
6. The contracting parties shall co-operate with each other with a view to preventing the use of trade names in such manner as to misrepresent the true origin of a product, to the detriment of such distinctive regional or geographical names of products of the territory of a contracting party as are protected by its legislation.  Each contracting party shall accord full and sympathetic consideration to such requests or representations as may be made by any other contracting party regarding the application of the undertaking set forth in the preceding sentence to names of products which have been communicated to it by the other contracting party.
    第九条  原产国标记
    1.一缔约国在有关标记规定方面对其它缔约国领土产品所给的待遇,应不低于对第三国相同产品所给的待遇。
    2.缔约各国认为,在采用和贯彻实施原产国标记的法令和条例时,对这种措施对出口国的贸易和工业可能造成的困难及不便应减少到最低程度;
    但应适当注意防止欺骗性的或易引起误解的标记,以保护消费者的利益。
    3.只要行政上许可,缔约各国应允许所要求的原产国标记在进口时贴在商品上。
    4.缔约各国的有关进口产品标记的法令和条例,应不致在遵照办理时会使产品受到严重损害,或大大降低它的价值,或不合理地增加它的成本。
    5.缔约国对于输入前未依照规定办理标记的行为,除不合理地拖延不更正,或贴欺骗性的标记,或有意不贴要求的标记以外,原则上不得征收特别税或课以特别处罚。
    6.缔约各国应通力合作,制止滥用商业名称假冒产品的原产地,以致使某一缔约国领土产品受到当地立法保护的特殊区域名称或地理名称受到损害。每一缔约国对其它缔约国提出的有关对产品名称适用上述义务的要求或陈述,应予以充分的同情考虑。
Article X    Publication and Administration of Trade Regulations
1. Laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application, made effective by any contracting party, pertaining to the classification or the valuation of products for customs purposes, or to rates of duty, taxes or other charges, or to requirements, restrictions or prohibitions on imports or exports or on the transfer of payments therefor, or affecting their sale, distribution, transportation, insurance, warehousing inspection, exhibition, processing, mixing or other use, shall be published promptly in such a manner as to enable governments and traders to become acquainted with them.  Agreements affecting international trade policy which are in force between the government or a governmental agency of any contracting party and the government or governmental agency of any other contracting party shall also be published.  The provisions of this paragraph shall not require any contracting party to disclose confidential information which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.
2. No measure of general application taken by any contracting party effecting an advance in a rate of duty or other charge on imports under an established and uniform practice, or imposing a new or more burdensome requirement, restriction or prohibition on imports, or on the transfer of payments therefor, shall be enforced before such measure has been officially published.
3. (a) Each contracting party shall administer in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner all its laws, regulations, decisions and rulings of the kind described in paragraph 1 of this Article.
(b) Each contracting party shall maintain, or institute as soon as practicable, judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or procedures for the purpose, inter alia, of the prompt review and correction of administrative action relating to customs matters.  Such tribunals or procedures shall be independent of the agencies entrusted with administrative enforcement and their decisions shall be implemented by, and shall govern the practice of, such agencies unless an appeal is lodged with a court or tribunal of superior jurisdiction within the time prescribed for appeals to be lodged by importers;  Provided that the central administration of such agency may take steps to obtain a review of the matter in another proceeding if there is good cause to believe that the decision is inconsistent with established principles of law or the actual facts.
(c) The provisions of subparagraph (b) of this paragraph shall not require the elimination or substitution of procedures in force in the territory of a contracting party on the date of this Agreement which in fact provide for an objective and impartial review of administrative action even though such procedures are not fully or formally independent of the agencies entrusted with administrative enforcement.  Any contracting party employing such procedures shall, upon request, furnish the CONTRACTING PARTIES with full information thereon in order that they may determine whether such procedures conform to the requirements of this subparagraph.
    第十条  贸易条例的公布和实施
    1.缔约国有效实施的关于海关对产品的分类或估价,关于税捐和其它费用的征收率,关于对进出口货物及其支付转帐的规定、限制和禁止,以及关于影响进出口货物的销售、分配、运输、保险、存仓、检验、展览、加工、混合或使用的法令、条例与足资一般援用的司法判决及行政决定,都应迅速公布,以使各国政府及贸易商对它们熟悉。一缔约国政府或政府机构与另一缔约国政府或政府机构之间缔结的影响国际贸易政策的现行协定,也必须公布。但本款的规定并不要求缔约国公开那些会妨碍法令的贯彻执行、会违反公共利益或会损害某一公私企业的正当商业利益的机密资料。
    2.缔约国采取的按既定统一办法提高进口货物关税或其它费用的征收率,或者对进口货物及其支付转让实施新的或更严的规定、限制或禁止的普遍适用的措施,非经正式公布,不得实施。
    3.(甲)缔约各国应以统一、公正和合理的方式实施本条第一款所述的法令、条例、判决和决定。
    (乙)为了能够特别对于有关海关事项的行政行为迅速进行检查和纠正,缔约各国应维持或尽快建立司法的、仲裁的或行政的法庭或程序。这种法庭或程序应独立于负责行政实施的机构之外,而它们的决定,除进口商于规定上诉期间向上级法院或法庭提出申诉以外,应由这些机构予以执行,并作为今后实施的准则;
    但是,如这些机构的中央主管机关有充分理由认为它们的决定与法律的既定原则有抵触或与事实不符,它可以采取步骤使这个问题经由另一程序加以检查。
    (丙)如于本协定签订之日在缔约国领土内实施的事实上能够对行政行为提供客观公正的检查,即使这种程序不是全部或正式地独立于负责行政实施的机构以外,本款(乙)项的规定,并不要求取消它或替换它,实施这种程序的缔约国如被请求,应向缔约国全体提供有关这种程序的详尽资料,以便缔约国全体决定这种程序是否符合本项规定的要求。
Article XI    General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions
1. No prohibitions or restrictions other than duties, taxes or other charges, whether made effective through quotas, import or export licences or other measures, shall be instituted or maintained by any contracting party on the importation of any product of the territory of any other contracting party or on the exportation or sale for export of any product destined for the territory of any other contracting party.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not extend to the following:
(a) Export prohibitions or restrictions temporarily applied to prevent or relieve critical shortages of foodstuffs or other products essential to the exporting contracting party;
(b) Import and export prohibitions or restrictions necessary to the application of standards or regulations for the classification, grading or marketing of commodities in international trade;
(c) Import restrictions on any agricultural or fisheries product, imported in any form,* necessary to the enforcement of governmental measures which operate:
(i) to restrict the quantities of the like domestic product permitted to be marketed or produced, or, if there is no substantial domestic production of the like product, of a domestic product for which the imported product can be directly substituted;  or
(ii) to remove a temporary surplus of the like domestic product, or, if there is no substantial domestic production of the like product, of a domestic product for which the imported product can be directly substituted, by making the surplus available to certain groups of domestic consumers free of charge or at prices below the current market level;  or
(iii) to restrict the quantities permitted to be produced of any animal product the production of which is directly dependent, wholly or mainly, on the imported commodity, if the domestic production of that commodity is relatively negligible.
Any contracting party applying restrictions on the importation of any product pursuant to subparagraph (c) of this paragraph shall give public notice of the total quantity or value of the product permitted to be imported during a specified future period and of any change in such quantity or value.  Moreover, any restrictions applied under (i) above shall not be such as will reduce the total of imports relative to the total of domestic production, as compared with the proportion which might reasonably be expected to rule between the two in the absence of restrictions.  In determining this proportion, the contracting party shall pay due regard to the proportion prevailing during a previous representative period and to any special factors* which may have affected or may be affecting the trade in the product concerned.
    第十一条  数量限制的一般取消
    1.任何缔约国除征收税捐或其它费用以外,不得设立或维持配额、进出口许可证或其它措施以限制或禁止其它缔约国领土的产品的输入,或向其它缔约国领土输出或销售出口产品。
    2.本条第1款的规定不适用于:
    (甲)为防止或缓和输出缔约国的粮食或其它必需品的严重缺乏而临时实施的禁止出口或限制进出口;
    (乙)为实施国际贸易上商品分类、分级和销售的标准及条例,而必需实施的禁止进出口或限制进出口;
    (丙)对任何形式的农渔产品有必要实施的进口限制,如果这种限制是为了贯彻:
    (1)限制相同国产品允许生产或销售的数量,或者,相同国产品若是产量不大,限制能直接代替进口产品的国产品的允许生产或销售数量的政府措施;
    或
    (2)通过采用免费或低于现行市场价格的办法,将剩余品供国内某些阶层消费以消除相同国产品的暂时过剩,或者,相同国产品若是产量不大,以消除能直接代替进口产品的国产品的暂时过剩的政府措施;
    或
    (3)限制生产系全部或主要地直接依赖于进口而国内产量相对有限的动物产品允许生产的数量的政府措施。
    缔约国按照本款(丙)项对某项产品实施进口限制时,应公布今后指定时期内准予进口的产品的全部数量或价值以及可能的变动。同时,根据上述(1)项而实施的限制,不应使产品的进口总量与其国内生产总量间的比例,低于若不执行限制可以合理预期达到的比例。缔约国在确定这个比例时,对前一有代表性的时期的比例以及可能曾经影响或正在影响这个产品贸易的任何特殊因素,均应给予适当的考虑。
Article XII    Restrictions to Safeguard the Balance of Payments
1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article XI, any contracting party, in order to safeguard its external financial position and its balance of payments, may restrict the quantity or value of merchandise permitted to be imported, subject to the provisions of the following paragraphs of this Article.
2. (a) Import restrictions instituted, maintained or intensified by a contracting party under this Article shall not exceed those necessary:
(i) to forestall the imminent threat of, or to stop, a serious decline in its monetary reserves;  or
(ii) in the case of a contracting party with very low monetary reserves, to achieve a reasonable rate of increase in its reserves.
Due regard shall be paid in either case to any special factors which may be affecting the reserves of such contracting party or its need for reserves, including, where special external credits or other resources are available to it, the need to provide for the appropriate use of such credits or resources.
(b) Contracting parties applying restrictions under sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph shall progressively relax them as such conditions improve, maintaining them only to the extent that the conditions specified in that sub-paragraph still justify their application.  They shall eliminate the restrictions when conditions would no longer justify their institution or maintenance under that subparagraph.
3. (a) Contracting parties undertake, in carrying out their domestic policies, to pay due regard to the need for maintaining or restoring equilibrium in their balance of payments on a sound and lasting basis and to the desirability of avoiding an uneconomic employment of productive resources.  They recognize that, in order to achieve these ends, it is desirable so far as possible to adopt measures which expand rather than contract international trade.
(b) Contracting parties applying restrictions under this Article may determine the incidence of the restrictions on imports of different products or classes of products in such a way as to give priority to the importation of those products which are more essential.
(c) Contracting parties applying restrictions under this Article undertake:
(i) to avoid unnecessary damage to the commercial or economic interests of any other contracting party;*
(ii) not to apply restrictions so as to prevent unreasonably the importation of any description of goods in minimum commercial quantities the exclusion of which would impair regular channels of trade;  and
(iii) not to apply restrictions which would prevent the importations of commercial samples or prevent compliance with patent, trade mark, copyright, or similar procedures.
(d) The contracting parties recognize that, as a result of domestic policies directed towards the achievement and maintenance of full and productive employment or towards the development of economic resources, a contracting party may experience a high level of demand for imports involving a threat to its monetary reserves of the sort referred to in paragraph 2 (a) of this Article.  Accordingly, a contracting party otherwise complying with the provisions of this Article shall not be required to withdraw or modify restrictions on the ground that a change in those policies would render unnecessary restrictions which it is applying under this Article.
4. (a) Any contracting party applying new restrictions or raising the general level of its existing restrictions by a substantial intensification of the measures applied under this Article shall immediately after instituting or intensifying such restrictions (or, in circumstances in which prior consultation is practicable, before doing so) consult with the CONTRACTING PARTIES as to the nature of its balance of payments difficulties, alternative corrective measures which may be available, and the possible effect of the restrictions on the economies of other contracting parties.
(b) On a date to be determined by them,* the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall review all restrictions still applied under this Article on that date. Beginning one year after that date, contracting parties applying import restrictions under this Article shall enter into consultations of the type provided for in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph with the CONTRACTING PARTIES annually.
(c) (i) If, in the course of consultations with a contracting party under subparagraph (a) or (b) above, the CONTRACTING PARTIES find that the restrictions are not consistent with provisions of this Article or with those of Article XIII (subject to the provisions of Article XIV), they shall indicate the nature of the inconsistency and may advise that the restrictions be suitably modified.
(ii) If, however, as a result of the consultations, the CONTRACTING PARTIES determine that the restrictions are being applied in a manner involving an inconsistency of a serious nature with the provisions of this Article or with those of Article XIII (subject to the provisions of Article XIV) and that damage to the trade of any contracting party is caused or threatened thereby, they shall so inform the contracting party applying the restrictions and shall make appropriate recommendations for securing conformity with such provisions within the specified period of time.  If such contracting party does not comply with these recommendations within the specified period, the CONTRACTING PARTIES may release any contracting party the trade of which is adversely affected by the restrictions from such obligations under this Agreement towards the contracting party applying the restrictions as they determine to be appropriate in the circumstances.
(d) The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall invite any contracting party which is applying restrictions under this Article to enter into consultations with them at the request of any contracting party which can establish a prima facie case that the restrictions are inconsistent with the provisions of this Article or with those of Article XIII (subject to the provisions of Article XIV) and that its trade is adversely affected thereby.  However, no such invitation shall be issued unless the CONTRACTING PARTIES have ascertained that direct discussions between the contracting parties concerned have not been successful.  If, as a result of the consultations with the CONTRACTING PARTIES, no agreement is reached and they determine that the restrictions are being applied inconsistently with such provisions, and that damage to the trade of the contracting party initiating the procedure is caused or threatened thereby, they shall recommend the withdrawal or modification of the restrictions.  If the restrictions are not withdrawn or modified within such time as the CONTRACTING PARTIES may prescribe, they may release the contracting party initiating the procedure from such obligations under this Agreement towards the contracting party applying the restrictions as they determine to be appropriate in the circumstances.
(e) In proceeding under this paragraph, the  CONTRACTING PARTIES shall have due regard to any special external factors adversely affecting the export trade of the contracting party applying the restrictions.*
(f) Determinations under this paragraph shall be rendered expeditiously and, if possible, within sixty days of the initiation of the consultations.
5. If there is a persistent and widespread application of import restrictions under this Article, indicating the existence of a general disequilibrium which is restricting international trade, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall initiate discussions to consider whether other measures might be taken, either by those contracting parties the balance of payments of which are under pressure or by those the balance of payments of which are tending to be exceptionally favourable, or by any appropriate intergovernmental organization, to remove the underlying causes of the disequilibrium.  On the invitation of the CONTRACTING PARTIES, contracting parties shall participate in such discussions.
    第十二条  为保障国际收支而实施的限制
    1.虽有本协定第十一条第1款的规定,任何缔约国为了保障其对外金融地位和国际收支,可以限制商品准许进口的数量或价值,但须遵守本条下述各款的规定。
    2.(甲)一缔约国根据本条规定而建立、维持或加强的进口限制,不得超过:
    (1)为了预防货币储备严重下降的迫切威胁或制止货币储备严重下降所必需的程度;或
    (2)对货币储备很低的缔约国,为了使储备合理增长所必需的程度。
    在以上两种情况下,对可能正在影响这一缔约国储备或其对储备的需要的任何特殊因素,包括在能够得到特别国外信贷或其它资源的情况下,安排适当使用这种信贷或资源的需要,都应加以适当考虑。
    (乙)缔约各国根据本款(甲)项实施的限制,在情况改善时应逐步予以放宽,只维持根据(甲)项所列情况认为仍有必要实施的为限。如情况改变,已无必要建立或维持根据(甲)项实施的限制,就应立即予以取消。
    3.(甲)缔约各国在执行国内政策时承担义务:对维持或恢复各自的国际收支平衡于健全持久的基础上的必要和避免生产资源的非经济使用的好处,予以适当注意,缔约各国认为,要实现上述目标,最好尽可能采取措施扩大而不是缩小国际贸易。
    (乙)按本条规定实施限制的缔约各国,可以对不同进口产品或进口产品的不同类别确定不同程度的限制,使比较必需的产品能够优先进口。
    (丙)按本条实施限制的缔约各国,承担下列义务:
    (1)对任何其它缔约国的贸易或经济利益,避免造成不必要的损害;
    (2)实施的限制不无理地阻碍任何完全禁止其输入即会损害正常贸易渠道的那种最低贸易数量的输入;
    (3)实施的限制不阻碍商业货样的输入或阻碍专利权、商标、版权或类似程序的遵守。
    (丁)缔约各国认为,由于实施某种旨在达成和维持有生产效率的充分就业和旨在发展经济资源的国内政策,一缔约国可能出现高度的进口需求,造成本条第2款(甲)项所述的那种对货币储备的威胁。因此,对一个在其它方面都执行本条规定的缔约国,不得以它的政策的改变使实施限制成为不必要的理由,而要求它撤销或修改它根据本条实施的限制。
    4.(甲)建立新的限制或大幅度加强按本条实施的措施因而提高现行限制一般水平的任何缔约国,应在建立或加强限制后(如能事前协商,则应于建立或加强前),立即与缔约国全体就自己国际收支困难的性质,可能采取的其它补救办法以及这些限制对其它缔约国的经济可能造成的影响进行协商。
    (乙)缔约国全体应在其确定的某一日期,检查在哪一日期按本条规定仍在实施的一切限制,从那一日期后一年开始,凡根据本条规定实施进口限制的缔约各国,应每年同缔约国全体进行本款(甲)项所规定的那种协商。
    (丙)(1)缔约国全体在根据上述(甲)项或(乙)项规定同一缔约国进行协商的过程中,如判定实施的限制与本条或本协定第十三条(受本协定第十四条的限制)的规定不符,它们应指出不符的性质,并可建议对限制作适当的修改。
    (2)但是,如缔约国全体经协商后认为,正在实施的限制严重地与本条或与本条规定第十三条(受本协定第十四条的限制)的规定不符,认为它对另一缔约国的贸易造成损害或构成威胁,它们应将这一情况通知实施限制的缔约国,并应提出旨在使规定在一定限制内得到遵守的适当建议。如实施限制的缔约国在规定限制内不执行这些建议,缔约国全体认为必要时,可以解除贸易受到不利影响的那个缔约国根据本协定对实施限制的缔约国所承担的义务。
    (丁)如一缔约国有理由认为另一缔约国按本条实施的限制与本条或本规定第十三条(受本协定第十四条的限制)的规定不符,并认为因此它的贸易受到不利的影响,经这一缔约国提出要求,缔约国全体应邀请实施限制的缔约国与其进行协商。缔约国全体应先查明,在这两个缔约国之间进行了直接讨论,未达成协议,才能发出这样的邀请。经与缔约国全体协商如果仍不能达成协议而缔约国全体又认为正在实施与上述规定不符的限制,因而对提出这一程序的那个缔约国的贸易造成损害或构成威胁,则缔约国全体应建议撤销或修改这项限制。如在缔约国全体规定的限制内,并未撤销或修改这项限制,缔约国全体如果认为必要,可以解除提出这一程序的那个缔约国根据本协定所承担的义务。
    (戊)按本款规定办理时,缔约国全体应适当注意影响实施限制的缔约国的出口贸易的任何不利的外部特别因素。
    (己)本款的决定,应尽快实施,如果可能,应在开始协商后60天内实施。
    5.如果须持久而广泛地维持按本条实施的进口限制,表明存在普遍的不平衡限制着国际贸易的发展,则缔约国全体应召开会议来讨论是否可由国际收支遭受压力的缔约国,或由国际收支趋向非常有利的缔约国,或由适当的国际机构,采取其它办法以清除造成不平衡的内在因素。如缔约国全体发出这种邀请,缔约各国应参加这种讨论。
Article XIII    Non-discriminatory Administration of Quantitative Restrictions
1. No prohibition or restriction shall be applied by any contracting party on the importation of any product of the territory of any other contracting party or on the exportation of any product destined for the territory of any other contracting party, unless the importation of the like product of all third countries or the exportation of the like product to all third countries is similarly prohibited or restricted.
2. In applying import restrictions to any product, contracting parties shall aim at a distribution of trade in such product approaching as closely as possible the shares which the various contracting parties might be expected to obtain in the absence of such restrictions and to this end shall observe the following provisions:
(a) Wherever practicable, quotas representing the total amount of permitted imports (whether allocated among supplying countries or not) shall be fixed, and notice given of their amount in accordance with paragraph 3 (b) of this Article;
(b) In cases in which quotas are not practicable, the restrictions may be applied by means of import licences or permits without a quota;
(c) Contracting parties shall not, except for purposes of operating quotas allocated in accordance with subparagraph (d) of this paragraph, require that import licences or permits be utilized for the importation of the product concerned from a particular country or source;
(d) In cases in which a quota is allocated among supplying countries the contracting party applying the restrictions may seek agreement with respect to the allocation of shares in the quota with all other contracting parties having a substantial interest in supplying the product concerned.  In cases in which this method is not reasonably practicable, the contracting party concerned shall allot to contracting parties having a substantial interest in supplying the product shares based upon the proportions, supplied by such contracting parties during a previous representative period, of the total quantity or value of imports of the product, due account being taken of any special factors which may have affected or may be affecting the trade in the product.  No conditions or formalities shall be imposed which would prevent any contracting party from utilizing fully the share of any such total quantity or value which has been allotted to it, subject to importation being made within any prescribed period to which the quota may relate.*
3. (a) In cases in which import licences are issued in connection with import restrictions, the contracting party applying the restrictions shall provide, upon the request of any contracting party having an interest in the trade in the product concerned, all relevant information concerning the administration of the restrictions, the import licences granted over a recent period and the distribution of such licences among supplying countries;  Provided that there shall be no obligation to supply information as to the names of importing or supplying enterprises.
(b) In the case of import restrictions involving the fixing of quotas, the contracting party applying the restrictions shall give public notice of the total quantity or value of the product or products which will be permitted to be imported during a specified future period and of any change in such quantity or value.  Any supplies of the product in question which were en route at the time at which public notice was given shall not be excluded from entry;  Provided that they may be counted so far as practicable, against the quantity permitted to be imported in the period in question, and also, where necessary, against the quantities permitted to be imported in the next following period or periods;  and Provided further that if any contracting party customarily exempts from such restrictions products entered for consumption or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption during a period of thirty days after the day of such public notice, such practice shall be considered full compliance with this subparagraph.
(c) In the case of quotas allocated among supplying countries, the contracting party applying the restrictions shall promptly inform all other contracting parties having an interest in supplying the product concerned of the shares in the quota currently allocated, by quantity or value, to the various supplying countries and shall give public notice thereof.
4. With regard to restrictions applied in accordance with paragraph 2 (d) of this Article or under paragraph 2 (c) of Article XI, the selection of a representative period for any product and the appraisal of any special factors* affecting the trade in the product shall be made initially by the contracting party applying the restriction;  Provided that such contracting party shall, upon the request of any other contracting party having a substantial interest in supplying that product or upon the request of the CONTRACTING PARTIES, consult promptly with the other contracting party or the CONTRACTING PARTIES regarding the need for an adjustment of the proportion determined or of the base period selected, or for the reappraisal of the special factors involved, or for the elimination of conditions, formalities or any other provisions established unilaterally relating to the allocation of an adequate quota or its unrestricted utilization.
5. The provisions of this Article shall apply to any tariff quota instituted or maintained by any contracting party, and, in so far as applicable, the principles of this Article shall also extend to export restrictions.
    第十三条  非歧视地实施数量限制
    1.除非对所有第三国的相同产品的输入或对相同产品向所有第三国的输出同样予以禁止或限制以外,任何缔约国不得限制或禁止另一缔约国领土的产品的输入,也不得禁止或限制产品向另一缔约国领土输出。
    2.缔约各国对任何产品实施进口限制时,应旨在使这种产品的贸易的分配尽可能与如果没有这种限制时其它缔约各国预期可能得到的份额相接近;
    为此目的,缔约各国应遵守下列规定:
    (甲)在可能时,应固定准许进口的配额(不论是否在供应国之间进行分配),并应按本条第3款(乙)项的规定,公告其数额;
    (乙)如不能采用配额办法,可采用无配额的进口许可证或进口凭证方式实施限制;
    (丙)除为了按本款(丁)项分配配额以外,缔约各国不得只规定从某一特定国家或来源输入有关产品须用进口许可证或进口凭证;
    (丁)如果配额系在各供应国之间进行分配,实施限制的缔约国可谋求与供应有关产品有实质利害关系的所有缔约国就配额的分配达成协议。如果不能采用这种办法,在考虑了可能已经影响或正在影响有关产品的贸易的特殊因素的情况下,有关缔约国应根据前一代表时期供应产品的缔约国在这一产品进口总量或总值中所占的比例,将份额分配给与供应产品有实质利害关系的国家。除这一份额应予配额所定的限制内进口以外,有关缔约国不得设立任何条件或手续来阻碍任何其它缔约国充分利用其从这一总额或总值中所分得的份额。
    3.(甲)在为实施进口限制签发进口许可证的情况下,如与某产品的贸易有利害关系的任何缔约国提出要求,实施限制的缔约国应提供关于限制的管理,最近期间签发的进口许可证及其在各供应国之间的分配情况的一切有关资料,但对进口商或供应商的名称,应不承担提供资料的义务。
    (乙)在进口限制采用固定配额的情况下,实施限制的缔约国应公布今后某一特定时期内将要准许进口的产品总量或总值及其可能的变动。在公布时,有关产品的供应如果已在运输途中的,应不得拒绝其进口;
    但是,可将它尽可能计算在本期的准许进口的数量以内,必要时也可以计算在下一期或下几期的准许进口数量以内。另外,任何缔约国对在公告后30日内为消费而进口的或为消费而从货栈里提出的有关产品,如果按照惯例系免除这种限制,这种惯例应视为完全符合本款的规定。
    (丙)当配额系在各供应国间进行分配的情况下,实施限制的缔约国应将最近根据数量或价值分配给各供应国的配额份额,迅速通知与供应产品有利害关系的所有其它缔约国,并应公告周知。
    4.关于按本条第2款(丁)项或本规定第十一条第2款(丙)项所实施的限制,应首先由实施限制的缔约国选择产品的有代表性时期和估计影响产品贸易的任何特殊因素;但是,在与供应这一产品有重大利害关系的任何缔约国或缔约国全体提出请求后,实施限制的缔约国应迅速与其它缔约国或缔约国全体协商,以断定有无必要调整已确定的比例或选定的时期,或重新估计有关的特殊因素,或取消单方面建立的与相应配额的分配或自由利用有关的这些条件、手续或其它规定。
    5.本条的规定应适用于任何缔约国建立或维持的关税配额,而且本条的原则应尽可能地适用于出口限制。
Article XIV    Exceptions to the Rule of Non-discrimination
1. A contracting party which applies restrictions under Article XII or under Section B of Article XVIII may, in the application of such restrictions, deviate from the provisions of Article XIII in a manner having equivalent effect to restrictions on payments and transfers for current international transactions which that contracting party may at that time apply under Article VIII or XIV of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, or under analogous provisions of a special exchange agreement entered into pursuant to paragraph 6 of Article XV.*
2. A contracting party which is applying import restrictions under Article XII or under Section B of Article XVIII may, with the consent of the CONTRACTING PARTIES, temporarily deviate from the provisions of Article XIII in respect of a small part of its external trade where the benefits to the contracting party or contracting parties concerned substantially outweigh any injury which may result to the trade of other contracting parties.*
3. The provisions of Article XIII shall not preclude a group of territories having a common quota in the International Monetary Fund from applying against imports from other countries, but not among themselves, restrictions in accordance with the provisions of Article XII or of Section B of Article XVIII on condition that such restrictions are in all other respects consistent with the provisions of Article XIII.
4. A contracting party applying import restrictions under Article XII or under Section B of Article XVIII shall not be precluded by Articles XI to XV or Section B of Article XVIII of this Agreement from applying measures to direct its exports in such a manner as to increase its earnings of currencies which it can use without deviation from the provisions of Article XIII.
5. A contracting party shall not be precluded by Articles XI to XV, inclusive, or by Section B of Article XVIII, of this Agreement from applying quantitative restrictions:
(a) having equivalent effect to exchange restrictions authorized under Section 3 (b) of Article VII of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, or
(b) under the preferential arrangements provided for in Annex A of this Agreement, pending the outcome of the negotiations referred to therein.
    第十四条  非歧视原则的例外
    1.按照本协定第十二条或第十八条第二节实施限制的一缔约国,可以在实施限制时背离本协定第十三条的规定,如果背离后对现行国际贸易的支付和转让所产生的效果,与这一缔约国当时按照国际货币基金第八条或第十四条的规定,或按照根据本协定第十五条第6款签订的特别外汇协定的类似规定,实施的限制所产生的效果相同。
    2.经缔约国全体同意,按照本协定第十二条或第十八条第二节实施限制的一缔约国,可以对它的一小部分对外贸易暂时背离本协定第十三条的规定,如果这样做后,对有关的一个缔约国或几个缔约国造成的利益大大超过对其它缔约国造成的损害。
    3.本协定第十三条的规定,并不阻止在国际货币基金中有共同配额的某些领土根据本协定第十二条或第十八条第二节的规定,限制来自其它国家的进口,而不限制它们之间的相互进口,如果这种限制在其它方面符合本协定第十三条的规定。
    4.本协定第十一条至第十五条或本协定第十八条第二节的规定,并不阻止按照本协定第十二条或按照本协定第十八条第二节实施限制的一缔约国采取不违反本协定第十三条规定的措施以指导出口,增加外汇收入。
    5.本协定第十一条至第十五条或本协定第十八条第二节的规定,并不阻止一缔约国实施:
    (甲)与国际货币基金协定第十七条允许实施的外汇限制有相同影响的数量限制;或
    (乙)在本协定附件一所称的谈判取得结果以前,根据这一附件内所列的优惠安排而实施的数量限制。
Article XV    Exchange Arrangements
1. The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall seek co-operation with the International Monetary Fund to the end that the CONTRACTING PARTIES and the Fund may pursue a co-ordinated policy with regard to exchange questions within the jurisdiction of the Fund and questions of quantitative restrictions and other trade measures within the jurisdiction of the CONTRACTING PARTIES.
2. In all cases in which the CONTRACTING PARTIES are called upon to consider or deal with problems concerning monetary reserves, balances of payments or foreign exchange arrangements, they shall consult fully with the International Monetary Fund.  In such consultations, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall accept all findings of statistical and other facts presented by the Fund relating to foreign exchange, monetary reserves and balances of payments, and shall accept the determination of the Fund as to whether action by a contracting party in exchange matters is in accordance with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, or with the terms of a special exchange agreement between that contracting party and the CONTRACTING PARTIES.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES in reaching their final decision in cases involving the criteria set forth in paragraph 2 (a) of Article XII or in paragraph 9 of Article XVIII, shall accept the determination of the Fund as to what constitutes a serious decline in the contracting party's monetary reserves, a very low level of its monetary reserves or a reasonable rate of increase in its monetary reserves, and as to the financial aspects of other matters covered in consultation in such cases.
3. The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall seek agreement with the Fund regarding procedures for consultation under paragraph 2 of this Article.
4. Contracting parties shall not, by exchange action, frustrate* the intent of the provisions of this Agreement, nor, by trade action, the intent of the provisions of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund.
5. If the CONTRACTING PARTIES consider, at any time, that exchange restrictions on payments and transfers in connection with imports are being applied by a contracting party in a manner inconsistent with the exceptions provided for in this Agreement for quantitative restrictions, they shall report thereon to the Fund.
6. Any contracting party which is not a member of the Fund shall, within a time to be determined by the CONTRACTING PARTIES after consultation with the Fund, become a member of the Fund, or, failing that, enter into a special exchange agreement with the CONTRACTING PARTIES.  A contracting party which ceases to be a member of the Fund shall forthwith enter into a special exchange agreement with the CONTRACTING PARTIES.  Any special exchange agreement entered into by a contracting party under this paragraph shall thereupon become part of its obligations under this Agreement.
7. (a) A special exchange agreement between a contracting party and the CONTRACTING PARTIES under paragraph 6 of this Article shall provide to the satisfaction of the CONTRACTING PARTIES that the objectives of this Agreement will not be frustrated as a result of action in exchange matters by the contracting party in question.
(b) The terms of any such agreement shall not impose obligations on the contracting party in exchange matters generally more restrictive than those imposed by the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund on members of the Fund.
8. A contracting party which is not a member of the Fund shall furnish such information within the general scope of section 5 of Article VIII of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund as the CONTRACTING PARTIES may require in order to carry out their functions under this Agreement.
9. Nothing in this Agreement shall preclude:
(a) the use by a contracting party of exchange controls or exchange restrictions in accordance with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund or with that contracting party's special exchange agreement with the CONTRACTING PARTIES, or
(b) the use by a contracting party of restrictions or controls in imports or exports, the sole effect of which, additional to the effects permitted under Articles XI, XII, XIII and XIV, is to make effective such exchange controls or exchange restrictions.
    第十五条  外汇安排
    1.缔约国全体应谋求与国际货币基金合作,以便在基金所主管的外汇问题和缔约国全体所主管的数量限制或其它贸易措施方面,缔约国全体与基金可以执行一个协调的政策。
    2.缔约国全体如果被请求考虑或处理有关货币储备、国际收支或外汇安排的问题,它们应与国际货币基金进行充分的协商。缔约国全体在协商中应接受基金提供的有关外汇、货币储备或国际收支的一切统计或其它调查结果;
    对于一缔约国在外汇问题上采取的行动是否符合国际货币基金协定的条款,是否符合这一缔约国与缔约国全体之间所签订的外汇特别协定的条件,缔约国全体也应接受基金的判定。缔约国全体如需对涉及本协定第十二条第2款(甲)项或第十八条第9款所规定的标准的案件作出最后决定,对什么是一缔约国货币储备的严重下降,什么是一缔约国的货币储备很低,什么是一缔约国货币储备的合理增长,以及对协商中涉及的其它事项的财政方面,都应接受基金的判定。
    3.缔约国全体应设法与基金就本条第2款所述协商的程序达成协议。
    4.缔约各国不得以外汇方面的行动,来妨碍本协定各项规定的意图的实现,也不得以贸易方面的行动,妨碍国际货币基金规定各项规定的意图的实现。
    5.如缔约国全体认为,某缔约国现行的有关进口货物的支付和转帐方面的外汇限制与本协定对数量限制所订的例外规定不符,则缔约国全体应将这一情况向基金报告。
    6.凡不是国际货币基金成员国的缔约国,应在缔约国全体与基金商定的时限内,成为基金的成员国;如不能做到这一点,应与缔约国全体签订一个外汇特别协定。一缔约国如果退出国际货币基金,应立即与缔约国全体签订一个外汇特别协定。一缔约国根据本款与缔约国全体签订的外汇特别协定,应成为这一缔约国对本协定所承担的义务的组成部分。
    7.(甲)一缔约国与缔约国全体根据本条第六款签订的外汇特别协定,须有使缔约国全体满意的下述规定:这一缔约国在外汇问题上采取的行动,将不妨碍本协定的宗旨的实现。
    (乙)任何外汇特别协定的条款要求缔约国在外汇问题上所承担的义务,一般应不严于国际货币基金协定的条款要求基金成员国所承担的义务。
    8.不是国际货币基金成员的缔约国应向缔约国全体提供其为执行本协定规定的任务而需要的国际货币基金协定第八条第五节范围内的一般资料。
    9.本协定不妨碍:
    (甲)缔约国实施与国际货币基金协定条款与缔约国同缔约国全体签订的外汇特别协定条款相符的外汇管制或外汇限制;
    或
    (乙)缔约国对输出、输入实施某种除了产生本协定第十一条、第十二条、第十三条和第十四条所允许的影响以外,只是使外汇管制或外汇限制更加有效的限制或管制。
Article XVI    Subsidies
Section A - Subsidies in General
1. If any contracting party grants or maintains any subsidy, including any form of income or price support, which operates directly or indirectly to increase exports of any product from, or to reduce imports of any product into, its territory, it shall notify the CONTRACTING PARTIES in writing of the extent and nature of the subsidization, of the estimated effect of the subsidization on the quantity of the affected product or products imported into or exported from its territory and of the circumstances making the subsidization necessary.  In any case in which it is determined that serious prejudice to the interests of any other contracting party is caused or threatened by any such subsidizatio,n, the contracting party granting the subsidy shall, upon request, discuss with the other contracting party or parties concerned, or with the CONTRACTING PARTIES, the possibility of limiting the subsidization.
Section B - Additional Provisions on Export Subsidies*
2. The contracting parties recognize that the granting by a contracting party of a subsidy on the export of any product may have harmful effects for other contracting parties, both importing and exporting, may cause undue disturbance to their normal commercial interests, and may hinder the achievement of the objectives of this Agreement.
3. Accordingly, contracting parties should seek to avoid the use of subsidies on the export of primary products.  If, however, a contracting party grants directly or indirectly any form of subsidy which operates to increase the export of any primary product from its territory, such subsidy shall not be applied in a manner which results in that contracting party having more than an equitable share of world export trade in that product, account being taken of the shares of the contracting parties in such trade in the product during a previous representative period, and any special factors which may have affected or may be affecting such trade in the product.*
4. Further, as from 1 January 1958 or the earliest practicable date thereafter, contracting parties shall cease to grant either directly or indirectly any form of subsidy on the export of any product other than a primary product which subsidy results in the sale of such product for export at a price lower than the comparable price charged for the like product to buyers in the domestic market.  Until 31 December 1957 no contracting party shall extend the scope of any such subsidization beyond that existing on 1 January 1955 by the introduction of new, or the extension of existing, subsidies.*
5. The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall review the operation of the provisions of this Article from time to time with a view to examining its effectiveness, in the light of actual experience, in promoting the objectives of this Agreement and avoiding subsidization seriously prejudicial to the trade or interests of contracting parties.
    第十六条  补贴
    第一节  一般补贴
    1.任何缔约国如果给予或维持任何补贴,包括任何形式的收入支持或价格支持在内,以直接或间接增加从它的领土输出某种产品或减少向它的领土输入某种产品,它应将这项补贴的性质和范围、这项补贴对输出、输入的产品数量预计可能产生的影响以及这项补贴的必要性,书面通知缔约国全体。如这项补贴经判定对另一缔约国的利益造成重大损害或产生严重威胁,给予补贴的缔约国,应在接到要求后与有关的其它缔约国或缔约国全体讨论限制这项补贴的可能性。第二节对出口补贴的附加规定
    2.缔约各国认为,一缔约国对某一出口产品给予补贴,可能既对进口的其它缔约国,又对出口的其它缔约国造成有害的影响,对它们的正常贸易造成不适当的干扰,并阻碍本协定的目标的实现。
    3.因此,缔约各国应力求避免对初级产品的输出实施补贴。但是,如一缔约国直接或间接给予某种补贴以求增加从它的领土输出某种初级产品,则这一缔约国在实施补贴时不应使它自己在这一产品的世界出口贸易中占有不合理的份额,适当注意前一有代表性时期缔约各国在这种产品的贸易中所占的份额及已经影响或可能正在影响这种产品的贸易的特殊因素。
    4.另外,从1958年1月1日或其后可能的尽早的日期起,对初级产品以外的任何产品,缔约各国不应再直接或间接给予使这种产品的输出售价低于同样产品在国内市场出售时的可比价格的任何形式的补贴。在1957年12月31日以前,任何缔约国不得用实施新的补贴或扩大现有补贴的办法,使前述补贴超出1955年1月1日所实施的范围。
    5.缔约各国应根据实际的经验随时检查本条规定的执行情况,以了解本条规定在促进本协定目标的实现以及避免补贴对缔约各国的贸易和利益造成严重损害方面是否有效。
Article XVII    State Trading Enterprises
1. (a) Each contracting party undertakes that if it establishes or maintains a State enterprise, wherever located, or grants to any enterprise, formally or in effect, exclusive or special privileges,* such enterprise shall, in its purchases or sales involving either imports or exports, act in a manner consistent with the general principles of non-discriminatory treatment prescribed in this Agreement for governmental measures affecting imports or exports by private traders.
(b) The provisions of subparagraph (a) of this paragraph shall be understood to require that such enterprises shall, having due regard to the other provisions of this Agreement, make any such purchases or sales solely in accordance with commercial considerations,* including price, quality, availability, marketability, transportation and other conditions of purchase or sale, and shall afford the enterprises of the other contracting parties adequate opportunity, in accordance with customary business practice, to compete for participation in such purchases or sales.
(c) No contracting party shall prevent any enterprise (whether or not an enterprise described in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph) under its jurisdiction from acting in accordance with the principles of subparagraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to imports of products for immediate or ultimate consumption in governmental use and not otherwise for resale or use in the production of goods* for sale.   With respect to such imports, each contracting party shall accord to the trade of the other contracting parties fair and equitable treatment.
3. The contracting parties recognize that enterprises of the kind described in paragraph 1 (a) of this Article might be operated so as to create serious obstacles to trade;  thus negotiations on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis designed to limit or reduce such obstacles are of importance to the expansion of international trade.*
4. (a) Contracting parties shall notify the CONTRACTING PARTIES of the products which are imported into or exported from their territories by enterprises of the kind described in paragraph 1 (a) of this Article.
(b) A contracting party establishing, maintaining or authorizing an import monopoly of a product, which is not the subject of a concession under Article II, shall, on the request of another contracting party having a substantial trade in the product concerned, inform the CONTRACTING PARTIES of the import mark-up* on the product during a recent representative period, or, when it is not possible to do so, of the price charged on the resale of the product.
(c) The CONTRACTING PARTIES may, at the request of a contracting party which has reason to believe that its interest under this Agreement are being adversely affected by the operations of an enterprise of the kind described in paragraph 1 (a), request the contracting party establishing, maintaining or authorizing such enterprise to supply information about its operations related to the carrying out of the provisions of this Agreement.
(d) The provisions of this paragraph shall not require any contracting party to disclose confidential information which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises.
    第十七条  国营贸易企业
    1.(甲)缔约各国保证:当它建立或维持一个国营企业(不论位于何处),或对一个企业正式或事实上给予独占权或特权时,这种企业在其有关进口或出口的购买和销售方面,应按本协定中关于影响私商进出口货物的政府措施所规定的非歧视待遇的一般原则办理。
    (乙)本款(甲)项的规定应理解为要求国营企业,在购买或销售时除适当注意本协定的其它规定外,应只以商业上的考虑(包括价格、质量、货源多少、推销难易、运输和其它购销条件)作为根据,并根据商业上的惯例对其它缔约国提供参与这次购买或销售的适当竞争机会。
    (丙)一缔约国不得阻止其所管辖下的企业〔不论是否本款(甲)项所述企业〕实施本款(甲)项和(乙)项规定的原则。
    2.本条第1款的规定不适用于政府为目前或今后公用非为出售或生产供销售的商品而进口的产品。每一缔约国应对其它缔约国输入货物的贸易给予公平合理的待遇。
    3.缔约各国认为,本条第1款(甲)项所述企业可能对贸易造成严重损害,因此,在互惠互利的基础上进行谈判以限制或减少这种损害,对国际贸易的扩展是重要的。
    4.(甲)缔约各国应将本条第1款(甲)项所述企业输入到它们的领土或从它们的领土输出的产品通知缔约国全体。
    (乙)缔约国如果对本协定第二条减让范围以外的某一产品建立、维持或授权实施进口垄断,在对这一产品有大量贸易的另一缔约国提出请求后,它应将最近有代表性时期内产品的进口加价,或者(如不能办到的话)将产品的转售价格,通知缔约国全体。
    (丙)当一缔约国有理由认为,它按本协定可享受的利益由于本款(甲)项所述企业的活动正在受到损害,它可以向缔约国全体提出请求,缔约国全体可以据此要求建立、维持或授权建立这种企业的那个缔约国,就其执行本协定的情况提供资料。
    (丁)本款不要求缔约国公布那些妨碍法令贯彻执行或在其它方面有损于公共利益或对某具体企业正当商业利益会造成损害的机密资料。
Article XVIII    Governmental Assistance to Economic Development
1. The contracting parties recognize that the attainment of the objectives of this Agreement will be facilitated by the progressive development of their economies, particularly of those contracting parties the economies of which can only support low standards of living* and are in the early stages of development.*
2. The contracting parties recognize further that it may be necessary for those contracting parties, in order to implement programmes and policies of economic development designed to raise the general standard of living of their people, to take protective or other measures affecting imports, and that such measures are justified in so far as they facilitate the attainment of the objectives of this Agreement.  They agree, therefore, that those contracting parties should enjoy additional facilities to enable them (a) to maintain sufficient flexibility in their tariff structure to be able to grant the tariff protection required for the establishment of a particular industry* and (b) to apply quantitative restrictions for balance of payments purposes in a manner which takes full account of the continued high level of demand for imports likely to be generated by their programmes of economic development.
3. The contracting parties recognize finally that, with those additional facilities which are provided for in Sections A and B of this Article, the provisions of this Agreement would normally be sufficient to enable contracting parties to meet the requirements of their economic development. They agree, however, that there may be circumstances where no measure consistent with those provisions is practicable to permit a contracting party in the process of economic development to grant the governmental assistance required to promote the establishment of particular industries* with a view to raising the general standard of living of its people. Special procedures are laid down in Sections C and D of this Article to deal with those cases.
4. (a) Consequently, a contracting party, the economy of which can only support low standards of living* and is in the early stages of development,* shall be free to deviate temporarily from the provisions of the other Articles of this Agreement, as provided in Sections A, B and C of this Article.
(b) A contracting party, the economy of which is in the process of development, but which does not come within the scope of subparagraph (a) above, may submit applications to the CONTRACTING PARTIES under Section D of this Article.
5. The contracting parties recognize that the export earnings of contracting parties, the economies of which are of the type described in paragraph 4 (a) and (b) above and which depend on exports of a small number of primary commodities, may be seriously reduced by a decline in the sale of such commodities.  Accordingly, when the exports of primary commodities by such a contracting party are seriously affected by measures taken by another contracting party, it may have resort to the consultation provisions of Article XXII of this Agreement.
6. The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall review annually all measures applied pursuant to the provisions of Sections C and D of this Article.
Section A
7. (a) If a contracting party coming within the scope of paragraph 4 (a) of this Article considers it desirable, in order to promote the establishment of a particular industry* with a view to raising the general standard of living of its people, to modify or withdraw a concession included in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement, it shall notify the CONTRACTING PARTIES to this effect and enter into negotiations with any contracting party with which such concession was initially negotiated, and with any other contracting party determined by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to have a substantial interest therein.  If agreement is reached between such contracting parties concerned, they shall be free to modify or withdraw concessions under the appropriate Schedules to this Agreement in order to give effect to such agreement, including any compensatory adjustments involved.
(b) If agreement is not reached within sixty days after the notification provided for in subparagraph (a) above, the contracting party which proposes to modify or withdraw the concession may refer the matter to the CONTRACTING PARTIES which shall promptly examine it.  If they find that the contracting party which proposes to modify or withdraw the concession has made every effort to reach an agreement and that the compensatory adjustment offered by it is adequate, that contracting party shall be free to modify or withdraw the concession if, at the same time, it gives effect to the compensatory adjustment.  If the CONTRACTING PARTIES do not find that the compensation offered by a contracting party proposing to modify or withdraw the concession is adequate, but find that it has made every reasonable effort to offer adequate compensation, that contracting party shall be free to proceed with such modification or withdrawal.  If such action is taken, any other contracting party referred to in subparagraph (a) above shall be free to modify or withdraw substantially equivalent concessions initially negotiated with the contracting party which has taken the action.*
Section B
8. The contracting parties recognize that contracting parties coming within the scope of paragraph 4 (a) of this Article tend, when they are in rapid process of development, to experience balance of payments difficulties arising mainly from efforts to expand their internal markets as well as from the instability in their terms of trade.
9. In order to safeguard its external financial position and to ensure a level of reserves adequate for the implementation of its programme of economic development, a contracting party coming within the scope of paragraph 4 (a) of this Article may, subject to the provisions of paragraphs 10 to 12, control the general level of its imports by restricting the quantity or value of merchandise permitted to be imported;  Provided that the import restrictions instituted, maintained or intensified shall not exceed those necessary:
(a) to forestall the threat of, or to stop, a serious decline in its monetary reserves, or
(b) in the case of a contracting party with inadequate monetary reserves, to achieve a reasonable rate of increase in its reserves.
Due regard shall be paid in either case to any special factors which may be affecting the reserves of the contracting party or its need for reserves, including, where special external credits or other resources are available to it, the need to provide for the appropriate use of such credits or resources.
10. In applying these restrictions, the contracting party may determine their incidence on imports of different products or classes of products in such a way as to give priority to the importation of those products which are more essential in the light of its policy of economic development;  Provided that the restrictions are so applied as to avoid unnecessary damage to the commercial or economic interests of any other contracting party and not to prevent unreasonably the importation of any description of goods in minimum commercial quantities the exclusion of which would impair regular channels of trade;  and Provided further that the restrictions are not so applied as to prevent the importation of commercial samples or to prevent compliance with patent, trade mark, copyright or similar procedures.
11. In carrying out its domestic policies, the contracting party concerned shall pay due regard to the need for restoring equilibrium in its balance of payments on a sound and lasting basis and to the desirability of assuring an economic employment of productive resources.  It shall progressively relax any restrictions applied under this Section as conditions improve, maintaining them only to the extent necessary under the terms of paragraph 9 of this Article and shall eliminate them when conditions no longer justify such maintenance;  Provided that no contracting party shall be required to withdraw or modify restrictions on the ground that a change in its development policy would render unnecessary the restrictions which it is applying under this Section.*
12. (a) Any contracting party applying new restrictions or raising the general level of its existing restrictions by a substantial intensification of the measures applied under this Section, shall immediately after instituting or intensifying such restrictions (or, in circumstances in which prior consultation is practicable, before doing so) consult with the CONTRACTING PARTIES as to the nature of its balance of payments difficulties, alternative corrective measures which may be available, and the possible effect of the restrictions on the economies of other contracting parties.
(b) On a date to be determined by them* the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall review all restrictions still applied under this Section on that date.  Beginning two years after that date, contracting parties applying restrictions under this Section shall enter into consultations of the type provided for in subparagraph (a) above with the CONTRACTING PARTIES at intervals of approximately, but not less than, two years according to a programme to be drawn up each year by the CONTRACTING PARTIES;  Provided that no consultation under this subparagraph shall take place within two years after the conclusion of a consultation of a general nature under any other provision of this paragraph.
(c) (i) If, in the course of consultations with a contracting party under subparagraph (a) or (b) of this paragraph, the CONTRACTING PARTIES find that the restrictions are not consistent with the provisions of this Section or with those of Article XIII (subject to the provisions of Article XIV), they shall indicate the nature of the inconsistency and may advise that the restrictions be suitably modified.
(ii) If, however, as a result of the consultations, the CONTRACTING PARTIES determine that the restrictions are being applied in a manner involving an inconsistency of a serious nature with the provisions of this Section or with those of Article XIII (subject to the provisions of Article XIV) and that damage to the trade of any contracting party is caused or threatened thereby, they shall so inform the contracting party applying the restrictions and shall make appropriate recommendations for securing conformity with such provisions within a specified period.  If such contracting party does not comply with these recommendations within the specified period, the CONTRACTING PARTIES may release any contracting party the trade of which is adversely affected by the restrictions from such obligations under this Agreement towards the contracting party applying the restrictions as they determine to be appropriate in the circumstances.
(d) The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall invite any contracting party which is applying restrictions under this Section to enter into consultations with them at the request of any contracting party which can establish a prima facie case that the restrictions are inconsistent with the provisions of this Section or with those of Article XIII (subject to the provisions of Article XIV) and that its trade is adversely affected thereby.  However, no such invitation shall be issued unless the CONTRACTING PARTIES have ascertained that direct discussions between the contracting parties concerned have not been successful.  If, as a result of the consultations with the CONTRACTING PARTIES no agreement is reached and they determine that the restrictions are being applied inconsistently with such provisions, and that damage to the trade of the contracting party initiating the procedure is caused or threatened thereby, they shall recommend the withdrawal or modification of the restrictions.  If the restrictions are not withdrawn or modified within such time as the CONTRACTING PARTIES may prescribe, they may release the contracting party initiating the procedure from such obligations under this Agreement towards the contracting party applying the restrictions as they determine to be appropriate in the circumstances.
(e) If a contracting party against which action has been taken in accordance with the last sentence of subparagraph (c) (ii) or (d) of this paragraph, finds that the release of obligations authorized by the CONTRACTING PARTIES adversely affects the operation of its programme and policy of economic development, it shall be free, not later than sixty days after such action is taken, to give written notice to the Executive Secretary   to the Contracting Parties of its intention to withdraw from this Agreement and such withdrawal shall take effect on the sixtieth day following the day on which the notice is received by him.
(f) In proceeding under this paragraph, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall have due regard to the factors referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article.  Determinations under this paragraph shall be rendered expeditiously and, if possible, within sixty days of the initiation of the consultations.
Section C
13.  If a contracting party coming within the scope of paragraph 4 (a) of this Article finds that governmental assistance is required to promote the establishment of a particular industry* with a view to raising the general standard of living of its people, but that no measure consistent with the other provisions of this Agreement is practicable to achieve that objective, it may have recourse to the provisions and procedures set out in this Section.*
14. The contracting party concerned shall notify the CONTRACTING PARTIES of the special difficulties which it meets in the achievement of the objective outlined in paragraph 13 of this Article and shall indicate the specific measure affecting imports which it proposes to introduce in order to remedy these difficulties.  It shall not introduce that measure before the expiration of the time-limit laid down in paragraph 15 or 17, as the case may be, or if the measure affects imports of a product which is the subject of a concession included in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement, unless it has secured the concurrence of the CONTRACTING PARTIES in accordance with provisions of paragraph 18;  Provided that, if the industry receiving assistance has already started production, the contracting party may, after informing the CONTRACTING PARTIES, take such measures as may be necessary to prevent, during that period, imports of the product or products concerned from increasing substantially above a normal level.*
15. If, within thirty days of the notification of the measure, the CONTRACTING PARTIES do not request the contracting party concerned to consult with them,* that contracting party shall be free to deviate from the relevant provisions of the other Articles of this Agreement to the extent necessary to apply the proposed measure.
16. If it is requested by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to do so, *the contracting party concerned shall consult with them as to the purpose of the proposed measure, as to alternative measures which may be available under this Agreement, and as to the possible effect of the measure proposed on the commercial and economic interests of other contracting parties.  If, as a result of such consultation, the CONTRACTING PARTIES agree that there is no measure consistent with the other provisions of this Agreement which is practicable in order to achieve the objective outlined in paragraph 13 of this Article, and concur* in the proposed measure, the contracting party concerned shall be released from its obligations under the relevant provisions of the other Articles of this Agreement to the extent necessary to apply that measure.
17. If, within ninety days after the date of the notification of the proposed measure under paragraph 14 of this Article, the CONTRACTING PARTIES have not concurred in such measure, the contracting party concerned may introduce the measure proposed after informing the CONTRACTING PARTIES.
18. If the proposed measure affects a product which is the subject of a concession included in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement, the contracting party concerned shall enter into consultations with any other contracting party with which the concession was initially negotiated, and with any other contracting party determined by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to have a substantial interest therein.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall concur* in the measure if they agree that there is no measure consistent with the other provisions of this Agreement which is practicable in order to achieve the objective set forth in paragraph 13 of this Article, and if they are satisfied:
(a) that agreement has been reached with such other contracting parties as a result of the consultations referred to above, or
(b) if no such agreement has been reached within sixty days after the notification provided for in paragraph 14 has been received by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, that the contracting party having recourse to this Section has made all reasonable efforts to reach an agreement and that the interests of other contracting parties are adequately safeguarded.*
The contracting party having recourse to this Section shall thereupon be released from its obligations under the relevant provisions of the other Articles of this Agreement to the extent necessary to permit it to apply the measure.
19. If a proposed measure of the type described in paragraph 13 of this Article concerns an industry the establishment of which has in the initial period been facilitated by incidental protection afforded by restrictions imposed by the contracting party concerned for balance of payments purposes under the relevant provisions of this Agreement, that contracting party may resort to the provisions and procedures of this Section;  Provided that it shall not apply the proposed measure without the concurrence* of the CONTRACTING PARTIES.*
20. Nothing in the preceding paragraphs of this Section shall authorize any deviation from the provisions of Articles I, II and XIII of this Agreement.  The provisos to paragraph 10 of this Article shall also be applicable to any restriction under this Section.
21. At any time while a measure is being applied under paragraph 17 of this Article any contracting party substantially affected by it may suspend the application to the trade of the contracting party having recourse to this Section of such substantially equivalent concessions or other obligations under this Agreement the suspension of which the CONTRACTING PARTIES do not disapprove;* Provided that sixty days' notice of such suspension is given to the CONTRACTING PARTIES not later than six months after the measure has been introduced or changed substantially to the detriment of the contracting party affected.  Any such contracting party shall afford adequate opportunity for consultation in accordance with the provisions of Article XXII of this Agreement.
Section D
22. A contracting party coming within the scope of subparagraph 4 (b) of this Article desiring, in the interest of the development of its economy, to introduce a measure of the type described in paragraph 13 of this Article in respect of the establishment of a particular industry* may apply to the CONTRACTING PARTIES for approval of such measure.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall promptly consult with such contracting party and shall, in making their decision, be guided by the considerations set out in paragraph 16.  If the CONTRACTING PARTIES concur* in the proposed measure the contracting party concerned shall be released from its obligations under the relevant provisions of the other Articles of this Agreement to the extent necessary to permit it to apply the measure.  If the proposed measure affects a product which is the subject of a concession included in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement, the provisions of paragraph 18 shall apply.*
23. Any measure applied under this Section shall comply with the provisions of paragraph 20 of this Article.
    第十八条  政府对经济发展的援助
    1.缔约各国认为,缔约各国,特别是那些只能维持生活水平处在发展初级阶段的缔约国的经济的逐步增长,将有助于实现本协定的宗旨。
    2.缔约各国还认为,为了实施目的在于提高人民一般生活水平的经济发展计划和政策,这些缔约国可能有必要采取影响进口的保护措施或其它措施,而且,只要这些措施有助于实现本协定的宗旨,它们就有存在的理由。因此,缔约各国同意,这些缔约国应该享受额外的便利,使它们(甲)在关税结构方面能够保持足够的弹性,得为某一特定工业的建立提供需要的关税保护;
    (乙)在充分考虑它们的经济发展计划可能造成的持续高水平的进口需求的条件下,能够为国际收支目的而实施数量限制。
    3.最后,缔约各国认为,有了本条第一节和第二节规定的额外便利,本协定的规定在正常情况下将能足够满足缔约各国的经济发展的需要。但是,缔约各国同意,可能有一些找不到符合上述规定措施的情况。在这种情况下,一个经济处在发展阶段的缔约国政府,就不能为了提高人民生活的一般水平,而对某些特定工业的加速建立提供必需的援助。为了处理这些情况,本条第三节和第四节规定了特别程序。
    4.(甲)因此,凡是只能维持低生活水平、经济处在发展初期阶段的缔约国,有权按本条第一节、第二节和第三节暂时背离本协定其它各条的规定。
    (乙)凡是经济处在发展阶段,但又不属于上述(甲)项规定范围的缔约国,可以根据本条第四节的规定向缔约国全体提出申请。
    5.缔约各国认为,经济属于上面第4款(甲)项和(乙)项所述类型并依赖少数初级产品出口的缔约国的出口收入,会因这些产品销售的下降而严重减少。因此,当这种缔约国的初级产品的出口受到另一缔约国所采取的措施的严重影响时,它可以引用本协定第二十二条规定的协商程序。
    6.缔约国全体应每年检查按本条第三节和第四节而实施的一切措施。
    第一节  
    7.(甲)如果本条第4款(甲)项规定范围内的一缔约国为了加速某一特定工业的建立以提高人民的一般生活水平,认为有必要修改或撤销本协定有关减让表中所列的某项减让,它应将上述情况通知缔约国全体,并应与原来跟它谈判减让的任何缔约国和缔约国全体认为对此有实质利害关系的任何其它缔约国进行谈判。如在这些有关的缔约国之间能够达成协议,这些缔约国为了能将达成的协议付诸实施,应有权对本协定有关减让表中所列的减让,包括有关的补偿性调整在内,加以修改或撤销。
    (乙)如在上述(甲)项规定的通知发出以后60天内不能达成协议,则建议修改或撤销减让的缔约国可将这个问题提交缔约国全体,缔约国全体应迅速加以研究。如缔约国全体认为,建议修改或撤销减让的缔约国为了达成协议已尽了一切努力,而且它所提供的补偿性调整也是适当的,则这一缔约国,只要它同时准备将补偿性调整付诸实施,可以修改或撤销减让。如缔约国全体认为,建议修改或撤销减让的缔约国所提供的补偿性调整是不适当的,但它已为提供适当的补偿作了一切合理的努力,则这一缔约国可以继续这种修改或撤销。它如果采取这项行动,上述(甲)项规定中所述的任何其它缔约国,可以对原与它谈判达成的减让,作基本上相等的修改或撤销。
    第二节  
    8.缔约各国认为,本条第4款(甲)项规定范围内的缔约国,在它们的经济迅速发展的过程中,主要由于努力扩大国内市场和由于贸易条件的不稳定,往往会面临国际收支的困难。
    9.为了保护对外金融地位和保证有一定水平的储备以满足实施经济发展计划的需要,本条第4款(甲)项规定范围内的一缔约国可以在本条第10款至第12款规定的限制下,采取限制准许进口的商品的数量或价值的办法来控制它的进口的一般水平;但是,所建立、维持或加强的进口限制不得超过:
    (甲)为了预防货币储备严重下降的威胁或制止货币储备下降所必需的程度;
    或者
    (乙)货币储备不足的缔约国,为了使货币储备能够合理增长所必需的程度。
    在这两种情况下,对可能正在影响这一缔约国的储备或其对储备需要的任何特殊因素,包括在能够得到特别的国外信贷或其它资源的情况下安排适当使用这种信贷或资源的需要,都应加以适当的考虑。
    10.缔约国在实施上述进口限制时,可以对不同进口产品或不同进口产品的不同类别确定不同的限制方式,以使从经济发展政策来看比较必需的产品能够优先进口;但是,实施的限制应避免对任何其他缔约国的贸易或经济利益造成不必要的损害;不应无理地阻碍任何商品的完全禁止其输入即会损害正常贸易渠道的那种最低贸易数量的输入;也不应阻碍商业货样的输入及专利权、商标、版权或类似程序的遵守。
    11.有关缔约国在执行国内政策时,应适当注意使自己的国际收支在健全而持久的基础上恢复平衡的必要性以及保证生产资源的经济使用的好处。如情况改善,有关缔约国应逐步放宽按本节规定而实施的限制,它们所维持的限制应以本条第9款规定的条件使它们有必要实施的为限。当情况改变已无必要维持这些限制时,应立即予以取消。但是,不得以它的发展政策的改变会使按本节实施的限制成为不必要为理由,而要求一缔约国撤销或修改这种限制。
    12.(甲)建立新的限制,或者大幅度加强按本节实施的措施而提高现行限制一般水平的任何缔约国,应于建立或加强限制后(如能事前协商则应于建立或加强前)立即与缔约国全体就自己国际收支困难的性质,可能采取的其它补救办法,以及这些限制对其它缔约国的经济可能造成的影响进行协商。
    (乙)缔约国全体应在其确定的某一日期,检查在那一日期按本节规定仍在实施的一切限制。从那一日期后两年开始,凡按本节规定实施进口限制的缔约各国应约每隔两年(但不短于两年),按缔约国全体每年拟订的计划,同缔约国全体进行上面(甲)项规定的那种协商。但是,在按本款其它规定进行的一般性协商结束还不到两年的时期内,本项规定的协商不应进行。
    (丙)(1)缔约国全体在按本款(甲)项或(乙)项同一缔约国进行协商的过程中,如判定实施的限制与本节或本协定第八条(受本协定第十四条的限制)的规定不符,它们应指出不符的性质,并可建议对限制作适当的修改。
    (2)但是,如缔约国全体经协商后认为,正在实施的限制严重地与本节或与本协定第十三条(受本协定第十四条的限制)的规定不符,认为它对另一缔约国的贸易造成损害或构成威胁,它们应将这一情况通知实施限制的缔约国,并应提出适当的建议,以保证这些规定在一定期限内能得到遵守。如实施限制的缔约国在规定限制内不执行这些建议,缔约国全体在认为必要时,可以解除贸易受到不利影响的那个缔约国根据本协定对实施限制的缔约国所承担的义务。
    (丁)如一缔约国有理由认为,另一缔约国按本节而实施的限制系与本节或本协定第十三条(受本协定第十四条的限制)的规定不符,并认为因此它的贸易受到不利的影响,它可以提出要求,请缔约国全体邀请实施限制的缔约国与缔约国全体进行协商。缔约国全体应先查明在这两个有关的缔约国之间进行了直接讨论,未能达成协议,才能发出这样的邀请。经与缔约国全体协商,如果仍不能达成协议,而缔约国全体又认为正在实施与上述规定不符的限制,因而对提出这一程序的那个缔约国的贸易造成损害或构成威胁,则缔约国全体应建议撤销或修改这项限制。如在缔约国全体规定的限制内,这项限制并未撤销或修改,缔约国全体如果认为必要,可以解除提出这一程序的缔约国按本协定对实施限制的缔约国所承担的义务。
    (戊)在按本款(丙)(2)项末句或按本款(丁)项的规定对一缔约国采取行动后,这一缔约国如果认为,缔约国全体批准的义务解除对它的经济发展计划和政策的实施发生有害的影响,则这一缔约国在不迟于采取这项行动以后的60天内,可以将退出本协定的意图用书面通知缔约国全体执行秘书长,自秘书长收到书面通知以后第六十天起,此项退出开始生效。
    (己)在按本款规定办理时,缔约国全体应适当注意本条第2款所述因素。按本款作出的决定应迅速作出,如果可能,应在开始协调后的60天内作出。
    第三节  
    13.本条第4款(甲)项规定范围内的一缔约国如果发现:为了提高人民的一般生活水平,有必要对某一特定工业的加速建立提供政府援助,但是,采取符合本协定其它规定的措施却无法达到这一目的,则这一缔约国可以引用本节的条款和程序。
    14.有关缔约国为实现本条第13款所述目标而面临的特殊困难,它应通知缔约国全体,并应说明准备采取什么影响进口的措施以克服这些困难。在本条第10款或第17款规定的时期分别满期以前,有关缔约国不得采用这种措施;
    或者,如所采取的措施影响本协定有关减让表所列减让对象的产品的进口,除按本条第18款得到缔约国全体同意以外,有关缔约国也不得采用这种措施。但如接受援助的工业已经开始生产,则有关缔约国于通知缔约国全体后,可以采取必要的措施以防止在这一段时期内有关产品的进口大大超过正常水平。
    15.经通知缔约国全体拟采取的措施以后,如缔约国全体在30天内尚未要求有关缔约国与它进行协商,则这一缔约国在实施所提措施的必要程度内,可以背离本协定其它各条的有关规定。
    16.如果缔约国全体提出要求,有关缔约国应与缔约国全体协商所提措施的目的,可能采取的本协定许可的其它补救办法以及所提措施可能对其它缔约国的商业或经济利益产生的影响。经协商结果,如果缔约国全体也认为,为了实现本条第13款所列目标,本协定其它规定许可采取的措施都是不切实际的,并对有关缔约国所提的措施表示同意,则有关缔约国在实施这些措施所必需的程度内应解除本协定其它各条所规定的有关义务。
    17.按本条第14款提出的措施通知缔约国全体以后,缔约国全体若在90天内尚未表示同意,有关缔约国于报告缔约国全体后可以采用这一措施。
    18.如果所提的措施影响本协定有关减让表所列减让对象的产品,有关缔约国应与原谈判这一减让的任何其它缔约国以及缔约国全体认为与此有实质利害关系的任何其它缔约国进行协商。如果缔约国全体也认为,为了实现本条第13款规定的目标,本协定其它规定许可采取的措施都是不切实际的,并且缔约国全体查明:
    (甲)有关缔约国与其它缔约国进行上述协商已经达成协议;或者
    (乙)如果在缔约国全体接到通知以后60天内尚未达成协议,引用本节规定的缔约国为了达成协议已经作了一切努力,并对其它缔约国的利益已经给予适当的保护。
    则缔约国全体应同意提出的措施。引用本节规定的缔约国在实施措施所必需的程度内,应因此解除本协定其它各条的有关义务。
    19.本条第13款所述的那种拟采取的措施,如果所涉及的工业,在建立初期由于有关缔约国因国际收支的理由根据本协定有关规定实施限制产生间接影响而得到加速,则这一缔约国可以引用本节的规定和程序;但未经缔约国全体同意,这项拟采取的措施不得加以实施。
    20.本节前述各款并非授权可以对本协定第一条、第二条和第八条的规定有任何背离。本条第10款的限制也适用于根据本节而采取的任何限制。
    21.当按本条第17款的规定实施一种措施时,凡因此受到实质影响的任何缔约国,可以对引用本节规定的缔约国的贸易,暂停实施本协定规定的那些大体上对等的减让或其它义务,如果缔约国全体对此不表示异议的话;但是,在使缔约国遭受损害的措施建立或实质改变后的6个月内,应向缔约国全体发出此项暂停的60天预先通知书。任何一个这类缔约国均应按本协定第二十二条的规定提供适当的协商机会。第四节
    22.本条第4款(乙)项规定范围内的一缔约国为了发展它的经济,拟对某特定工业的建立采用本条第13款所述的那种措施时,可以申请缔约国全体批准实施这项措施。缔约国全体应立即与申请的缔约国协商,并应以本条第16款所列因素为指导作出它的决定。如缔约国全体同意提出的措施,则应在能够实施措施的必要程度内,解除有关缔约国根据本协定其它各条的有关规定所承担的义务。如提出的措施所影响的产品是本协定有关减让表所列减让的对象,则本条第18款的规定应予适用。
    23.按本节而实施的任何措施,应符合本条第20款的规定。
Article XIX    Emergency Action on Imports of Particular Products
1. (a) If, as a result of unforeseen developments and of the effect of the obligations incurred by a contracting party under this Agreement, including tariff concessions, any product is being imported into the territory of that contracting party in such increased quantities and under such conditions as to cause or threaten serious injury to domestic producers in that territory of like or directly competitive products, the contracting party shall be free, in respect of such product, and to the extent and for such time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy such injury, to suspend the obligation in whole or in part or to withdraw or modify the concession.
(b) If any product, which is the subject of a concession with respect to a preference, is being imported into the territory of a contracting party in the circumstances set forth in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, so as to cause or threaten serious injury to domestic producers of like or directly competitive products in the territory of a contracting party which receives or received such preference, the importing contracting party shall be free, if that other contracting party so requests, to suspend the relevant obligation in whole or in part or to withdraw or modify the concession in respect of the product, to the extent and for such time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy such injury.
2. Before any contracting party shall take action pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, it shall give notice in writing to the CONTRACTING PARTIES as far in advance as may be practicable and shall afford the CONTRACTING PARTIES and those contracting parties having a substantial interest as exporters of the product concerned an opportunity to consult with it in respect of the proposed action.  When such notice is given in relation to a concession with respect to a preference, the notice shall name the contracting party which has requested the action.  In critical circumstances, where delay would cause damage which it would be difficult to repair, action under paragraph 1 of this Article may be taken provisionally without prior consultation, on the condition that consultation shall be effected immediately after taking such action.
3. (a) If agreement among the interested contracting parties with respect to the action is not reached, the contracting party which proposes to take or continue the action shall, nevertheless, be free to do so, and if such action is taken or continued, the affected contracting parties shall then be free, not later than ninety days after such action is taken, to suspend, upon the expiration of thirty days from the day on which written notice of such suspension is received by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, the application to the trade of the contracting party taking such action, or, in the case envisaged in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article, to the trade of the contracting party requesting such action, of such substantially equivalent concessions or other obligations under this Agreement the suspension of which the CONTRACTING PARTIES do not disapprove.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, where action is taken under paragraph 2 of this Article without prior consultation and causes or threatens serious injury in the territory of a contracting party to the domestic producers of products affected by the action, that contracting party shall, where delay would cause damage difficult to repair, be free to suspend, upon the taking of the action and throughout the period of consultation, such concessions or other obligations as may be necessary to prevent or remedy the injury.
    第十九条  对某种产品的进口的紧急措施
    1.(甲)如因意外情况的发展或因一缔约国承担本协定义务(包括关税减让在内)而产生的影响,使某一产品输入到这一缔约国领土的数量大为增加,对这一领土内相同产品或与它直接竞争产品的国内生产者造成重大的损害或产生重大的威胁时,这一缔约国在防止或纠正这种损害所必需的程度和时间内,可以对上述产品全部或部分地暂停实施其所承担的义务,或者撤销或修改减让。
    (乙)属于优惠减让对象的某一产品,如在本款(甲)项所述情形下输入到一缔约国领土,并因此对目前或过去享受这种优惠的另一缔约国领土内的相同产品或与它直接竞争的产品的国内生产者造成重大损害或产生重大威胁时,经过另一缔约国提出请求后,输入这种产品的缔约国可以在防止或纠正这种损害所必需的程度和时间内,全部或部分地对这种产品暂停实施所承担的有关减让,或者撤销或修改减让。
    2.缔约国在根据本条第1款的规定采取行动以前,应尽可能提前用书面通知缔约国全体,以便缔约国全体及与这项产品的出口有实质利害关系的缔约国,有机会与它就拟采取的行动进行协商。如涉及的是有关优惠方面的减让,在书面通知中应注明要求采取行动的缔约国的名称。在紧急情况下,如果延迟会造成难于补救的损害,不经事前协商,可以采取本条第1款规定的行动,但在采取行动以后,必须立即进行协商。
    3.(甲)如在有利害关系的缔约国之间不能就这项行动达成协议,则提议采取或维持这项行动的缔约国仍然可以执行它。当它这样做以后,受到影响的缔约国在采取这项行动以后的90天内,可以从缔约国全体收到暂停实施减让的书面通知之日起30天期满以后,对采取这项行动的缔约国的贸易,暂停实施本协定规定的那些大体上对等的减让或其它义务,或如为本条第1款(乙)项所述情况,对要求采取这项行动的缔约国,暂停实施这种减让或其它义务,如果缔约国全体对此不表示异议。(乙)在未经事前协商按本条第2款采取行动并因此对一缔约国领土产品的国内生产者造成重大损害或产生重大威胁的情况下,尽管有本款(甲)项的规定,如果延迟会造成难于补救的损失,则那一缔约国在这项行动采取以后以及在整个协商期间,可以暂停实施防止或纠正损害所必需的那种减让或其它义务。
Article XX    General Exceptions
Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures:
(a) necessary to protect public morals;
(b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health;
(c) relating to the importations or exportations of gold or silver;
(d) necessary to secure compliance with laws or regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, including those relating to customs enforcement, the enforcement of monopolies operated under paragraph 4 of Article II and Article XVII, the protection of patents, trade marks and copyrights, and the prevention of deceptive practices;
(e) relating to the products of prison labour;
(f) imposed for the protection of national treasures of artistic, historic or archaeological value;
(g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption;
(h) undertaken in pursuance of obligations under any intergovernmental commodity agreement which conforms to criteria submitted to the CONTRACTING PARTIES and not disapproved by them or which is itself so submitted and not so disapproved;*
(i) involving restrictions on exports of domestic materials necessary to ensure essential quantities of such materials to a domestic processing industry during periods when the domestic price of such materials is held below the world price as part of a governmental stabilization plan;  Provided that such restrictions shall not operate to increase the exports of or the protection afforded to such domestic industry, and shall not depart from the provisions of this Agreement relating to non-discrimination;
(j) essential to the acquisition or distribution of products in general or local short supply;  Provided that any such measures shall be consistent with the principle that all contracting parties are entitled to an equitable share of the international supply of such products, and that any such measures, which are inconsistent with the other provisions of the Agreement shall be discontinued as soon as the conditions giving rise to them have ceased to exist.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall review the need for this sub-paragraph not later than 30 June 1960.
    第二十条  一般例外
    本协定的规定不得解释为禁止缔约国采用或加强以下措施,但对情况相同的各国,实施的措施不得构成武断的或不合理的差别待遇,或构成对国际贸易的变相限制:
    (甲)为维持公共道德所必需的措施;
    (乙)为保障人民、动植物的生命或健康所必需的措施;
    (丙)有关输出或输入黄金或白银的措施;
    (丁)为了保证某些与本协定的规定并无抵触的法令或条例的贯彻执行所必需的措施,包括加强海关法令或条例,加强根据协定第二条第4款和第十四条而实施的垄断,保护专利权、商标及版权,以及防止欺诈行为所必需的措施;
    (戊)有关罪犯产品的措施;
    (己)为保护本国具有艺术、历史或考古价值的文物而采取的措施;
    (庚)与国内限制生产与消费的措施相配合,为有效保护可能用竭的天然资源的有关措施;
    (辛)如果商品协定所遵守的原则已向缔约国全体提出,缔约国全体未表示异议,或商品协定本身已向缔约国全体提出,缔约国全体未表示异议,为履行这种国际商品协定所承担的义务而采取的措施;
    (申)在国内原料的价格被压低到低于国际价格水平,作为政府稳定计划的一部分的期间内,为了保证国内加工工业对这些原料的基本需要,有必要采取的限制这些原料出口的措施;
    但不得利用限制来增加此种国内工业的出口或对其提供保护,也不得背离本协定的有关非歧视的规定;
    (酉)在普遍或局部供应不足的情况下,为获取或分配产品所必需采取的措施;但采取的措施必须符合以下原则:所有缔约国在这些产品的国际供应中都有权占有公平的份额,而且,如采取的措施与本协定的其它规定不符,它应在导致其实施的条件不复存在时,立即予以停止。最迟于1960年6月30日以前,缔约国全体应对本项规定的需要情况进行检查。
Article XXI    Security Exceptions
Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed
(a) to require any contracting party to furnish any information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to its essential security interests;  or
(b) to prevent any contracting party from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interest
(i) relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived; 
(ii) relating to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment;
(iii) taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations;  or
(c) to prevent any contracting party from taking any action in pursuance of its obligations under the United Nations Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security.
    第二十一条  安全例外
    本协定不得解释为:
    (甲)要求任何缔约国提供其根据国家基本安全利益认为不能公布的资料;或
    (乙)阻止任何缔约国为保护国家基本安全利益对有关下列事项采取其认为必需采取的任何行动:
    (1)裂变材料或提炼裂变材料的原料;
    (2)武器、弹药和军火的贸易或直接和间接供军事机构用的其它物品或原料的贸易;
    (3)战时或国际关系中的其它紧急情况;或
    (丙)阻止任何缔约国根据联合国宪章为维持国际和平和安全而采取行动。
Article XXII    Consultation
1. Each contracting party shall accord sympathetic consideration to, and shall afford adequate opportunity for consultation regarding, such representations as may be made by another contracting party with respect to any matter affecting the operation of this Agreement.
2. The CONTRACTING PARTIES may, at the request of a contracting party, consult with any contracting party or parties in respect of any matter for which it has not been possible to find a satisfactory solution through consultation under paragraph 1.
    第二十二条  协商
    1.当一缔约国对影响本协定执行的任何事项向另一缔约国提出要求时,另一缔约国应给予同情的考虑,并应给予适当的机会进行协商。
    2.经一缔约国提出请求,缔约国全体对经本条第1款协商但未达成圆满结论的任何事项,可与另一缔约国或另几个缔约国进行协商。
Article XXIII    Nullification or Impairment
1. If any contracting party should consider that any benefit accruing to it directly or indirectly under this Agreement is being nullified or impaired or that the attainment of any objective of the Agreement is being impeded as the result of
(a) the failure of another contracting party to carry out its obligations under this Agreement, or
(b) the application by another contracting party of any measure, whether or not it conflicts with the provisions of this Agreement, or
(c) the existence of any other situation,
the contracting party may, with a view to the satisfactory adjustment of the matter, make written representations or proposals to the other contracting party or parties which it considers to be concerned.  Any contracting party thus approached shall give sympathetic consideration to the representations or proposals made to it.
2. If no satisfactory adjustment is effected between the contracting parties concerned within a reasonable time, or if the difficulty is of the type described in paragraph 1 (c) of this Article, the matter may be referred to the CONTRACTING PARTIES.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall promptly investigate any matter so referred to them and shall make appropriate recommendations to the contracting parties which they consider to be concerned, or give a ruling on the matter, as appropriate.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES may consult with contracting parties, with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and with any appropriate inter-governmental organization in cases where they consider such consultation necessary.  If the CONTRACTING PARTIES consider that the circumstances are serious enough to justify such action, they may authorize a contracting party or parties to suspend the application to any other contracting party or parties of such concessions or other obligations under this Agreement as they determine to be appropriate in the circumstances.  If the application to any contracting party of any concession or other obligation is in fact suspended, that contracting party shall then be free, not later than sixty days after such action is taken, to give written notice to the Executive Secretary  to the Contracting Parties of its intention to withdraw from this Agreement and such withdrawal shall take effect upon the sixtieth day following the day on which such notice is received by him.
PART III
    第二十三条  利益的丧失或损害
    1.如一缔约国认为,由于(甲)另一缔约国未能实施其对本协定所承担的义务;或
    (乙)另一缔约国实施某种措施(不论这一措施是否与本协定的规定有抵触);或
    (丙)存在着任何其它情况。
    它根据本协定直接或间接可享受的利益正在丧失或受到损害,或者使本协定规定的目标的实现受到阻碍,则这一缔约国为了使问题能得到满意的调整,可以向其认为有关的缔约国提出书面请求或建议。有关缔约国对提出的请求或建议应给予同情的考虑。
    2.如有关缔约国在合理期间内尚不能达成满意的调整办法,或者困难属于第1款(丙)项所述类型,这一问题可以提交缔约国全体处理。缔约国全体对此应立即进行研究,并应向它所认为的有关缔约国提出适当建议,或者酌量对此问题作出裁决。缔约国全体如认为必要,可以与缔约各国、与联合国经社理事会和与任何国际机构进行协商。如缔约国全体认为,情况严重以致有必要批准某缔约国斟酌实际情况对其它缔约国暂停实施本协定规定的减让或其它义务,它可以如此办理。如对一缔约国的减让或其它义务事实上已暂停实施,则这一缔约国在这项行动采取后的60天内,可以书面通知缔约国全体执行秘书长拟退出本协定,而自秘书长收到通知书后的60天开始,退出应即正式生效。
    第三部分
Article XXIV    Territorial Application - Frontier Traffic - Customs Unions and Free-trade Areas
1. The provisions of this Agreement shall apply to the metropolitan customs territories of the contracting parties and to any other customs territories in respect of which this Agreement has been accepted under Article XXVI or is being applied under Article XXXIII or pursuant to the Protocol of Provisional Application.  Each such customs territory shall, exclusively for the purposes of the territorial application of this Agreement, be treated as though it were a contracting party;  Provided that the provisions of this paragraph shall not be construed to create any rights or obligations as between two or more customs territories in respect of which this Agreement has been accepted under Article XXVI or is being applied under Article XXXIII or pursuant to the Protocol of Provisional Application by a single contracting party.
2. For the purposes of this Agreement a customs territory shall be understood to mean any territory with respect to which separate tariffs or other regulations of commerce are maintained for a substantial part of the trade of such territory with other territories.
3. The provisions of this Agreement shall not be construed to prevent:
(a) Advantages accorded by any contracting party to adjacent countries in order to facilitate frontier traffic; 
(b) Advantages accorded to the trade with the Free Territory of Trieste by countries contiguous to that territory, provided that such advantages are not in conflict with the Treaties of Peace arising out of the Second World War.
4. The contracting parties recognize the desirability of increasing freedom of trade by the development, through voluntary agreements, of closer integration between the economies of the countries parties to such agreements.  They also recognize that the purpose of a customs union or of a free-trade area should be to facilitate trade between the constituent territories and not to raise barriers to the trade of other contracting parties with such territories.
5. Accordingly, the provisions of this Agreement shall not prevent, as between the territories of contracting parties, the formation of a customs union or of a free-trade area or the adoption of an interim agreement necessary for the formation of a customs union or of a free-trade area;  Provided that:
(a) with respect to a customs union, or an interim agreement leading to a formation of a customs union, the duties and other regulations of commerce imposed at the institution of any such union or interim agreement in respect of trade with contracting parties not parties to such union or agreement shall not on the whole be higher or more restrictive than the general incidence of the duties and regulations of commerce applicable in the constituent territories prior to the formation of such union or the adoption of such interim agreement, as the case may be; 
(b) with respect to a free-trade area, or an interim agreement leading to the formation of a free-trade area, the duties and other regulations of commerce maintained in each of the constituent territories and applicable at the formation of such free trade area or the adoption of such interim agreement to the trade of contracting parties not included in such area or not parties to such agreement shall not be higher or more restrictive than the corresponding duties and other regulations of commerce existing in the same constituent territories prior to the formation of the free-trade area, or interim agreement as the case may be;  and
(c) any interim agreement referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b) shall include a plan and schedule for the formation of such a customs union or of such a free-trade area within a reasonable length of time.
6. If, in fulfilling the requirements of subparagraph 5 (a), a contracting party proposes to increase any rate of duty inconsistently with the provisions of Article II, the procedure set forth in Article XXVIII shall apply.  In providing for compensatory adjustment, due account shall be taken of the compensation already afforded by the reduction brought about in the corresponding duty of the other constituents of the union.
7. (a) Any contracting party deciding to enter into a customs union or free-trade area, or an interim agreement leading to the formation of such a union or area, shall promptly notify the CONTRACTING PARTIES and shall make available to them such information regarding the proposed union or area as will enable them to make such reports and recommendations to contracting parties as they may deem appropriate.
(b) If, after having studied the plan and schedule included in an interim agreement referred to in paragraph 5 in consultation with the parties to that agreement and taking due account of the information made available in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (a), the CONTRACTING PARTIES find that such agreement is not likely to result in the formation of a customs union or of a free-trade area within the period contemplated by the parties to the agreement or that such period is not a reasonable one, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall make recommendations to the parties to the agreement.  The parties shall not maintain or put into force, as the case may be, such agreement if they are not prepared to modify it in accordance with these recommendations.
(c) Any substantial change in the plan or schedule referred to in paragraph 5 (c) shall be communicated to the CONTRACTING PARTIES, which may request the contracting parties concerned to consult with them if the change seems likely to jeopardize or delay unduly the formation of the customs union or of the free-trade area.
8. For the purposes of this Agreement:
(a) A customs union shall be understood to mean the substitution of a single customs territory for two or more customs territories, so that
(i) duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce (except, where necessary, those permitted under Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV and XX) are eliminated with respect to substantially all the trade between the constituent territories of the union or at least with respect to substantially all the trade in products originating in such territories, and,
(ii) subject to the provisions of paragraph 9, substantially the same duties and other regulations of commerce are applied by each of the members of the union to the trade of territories not included in the union;
(b) A free-trade area shall be understood to mean a group of two or more customs territories in which the duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce (except, where necessary, those permitted under Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV and XX) are eliminated on substantially all the trade between the constituent territories in products originating in such territories.
9. The preferences referred to in paragraph 2 of Article I shall not be affected by the formation of a customs union or of a free-trade area but may be eliminated or adjusted by means of negotiations with contracting parties affected.*  This procedure of negotiations with affected contracting parties shall, in particular, apply to the elimination of preferences required to conform with the provisions of paragraph 8 (a)(i) and paragraph 8 (b).
10. The CONTRACTING PARTIES may by a two-thirds majority approve proposals which do not fully comply with the requirements of paragraphs 5 to 9 inclusive, provided that such proposals lead to the formation of a customs union or a free-trade area in the sense of this Article.
11. Taking into account the exceptional circumstances arising out of the establishment of India and Pakistan as independent States and recognizing the fact that they have long constituted an economic unit, the contracting parties agree that the provisions of this Agreement shall not prevent the two countries from entering into special arrangements with respect to the trade between them, pending the establishment of their mutual trade relations on a definitive basis.*
12. Each contracting party shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to ensure observance of the provisions of this Agreement by the regional and local governments and authorities within its territories.
    第二十四条  适用的领土范围边境贸易关税联盟和自由贸易区
    1.本协定的各项规定,应适用于缔约国本国的关税领土,适用于按照第二十六条接受本协定或按照第三十三条或《临时实施议定书》实施本协定的任何其它关税领土。每一个这样的关税领土,从本协定的领土适用范围来说,应把它作为一个缔约国对待。但本款的规定不得解释为:一缔约国按照第二十六条接受本协定或按照第三十三条或《临时实施议定书》实施本协定的,即因此在两个或两个以上的关税领土之间产生任何权利或义务。
    2.本协定所称的关税领土,应理解为一个与其它领土之间的大部分贸易保持着单独税率或其它单独贸易规章的领土。
    3.本协定的各项规定,不得阻止(甲)任何缔约国为便利边境贸易对毗邻国家给予某种利益;
    (乙)毗邻的里雅斯得自由区的国家,对与这一自由区进行的贸易给予某种利益,但这些利益不能与第二次世界大战后缔结的和平条约相抵触。
    4.缔约各国认为,通过自愿签订协定发展各国之间经济的一体化,以扩大贸易的自由化是有好处的。缔约各国还认为,成立关税联盟或自由贸易区的目的,应为便利组成联盟或自由贸易区的各领土之间的贸易,但对其它缔约国与这些领土之间进行的贸易,不得提高壁垒。
    5.因此,本协定的各项规定,不得阻止缔约各国在其领土之间建立关税联盟或自由贸易区,或为建立关税联盟或自由贸易区的需要采用某种临时协定,但是,(甲)对关税联盟或过渡到关税联盟的临时协定来说,建立起来的这种联盟或临时协定对未参加联盟或临时协定的缔约各国的贸易所实施的关税和其它贸易规章,大体上不得高于或严于未建立联盟或临时协定时各组成领土所实施的关税和贸易规章的一般限制水平;
    (乙)对自由贸易区或过渡到自由贸易区的临时协定来说,在建立自由贸易区或采用临时协定以后,每个组成领土维持的对未参加贸易区或临时协定的缔约各国贸易所适用的关税和其它贸易规章,不得高于或严于同一组成领土在未成立自由贸易区或临时协定时所实施的相当关税和其它贸易规章,以及(丙)本款(甲)项和(乙)项所称的临时协定,应具有一个在合理期间内成立关税联盟和自由贸易区的计划和进程表。
    6.在实施本条第5款(甲)项要求的时候,一缔约国所拟增加的税率如与本协定第二条不符,则本协定第二十八条的程序,应予适用。在提供补偿性调整时,应适当考虑联盟的其它成员在减低相应的关税方面已提供的补偿。
    7.(甲)任何缔约国决定加入关税联盟或自由贸易区,或签订成立关税联盟或自由贸易区的临时协定,应当及时通知缔约国全体,并应向其提供有关拟议的联盟或贸易区的资料,以便缔约国全体得以斟酌向缔约各国提出报告和建议。
    (乙)经与参加本条第5款所述临时协定的各方对协定所包括的计划和进程表协商研究,并适当考虑本款(甲)项所提供的资料以后,如缔约国全体发现:参加协定各方在所拟议的期间内不可能组成关税联盟或自由贸易区,或认为所拟议的期间不够合理,缔约国全体应向参加协定各方提出建议,如参加协定各方不准备按照这些建议修改临时协定,则有关协定不得维持或付诸实施。
    (丙)本条第5款(丙)项所述计划或进程表的任何重要修改,应通知缔约国全体。如果这一改变将危及或不适当地延迟关税联盟或自由贸易区的建立,缔约国全体可以要求同有关缔约国进行协商。
    8.在本协定内,(甲)关税联盟应理解为以一个单独的关税领土代替两个或两个以上的关税领土,因此,(1)对联盟的组成领土之间的贸易,或至少对这些领土产品的实质上所有贸易,实质上已取消关税和其它贸易限制(在必要时,按照本协定第十一条、第十二条、第十三条、第十四条、第十五条和第二十条规定准许的,可以除外)。
    (2)除受本条第9款的限制以外,联盟的每个成员对于联盟以外领土的贸易,已实施实质上同样的关税或其它贸易规章。
    (乙)自由贸易区应理解为由两个或两个以上的关税领土所组成的一个对这些组成领土的产品的贸易,已实质上取消关税或其它贸易限制(在必要时,按照第十一条、第十二条、第十三条、第十四条、第十五条和第二十条规定准许的,可以除外)的集团。
    9.本协定第一条第2款的优惠,不应因建立关税联盟或自由贸易区而受到影响,但可以与有关缔约国谈判加以调整或取消。当需要按照第八款(甲)项(1)和第8款(乙)项的规定取消优惠时,这种与有关缔约各国进行谈判的程序应特别适用。
    10.缔约国全体经2/3的多数通过,可以批准与本条第5款至第9款的要求不完全相符但系为建立本条所称的关税联盟或自由贸易区的建议。
    11.考虑到印度和巴基斯坦各自建成独立国家这一特殊情况,并承认这两个国家系长期组成一个经济单位这个事实,缔约各国同意,在它们之间的贸易关系尚未建立在确定的基础上以前,本协定的各项规定将不阻止这两个国家对它们的贸易作出特别安排。
    12.缔约国应采取一切可能采取的合理措施,保证在它的领土内的地区政府和当局及地方政府和当局能遵守本协定的各项规定。
Article XXV    Joint Action by the Contracting Parties
1. Representatives of the contracting parties shall meet from time to time for the purpose of giving effect to those provisions of this Agreement which involve joint action and, generally, with a view to facilitating the operation and furthering the objectives of this Agreement.  Wherever reference is made in this Agreement to the contracting parties acting jointly they are designated as the CONTRACTING PARTIES.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is requested to convene the first meeting of the CONTRACTING PARTIES, which shall take place not later than March 1, 1948.
3. Each contracting party shall be entitled to have one vote at all meetings of the CONTRACTING PARTIES.
4. Except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, decisions of the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast.
5. In exceptional circumstances not elsewhere provided for in this Agreement, the CONTRACTING PARTIES may waive an obligation imposed upon a contracting party by this Agreement;  Provided that any such decision shall be approved by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast and that such majority shall comprise more than half of the contracting parties.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES may also by such a vote
(i) define certain categories of exceptional circumstances to which other voting requirements shall apply for the waiver of obligations, and
(ii) prescribe such criteria as may be necessary for the application of this paragraph .
    第二十五条  缔约国的联合行动
    1.为了贯彻实施本协定内涉及联合行动的各项规定,以及,一般地说,为了便于实施本协定和促进实现本协定所规定的目的,各缔约国代表应当随时集会。本协定中谈到各缔约国采取联合行动时,一律称为缔约国全体。
    2.联合国秘书长应于1948年3月1日以前,召开缔约国全体第一次会议。
    3.每一缔约国在缔约国全体的各种会议上,应有一票投票权。
    4.缔约国全体的决议,除本协定另有规定外,应以所投票数的多数通过。
    5.在本协定其它部分未作规定的特殊情况下,缔约国全体可以解除某缔约国对本协定所承担的某项义务;
    但这项决议,应以所投票数的2/3的多数通过,而且这一多数应包括全体缔约国的半数以上。缔约国全体可以采用同样投票方法:(甲)规定须采用其它投票方法来解除承担义务的某些特殊情况,以及(乙)制订为实施本款规定所必需的某种标准。
Article XXVI    Acceptance, Entry into Force and Registration
1. The date of this Agreement shall be 30 October 1947.
2. This Agreement shall be open for acceptance by any contracting party which, on 1 March 1955, was a contracting party or was negotiating with a view to accession to this Agreement.
3. This Agreement, done in a single English original and a single French original, both texts authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall furnish certified copies thereof to all interested governments.
4. Each government accepting this Agreement shall deposit an instrument of acceptance with the Executive Secretary  to the Contracting Parties, who will inform all interested governments of the date of deposit of each instrument of acceptance and of the day on which this Agreement enters into force under paragraph 6 of this Article.
5. (a) Each government accepting this Agreement does so in respect of its metropolitan territory and of the other territories for which it has international responsibility, except such separate customs territories as it shall notify to the Executive Secretary5 to the CONTRACTING PARTIES at the time of its own acceptance.
(b) Any government, which has so notified the Executive Secretary5 under the exceptions in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, may at any time give notice to the Executive Secretary5 that its acceptance shall be effective in respect of any separate customs territory or territories so excepted and such notice shall take effect on the thirtieth day following the day on which it is received by the Executive Secretary.5
(c) If any of the customs territories, in respect of which a contracting party has accepted this Agreement, possesses or acquires full autonomy in the conduct of its external commercial relations and of the other matters provided for in this Agreement, such territory shall, upon sponsorship through a declaration by the responsible contracting party establishing the above-mentioned fact, be deemed to be a contracting party.
6. This Agreement shall enter into force, as among the governments which have accepted it, on the thirtieth day following the day on which instruments of acceptance have been deposited with Executive Secretary  to the Contracting Parties on behalf of governments named in Annex H, the territories of which account for 85 per centum of the total external trade of the territories of such governments, computed in accordance with the applicable column of percentages set forth therein.  The instrument of acceptance of each other government shall take effect on the thirtieth day following the day on which such instrument has been deposited.
7. The United Nations is authorized to effect registration of this Agreement as soon as it enters into force.
    第二十六条  本协定的接受、生效和登记
    1.本协定的签署日期,应为1947年10月30日。
    2.在1955年3月1日已是缔约国或已正在谈判加入本协定的任何缔约国,可以任凭接受本协定。
    3.本协定用1份英文正本和1份法文正本写成,两种文本具有同等效力。本协定应交给联合国秘书长存放。联合国秘书长应将已核对的副本,送交各有关政府。
    4.接受本协定的每一政府,应向缔约国全体执行秘书长交存1份接受证书,执行秘书长应将每一接受证书的接受日期及按照本条第6款规定的本协定开始生效的日期,通知各有关政府。
    5.(甲)凡接受本协定的政府,应代表本国领土及其负有国际责任的其它领土而接受本协定;
    如有某些单独关税领土不由它来代表,应在接受本协定时通知缔约国全体执行秘书长。
    (乙)任何政府在经按本款(甲)项的例外规定通知执行秘书长后,可以随时通知执行秘书长:它的对本协定的接受,应对前作为例外的单独关税领土有效,但这项通知应自执行秘书长接到通知之日后第三十日起生效。
    (丙)原由某缔约国代表接受本协定的任何关税领土,如现在在处理对外贸易关系和本协定规定的其它事务方面享有或取得完全自主权,这一领土经负责的缔约国发表声明证实上述事实后,应视为本协定的一个缔约国。
    6.本协定附件八所列各国政府,以政府名义向缔约国全体执行秘书长交存接受证书后,如它们领土的对外贸易按附件八规定适用的百分比计算,达到附件所列各国政府的领土的全部对外贸易的85%时,本协定应自达到这项百分比之日后第三十日起,在这些接受的各国政府之间开始生效。每一其它政府的接受证书,应自这一政府交存证书之日后第三十日起生效。
    7.本协定一经生效,联合国应即予以登记。
Article XXVII    Withholding or Withdrawal of Concessions
Any contracting party shall at any time be free to withhold or to withdraw in whole or in part any concession, provided for in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement, in respect of which such contracting party determines that it was initially negotiated with a government which has not become, or has ceased to be, a contracting party.  A contracting party taking such action shall notify the CONTRACTING PARTIES and, upon request, consult with contracting parties which have a substantial interest in the product concerned.
    第二十七条  减让的停止或撤销
    如一缔约国确定原与它谈判减让的另一国政府未成为本协定的缔约国,或已中止为本协定的缔约国,则这一缔约国可以随时全部或部分停止或撤销本协定有关减让表内规定的任何减让。缔约国在采取这项行动以前,应通知缔约国全体;
    如被要求,应与有关产品有实质利害关系的缔约国进行协商。
Article XXVIII    Modification of Schedules
1. On the first day of each three-year period, the first period beginning on 1 January 1958 (or on the first day of any other period* that may be specified by the CONTRACTING PARTIES by two-thirds of the votes cast) a contracting party (hereafter in this Article referred to as the "applicant contracting party") may, by negotiation and agreement with any contracting party with which such concession was initially negotiated and with any other contracting party determined by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to have a principal supplying interest* (which two preceding categories of contracting parties, together with the applicant contracting party, are in this Article hereinafter referred to as the "contracting parties primarily concerned"), and subject to consultation with any other contracting party determined by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to have a substantial interest* in such concession, modify or withdraw a concession* included in the appropriate schedule annexed to this Agreement.
2. In such negotiations and agreement, which may include provision for compensatory adjustment with respect to other products, the contracting parties concerned shall endeavour to maintain a general level of reciprocal and mutually advantageous concessions not less favourable to trade than that provided for in this Agreement prior to such negotiations.
3. (a) If agreement between the contracting parties primarily concerned cannot be reached before 1 January 1958 or before the expiration of a period envisaged in paragraph 1 of this Article, the contracting party which proposes to modify or withdraw the concession shall, nevertheless, be free to do so and if such action is taken any contracting party with which such concession was initially negotiated, any contracting party determined under paragraph 1 to have a principal supplying interest and any contracting party determined under paragraph 1 to have a substantial interest shall then be free not later than six months after such action is taken, to withdraw, upon the expiration of thirty days from the day on which written notice of such withdrawal is received by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, substantially equivalent concessions initially negotiated with the applicant contracting party.
(b) If agreement between the contracting parties primarily concerned is reached but any other contracting party determined under paragraph 1 of this Article to have a substantial interest is not satisfied, such other contracting party shall be free, not later than six months after action under such agreement is taken, to withdraw, upon the expiration of thirty days from the day on which written notice of such withdrawal is received by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, substantially equivalent concessions initially negotiated with the applicant contracting party.
4. The CONTRACTING PARTIES may, at any time, in special circumstances, authorize* a contracting party to enter into negotiations for modification or withdrawal of a concession included in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement subject to the following procedures and conditions:
(a) Such negotiations* and any related consultations shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 and 2 of this Article.
(b) If agreement between the contracting parties primarily concerned is reached in the negotiations, the provisions of paragraph 3 (b) of this Article shall apply.
(c) If agreement between the contracting parties primarily concerned is not reached within a period of sixty days* after negotiations have been authorized, or within such longer period as the CONTRACTING PARTIES may have prescribed, the applicant contracting party may refer the matter to the CONTRACTING PARTIES.
(d) Upon such reference, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall promptly examine the matter and submit their views to the contracting parties primarily concerned with the aim of achieving a settlement.  If a settlement is reached, the provisions of paragraph 3 (b) shall apply as if agreement between the contracting parties primarily concerned had been reached.  If no settlement is reached between the contracting parties primarily concerned, the applicant contracting party shall be free to modify or withdraw the concession, unless the CONTRACTING PARTIES determine that the applicant contracting party has unreasonably failed to offer adequate compensation.*  If such action is taken, any contracting party with which the concession was initially negotiated, any contracting party determined under paragraph 4 (a) to have a principal supplying interest and any contracting party determined under paragraph 4 (a) to have a substantial interest, shall be free, not later than six months after such action is taken, to modify or withdraw, upon the expiration of thirty days from the day on which written notice of such withdrawal is received by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, substantially equivalent concessions initially negotiated with applicant contracting party.
5. Before 1 January 1958 and before the end of any period envisaged in paragraph 1 a contracting party may elect by notifying the CONTRACTING PARTIES to reserve the right, for the duration of the next period, to modify the appropriate Schedule in accordance with the procedures of paragraph 1 to 3.  If a contracting party so elects, other contracting parties shall have the right, during the same period, to modify or withdraw, in accordance with the same procedures, concessions initially negotiated with that contracting party.
Article XXVIII   bisTariff Negotiations
1. The contracting parties recognize that customs duties often constitute serious obstacles to trade;  thus negotiations on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis, directed to the substantial reduction of the general level of tariffs and other charges on imports and exports and in particular to the reduction of such high tariffs as discourage the importation even of minimum quantities, and conducted with due regard to the objectives of this Agreement and the varying needs of individual contracting parties, are of great importance to the expansion of international trade.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES may therefore sponsor such negotiations from time to time.
2. (a) Negotiations under this Article may be carried out on a selective product-by-product basis or by the application of such multilateral procedures as may be accepted by the contracting parties concerned.  Such negotiations may be directed towards the reduction of duties, the binding of duties at then existing levels or undertakings that individual duties or the average duties on specified categories of products shall not exceed specified levels.  The binding against increase of low duties or of duty-free treatment shall, in principle, be recognized as a concession equivalent in value to the reduction of high duties.
 (b) The contracting parties recognize that in general the success of multilateral negotiations would depend on the participation of all contracting parties which conduct a substantial proportion of their external trade with one another.
3. Negotiations shall be conducted on a basis which affords adequate opportunity to take into account:
 (a) the needs of individual contracting parties and individual industries;
 (b) the needs of less-developed countries for a more flexible use of tariff protection to assist their economic development and the special needs of these countries to maintain tariffs for revenue purposes;  and
 (c) all other relevant circumstances, including the fiscal,* developmental, strategic and other needs of the contracting parties concerned.
    第二十八条  减让表的修改
    1.在每三年的第一天(第一期自1958年1月1日起),或缔约国全体以所投票数的2/3规定的任何其他期限的第一天,一缔约国(在本条内此后简称申请缔约国)经与原议定减让的另一缔约国和缔约国全体认为在供应上具有主要利害关系的其它缔约国(上述两类缔约国连同申请缔约国在本条内,此后简称主要有关缔约各国)谈判取得协议,并须与缔约国全体认为在减让中有实质利害关系的其它缔约国进行协商的条件下,可以修改或撤销本协定有关减让表内所列的末项减让。
    2.在上述谈判和协议中(对其它产品所作的补偿性调整规定可能包括在内),有关缔约国应力求维持互惠互利减让的一般水平,使其对贸易的优待不低于谈判前本协定所规定的水平。
    3.(甲)如在主要有关缔约各国之间,不能在1958年1月1日或在本条第1款所规定的期限届满以前达成协议时,原拟修改或撤销减让的缔约国仍然可以随时采取行动,而且,如已采取这一行动,则原来与它谈判减让的缔约国和按照本条第1款认为在供应上具有主要利害关系的缔约国以及按照第1款认为有实质利害关系的缔约国,可以有权在不迟于行动采取以后的6个月内,自缔约国全体接到撤销的书面通知书之日起届满30日后,撤销大体上相当于原来与申请缔约国所议定的减让。
    (乙)如主要有关缔约各国之间已达成协议,但按照本条第1款认为有实质利害关系的其它缔约国不能认为满意时,则这一其它缔约国在不迟于按照这项协议采取行动以后的6个月内,自缔约国全体接到撤销的书面通知书之日起届满30日以后,应可以撤销大体上相当于原来与申请缔约国所议定的减让。
    4.缔约国全体可以随时因特殊情况准许某缔约国进行谈判,以修改或撤销本协定有关减让表内所列的某项减让,但应在下列程序和条件下进行:
    (甲)这一谈判和其它有关协商,应按本条第1款和第2款的规定进行。
    (乙)如主要有关缔约各国之间在谈判中达成协议,本条第3款的规定应予适用。
    (丙)如主要有关缔约各国之间不能在批准的谈判开始后60天内或缔约国全体规定的更长期间内达成协议,这一申请缔约国可将问题提交缔约国全体处理。
    (丁)问题提交缔约国全体后,缔约国全体应迅速对此进行调查,并应向主要有关缔约国提出意见,谋求解决办法。如能获得解决办法,应如在主要有关缔约国之间达成协议一样,适用本条第3款(乙)项的规定。如在主要有关缔约国之间不能获得解决办法,除了缔约国全体决定申请缔约国不提供适当补偿是不合理的以外,申请缔约国应有权修改或撤销减让。如果采取这一行动,则原与它谈判减让的缔约国以及按照本条第4款(甲)项认为在供应上具有主要利害关系的缔约国和按照第4款(甲)项认为有实质利害关系的其它缔约国,应有权在不迟于行动采取以后的6个月内,自缔约国全体接到撤销的书面通知书之日起届满30日后,修正或撤销大体相当于原来与申请缔约国所议定的减让。
    5.1958年1月1日以前和本条第1款规定的其它期限结束以前,缔约国可以采取通知缔约国全体的方式,保留在下一期内按照本条第1款至第3款的程序对有关减让表进行修改的权利。如一缔约国作此选择,则其它缔约国应有权在同一时期内,按照同样的程序修改或撤销原与这一缔约国协定的减让。
    第二十八条  附加关税谈判
    1.缔约各国认为,关税时常成为进行贸易的严重障碍;
    因此,在互惠互利基础上进行谈判,以大幅度降低关税和进出口其它费用的一般水平,特别是降低那些使少量进口都受到阻碍的高关税,并在谈判中适当注意本协定的目的与缔约各国的不同需要,这对发展国际贸易是非常需要的。为此,缔约国全体可以不时主持这项谈判。
    2.(甲)本条规定的谈判,可以在有选择的产品对产品的基础上进行,或者通过实施有关缔约国所接受的多边程序来进行。谈判可以使关税降低,把关税固定在现有水平,或对单项关税或某几种产品的平均关税承担义务不超过规定的水平。低关税或免税待遇承担义务不再增加,在原则上应视为一种在高关税的降低价值相等的减让。(乙)缔约各国认为,多边谈判的成功,一般来说依赖于相互之间有相当大的比例的对外贸易的所有缔约国参加。
    3.谈判时应适当考虑:(甲)某些缔约国和某些工业的需要;
    (乙)发展中国家为了有助于经济的发展灵活运用关税保护的需要,以及为了财政收入维持关税的特别需要;以及
    (丙)其它有关情况,包括有关缔约国在财政上、发展上、战略上和其它方面的需要。
Article XXIX    The Relation of this Agreement to the Havana Charter
1. The contracting parties undertake to observe to the fullest extent of their executive authority the general principles of Chapters I to VI inclusive and of Chapter IX of the Havana Charter pending their acceptance of it in accordance with their constitutional procedures.*
2. Part II of this Agreement shall be suspended on the day on which the Havana Charter enters into force.
3. If by September 30, 1949, the Havana Charter has not entered into force, the contracting parties shall meet before December 31, 1949, to agree whether this Agreement shall be amended, supplemented or maintained.
4. If at any time the Havana Charter should cease to be in force, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall meet as soon as practicable thereafter to agree whether this Agreement shall be supplemented, amended or maintained.  Pending such agreement, Part II of this Agreement shall again enter into force;  Provided that the provisions of Part II other than Article XXIII shall be replaced, mutatis mutandis, in the form in which they then appeared in the Havana Charter;  and Provided further that no contracting party shall be bound by any provisions which did not bind it at the time when the Havana Charter ceased to be in force.
5. If any contracting party has not accepted the Havana Charter by the date upon which it enters into force, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall confer to agree whether, and if so in what way, this Agreement in so far as it affects relations between such contracting party and other contracting parties, shall be supplemented or amended.  Pending such agreement the provisions of Part II of this Agreement shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, continue to apply as between such contracting party and other contracting parties.
6. Contracting parties which are Members of the International Trade Organization shall not invoke the provisions of this Agreement so as to prevent the operation of any provision of the Havana Charter.  The application of the principle underlying this paragraph to any contracting party which is not a Member of the International Trade Organization shall be the subject of an agreement pursuant to paragraph 5 of this Article.
    第二十九条  本协定与哈瓦那宪章的关系
    1.缔约各国在按照各自的宪法程序接受哈瓦那宪章以前,应承担义务在其行政权力所及的范围内尽量遵守哈瓦那宪章第一章至第六章以及第九章的一般原则。
    2.本协定第二部分的各项规定,应在哈瓦那宪章生效之日起停止生效。
    3.如至1949年9月30日哈瓦那宪章尚未生效,缔约各国应于1949年12月31日以前集会,以商定是否需要对本协定加以修正、补充或维持。
    4.不论何时如哈瓦那宪章停止生效,缔约各国应迅速集会以商定是否需要对本协定加以补充、修正或维持。在取得协议以前,本协定第二部分各项规定应重新有效。但是,第二部分的各条规定,除第二十三条以外,应基本上以当时已作了修改的哈瓦那宪章所规定的内容代替;
    而且,凡缔约国在哈瓦那宪章停止生效时对某项规定没有承担义务的,应对这项规定不承担义务。
    5.如果某一缔约国在哈瓦那宪章已生效后仍未接受宪章,缔约国全体应即进行协商,就本协定影响的这一缔约国与其它缔约国之间的关系方面,商定是否需要对协定加以补充或修正以及如何补充或修正。在达成协议以前,虽有本条第2款的规定,在不接受宪章的缔约国与其它缔约国之间,本协定第二部分的各项规定应继续实施。
    6.凡系国际贸易组织成员国的各缔约国,不应引用本协定的规定来阻止哈瓦那宪章各项规定的运用。对不是国际贸易组织成员国的缔约国实施本款所包含的原则,应是本条第5款的协商的一个项目。
Article XXX    Amendments
1. Except where provision for modification is made elsewhere in this Agreement, amendments to the provisions of Part I of this Agreement or the provisions of Article XXIX or of this Article shall become effective upon acceptance by all the contracting parties, and other amendments to this Agreement shall become effective, in respect of those contracting parties which accept them, upon acceptance by two-thirds of the contracting parties and thereafter for each other contracting party upon acceptance by it.
2. Any contracting party accepting an amendment to this Agreement shall deposit an instrument of acceptance with the Secretary-General of the United Nations within such period as the CONTRACTING PARTIES may specify.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES may decide that any amendment made effective under this Article is of such a nature that any contracting party which has not accepted it within a period specified by the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall be free to withdraw from this Agreement, or to remain a contracting party with the consent of the CONTRACTING PARTIES.
    第三十条  本协定的修正
    1.除本协定其它部分另有规定者外,本协定第一部分或第二十九条或本条的修正,应于所有缔约国接受后生效;
    本协定其它条款的修正,应于2/3以上缔约国接受后在这些已接受的各缔约国之间生效,而以后每一其它缔约国,则于这一其它缔约国接受这项修正时生效。
    2.凡接受本协定某项修正的任何缔约国,应于缔约国全体指定期限内将接受证书送交联合国秘书长存放。缔约国全体可以决定,按本条生效的某项修正应具有这样的性质:缔约国在缔约国全体的指定期间未接受这项修正的,可以退出本协定,或经缔约国全体同意仍继续作为本协定的缔约国。
Article XXXI    Withdrawal
Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 12 of Article XVIII, of Article XXIII or of paragraph 2 of Article XXX, any contracting party may withdraw from this Agreement, or may separately withdraw on behalf of any of the separate customs territories for which it has international responsibility and which at the time possesses full autonomy in the conduct of its external commercial relations and of the other matters provided for in this Agreement.  The withdrawal shall take effect upon the expiration of six months from the day on which written notice of withdrawal is received by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
    第三十一条  本协定的退出
    在不损害本协定第十八条第12款或第二十三条或第三十条第2款的规定的条件下,任何缔约国可以退出本协定,或单独代表其负有国际责任而在对外贸易关系和本协定规定的其它事务的处理方面当时享有完全自主权的任何单独关税领土退出本协定。这项退出应于联合国秘书长接到退出通知书之日起6个月后生效。
Article XXXII    Contracting Parties
1. The contracting parties to this Agreement shall be understood to mean those governments which are applying the provisions of this Agreement under Articles XXVI or XXXIII or pursuant to the Protocol of Provisional Application.
2. At any time after the entry into force of this Agreement pursuant to paragraph 6 of Article XXVI, those contracting parties which have accepted this Agreement pursuant to paragraph 4 of Article XXVI  may decide that any contracting party which has not so accepted it shall cease to be a contracting party.
    第三十二条  缔约国
    1.本协定的缔约国应理解为依照本协定第二十六条或第三十三条或《临时实施议定书》实施本协定各项规定的各国政府。
    2.本协定按照第二十六条第6款生效后,按照本协定第二十六条第4款接受本协定的缔约各国,可以作出决定停止未接受本协定的缔约国为缔约国。
Article XXXIII    Accession
A government not party to this Agreement, or a government acting on behalf of a separate customs territory possessing full autonomy in the conduct of its external commercial relations and of the other matters provided for in this Agreement, may accede to this Agreement, on its own behalf or on behalf of that territory, on terms to be agreed between such government and the CONTRACTING PARTIES.  Decisions of the CONTRACTING PARTIES under this paragraph shall be taken by a two-thirds majority.
    第三十三条  本协定的加入
    不属于本协定缔约国的政府,或代表某个在对外贸易关系和本协定所规定的其它事务的处理方面享有完全自主权的单独关税领土的政府,可以在这一政府与缔约国全体所议定的条件下,代表它本身或代表这一领土加入本协定。缔约国全体按本款规定作出决定时,应由2/3的多数通过。
Article XXXIV    Annexes
The annexes to this Agreement are hereby made an integral part of this Agreement.
    第三十四条  附件
    本协定的附件,应为本协定的组成部分。
Article XXXV    Non-application of the Agreement between Particular Contracting Parties
1. This Agreement, or alternatively Article II of this Agreement, shall not apply as between any contracting party and any other contracting party if: 
(a) the two contracting parties have not entered into tariff negotiations with each other, and
(b) either of the contracting parties, at the time either becomes a contracting party, does not consent to such application.
2. The CONTRACTING PARTIES may review the operation of this Article in particular cases at the request of any contracting party and make appropriate recommendations.
PART IV    TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
    第三十五条  在特定的缔约国之间不适用本协定
    1.如果:
    (甲)两个缔约国之间没有进行关税谈判,和(乙)缔约国的任何一方在另一方成为缔约国时不同意对它实施本协定,本协定或本协定第二条在这两缔约国之间应不适用。
    2.经任何缔约国提出请求,缔约国全体可以检查在特定情况下本条规定的执行情况,并提出适当建议。
    第四部分贸易和发展
Article XXXVI    Principles and Objectives
1.* The contracting parties,
(a) recalling that the basic objectives of this Agreement include the raising of standards of living and the progressive development of the economies of all contracting parties, and considering that the attainment of these objectives is particularly urgent for less-developed contracting parties;
(b) considering that export earnings of the less-developed contracting parties can play a vital part in their economic development and that the extent of this contribution depends on the prices paid by the less-developed contracting parties for essential imports, the volume of their exports, and the prices received for these exports;
(c) noting, that there is a wide gap between standards of living in less-developed countries and in other countries;
(d) recognizing that individual and joint action is essential to further the development of the economies of less-developed contracting parties and to bring about a rapid advance in the standards of living in these countries;
(e) recognizing that international trade as a means of achieving economic and social advancement should be governed by such rules and procedures - and measures in conformity with such rules and procedures - as are consistent with the objectives set forth in this Article;
(f) noting that the CONTRACTING PARTIES may enable less-developed contracting parties to use special measures to promote their trade and development; 
agree as follows.
2. There is need for a rapid and sustained expansion of the export earnings of the less-developed contracting parties.
3. There is need for positive efforts designed to ensure that less-developed contracting parties secure a share in the growth in international trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development.
4. Given the continued dependence of many less-developed contracting parties on the exportation of a limited range of primary products,* there is need to provide in the largest possible measure more favourable and acceptable conditions of access to world markets for these products, and wherever appropriate to devise measures designed to stabilize and improve conditions of world markets in these products, including in particular measures designed to attain stable, equitable and remunerative prices, thus permitting an expansion of world trade and demand and a dynamic and steady growth of the real export earnings of these countries so as to provide them with expanding resources for their economic development.
5. The rapid expansion of the economies of the less-developed contracting parties will be facilitated by a diversification* of the structure of their economies and the avoidance of an excessive dependence on the export of primary products.  There is, therefore, need for increased access in the largest possible measure to markets under favourable conditions for processed and manufactured products currently or potentially of particular export interest to less-developed contracting parties.
6. Because of the chronic deficiency in the export proceeds and other foreign exchange earnings of less-developed contracting parties, there are important inter-relationships between trade and financial assistance to development.  There is, therefore, need for close and continuing collaboration between the CONTRACTING PARTIES and the international lending agencies so that they can contribute most effectively to alleviating the burdens these less-developed contracting parties assume in the interest of their economic development.
7. There is need for appropriate collaboration between the CONTRACTING PARTIES, other intergovernmental bodies and the organs and agencies of the United Nations system, whose activities relate to the trade and economic development of less-developed countries.
8. The developed contracting parties do not expect reciprocity for commitments made by them in trade negotiations to reduce or remove tariffs and other barriers to the trade of less-developed contracting parties.*
9. The adoption of measures to give effect to these principles and objectives shall be a matter of conscious and purposeful effort on the part of the contracting parties both individually and jointly.
    第三十六条  原则和目的
    1.缔约各国,(甲)忆及本协定的基本目的有提高所有缔约国的生活水平和不断发展所有缔约国的经济,并考虑这些目的的实现,对发展中的缔约各国是特别迫切的;
    (乙)考虑到发展中的缔约国的出口收入,在其经济发展中可起重要作用,并考虑到这种贡献的大小取决于发展中的缔约国对进口必需品所付的价格,它们的出口商品数量以及这些出口商品所能取得的价格;
    (丙)注意到发展中国家和其它国家之间的生活水平有一个很大的差距;
    (丁)认为单独和联合行动对促进发展中的各缔约国的经济发展,并使这些国家的生活水平得到迅速提高是必要的;
    (戊)认为作为取得经济和社会发展的手段的国际贸易,应当按与本条规定的目的相符的规则与程序以及符合这些规则程序的措施加以管理;
    (己)注意到缔约国全体能使发展中的缔约各国采用特别措施,以促进它们的贸易和发展。
    议定如下条款。
    2.发展中的缔约各国须要迅速和持续地发展其出口收入。
    3.有必要做出积极努力,以保证发展中的缔约国在国际贸易中能占有与它们经济发展需要相适应的份额。
    4.由于许多发展中的缔约国长期依靠某些有限初级产品的出口,因此,要尽最大可能对这些产品进入世界市场提供更为有利和满意的条件,而且,在认为适当时,要拟订措施以稳定和改善这些产品在世界市场的状况,特别是拟定一些旨在达到稳定、公平和有利价格的措施,使世界贸易和需要有所发展,使这些国家出口的实际收入有一个不停顿的和稳定的增长,为它们的经济发展提供更多的资源。
    5.经济结构的多样化和避免过份依赖于初级产品的出口,将有利于发展中的缔约国经济的迅速发展。因此,对与发展中的缔约国目前或潜在的出口利益特别有关的某些加工品或制成品,要在有利条件下,尽最大可能增加其进入市场的机会。
    6.由于发展中的缔约国的出口收入和其它外汇收入长期缺乏,贸易和财政援助对于发展有着重要的相互关系。因此,在缔约国全体和国际信贷机构之间需要紧密和持久合作,这样可以作出最有效的贡献,以减轻发展中的缔约国在发展经济中的负担。
    7.缔约国全体同与发展中国家的贸易和经济发展有关的其它国际团体和联合国的附属机构之间,须要适当合作。
    8.发达的缔约国对它们在贸易谈判中对发展中的缔约国的贸易所承诺的减少或撤除关税和其它壁垒的义务,不能希望得到互惠。
    9.缔约各国应单独和联合作出自觉和有目的的努力,为实现这些原则和目的而采取措施。
Article XXXVII    Commitments
1. The developed contracting parties shall to the fullest extent possible - that is, except when compelling reasons, which may include legal reasons, make it impossible - give effect to the following provisions:
(a) accord high priority to the reduction and elimination of barriers to products currently or potentially of particular export interest to less-developed contracting parties, including customs duties and other restrictions which differentiate unreasonably between such products in their primary and in their processed forms;*
(b) refrain from introducing, or increasing the incidence of, customs duties or non-tariff import barriers on products currently or potentially of particular export interest to less-developed contracting parties;  and
(c) (i) refrain from imposing new fiscal measures, and
(ii) in any adjustments of fiscal policy accord high priority to the reduction and elimination of fiscal measures, which would hamper, or which hamper, significantly the growth of consumption of primary products, in raw or processed form, wholly or mainly produced in the territories of less-developed contracting parties, and which are applied specifically to those products.
2. (a) Whenever it is considered that effect is not being given to any of the provisions of subparagraph (a), (b) or (c) of paragraph 1, the matter shall be reported to the CONTRACTING PARTIES either by the contracting party not so giving effect to the relevant provisions or by any other interested contracting party.
(b) (i) The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall, if requested so to do by any interested contracting party, and without prejudice to any bilateral consultations that may be undertaken, consult with the contracting party concerned and all interested contracting parties with respect to the matter with a view to reaching solutions satisfactory to all contracting parties concerned in order to further the objectives set forth in Article XXXVI.  In the course of these consultations, the reasons given in cases where effect was not being given to the provisions of subparagraph (a), (b) or (c) of paragraph 1 shall be examined.
(ii) As the implementation of the provisions of subparagraph (a), (b) or (c) of paragraph 1 by individual contracting parties may in some cases be more readily achieved where action is taken jointly with other developed contracting parties, such consultation might, where appropriate, be directed towards this end.
(iii) The consultations by the CONTRACTING PARTIES might also, in appropriate cases, be directed towards agreement on joint action designed to further the objectives of this Agreement as envisaged in paragraph 1 of Article XXV.
3. The developed contracting parties shall:
(a) make every effort, in cases where a government directly or indirectly determines the resale price of products wholly or mainly produced in the territories of less-developed contracting parties, to maintain trade margins at equitable levels;
(b) give active consideration to the adoption of other measures* designed to provide greater scope for the development of imports from less-developed contracting parties and collaborate in appropriate international action to this end;
(c) have special regard to the trade interests of less-developed contracting parties when considering the application of other measures permitted under this Agreement to meet particular problems and explore all possibilities of constructive remedies before applying such measures where they would affect essential interests of those contracting parties.
4. Less-developed contracting parties agree to take appropriate action in implementation of the provisions of Part IV for the benefit of the trade of other less-developed contracting parties, in so far as such action is consistent with their individual present and future development, financial and trade needs taking into account past trade developments as well as the trade interests of less-developed contracting parties as a whole.
5. In the implementation of the commitments set forth in paragraph 1 to 4 each contracting party shall afford to any other interested contracting party or contracting parties full and prompt opportunity for consultations under the normal procedures of this Agreement with respect to any matter or difficulty which may arise.
    第三十七条  承诺的义务
    1.发达的缔约各国--除因被迫原因(也可能包括法律的原因)不能实施外--应尽可能实施以下条款:
    (甲)优先降低和撤除与发展中的缔约国目前或潜在的出口利益特别有关的产品的壁垒,包括其初级产品和加工产品之间的不合理的差别关税和其它限制;
    (乙)对与发展中的缔约国目前或潜在的出口利益特别有关的产品,不建立新的关税或非关税进口壁垒,或加强已有的这些壁垒;以及
    (丙)(1)不实施新的财政措施,和(2)在调整财政政策时,优先放宽和撤除财政措施,如果这些财政措施会阻碍或已经阻碍那些完全或主要来自发展中的缔约国领土的未加工或已加工的初级产品的消费的显著增长,并且系针对这些产品而实施的。
    2.(甲)如认为本条第1款(甲)、(乙)或(丙)项中的任何一项规定没有付诸实施,没有实施有关规定的缔约国或其它有关缔约国应向缔约国全体报告这个问题。
    (乙)(1)经某一有利害关系的缔约国提出要求,并对可能进行的双边协商不造成任何损害的情况下,缔约国全体应就这个问题与有关缔约国以及有利害关系的所有缔约国进行协商,设法达成使所有有关缔约国满意的解决办法,以便促进实现本协定第三十六条的目的。在协商过程中,应当检查不能实施第1款(甲)、(乙)或(丙)项所列举的理由。(2)鉴于在某些情况下某缔约国与其它发达的缔约国采取联合行动可能更容易实施本条第1款(甲)、(乙)或(丙)项的规定,因此,如认为适当,可以为此而进行协商。(3)缔约国全体在适当情况下,也可以协商采取第二十五条第1款规定的旨在促进实现本协定的目的的联合行动。
    3.发达的缔约国应当:
    (甲)在由政府直接或间接决定产品的转售价格的情况下,对完全或主要来自发展中的缔约国领土的产品,尽力将贸易利润维持在公平的水平;
    (乙)积极考虑采取其它措施,为扩大从发展中的缔约国进口提供更大的范围,并为此在有关的国际活动中予以合作;
    (丙)在考虑采取本协定所许可的其它措施以解决某项特殊问题时,应特别注意发展中的缔约国的贸易利益;而且,如采取的措施将影响发展中的缔约各国的根本利益时,在实施这些以前,应研究一切可能的积极的纠正办法。
    4.发展中的缔约国同意采取适当措施,为其它发展中的缔约国的贸易利益来贯彻实施本协定第四部分的各项规定,但所采取的措施,应符合它们各自目前和将来的发展、财政和贸易需要,过去的贸易发展及整个发展中的缔约国的贸易利益应考虑在内。
    5.在履行本条第1款至第4款所承诺的义务时,每一缔约国应对另一有关缔约国或其它有关各缔约国给予充分和及时的机会,以便对可能发生的任何问题和困难,按照本协定正常的程序进行协商。
Article XXXVIII    Joint Action
1. The contracting parties shall collaborate jointly, with the framework of this Agreement and elsewhere, as appropriate, to further the objectives set forth in Article XXXVI.
2. In particular, the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall:
(a) where appropriate, take action, including action through international arrangements, to provide improved and acceptable conditions of access to world markets for primary products of particular interest to less-developed contracting parties and to devise measures designed to stabilize and improve conditions of world markets in these products including measures designed to attain stable, equitable and remunerative prices for exports of such products;
(b) seek appropriate collaboration in matters of trade and development policy with the United Nations and its organs and agencies, including any institutions that may be created on the basis of recommendations by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development;
(c) collaborate in analysing the development plans and policies of individual less-developed contracting parties and in examining trade and aid relationships with a view to devising concrete measures to promote the development of export potential and to facilitate access to export markets for the products of the industries thus developed and, in this connection, seek appropriate collaboration with governments and international organizations, and in particular with organizations having competence in relation to financial assistance for economic development, in systematic studies of trade and aid relationships in individual less-developed contracting parties aimed at obtaining a clear analysis of export potential, market prospects and any further action that may be required; 
(d) keep under continuous review the development of world trade with special reference to the rate of growth of the trade of less-developed contracting parties and make such recommendations to contracting parties as may, in the circumstances, be deemed appropriate;
(e) collaborate in seeking feasible methods to expand trade for the purpose of economic development, through international harmonization and adjustment of national policies and regulations, through technical and commercial standards affecting production, transportation and marketing, and through export promotion by the establishment of facilities for the increased flow of trade information and the development of market research;  and
(f) establish such institutional arrangements as may be necessary to further the objectives set forth in Article XXXVI and to give effect to the provision of this Part.
    第三十八条  联合行动
    1.缔约各国应在本协定规定的范围内和在其它适当情况下共同合作,以促进实现本协定第三十六条的目的。
    2.缔约国全体特别应当:
    (甲)在适当的情况下,采取措施,包括通过国际安排,为发展中的缔约各国利益特别有关的初级产品进入世界市场,提供改进和满意的条件,并拟定旨在稳定和改善这些产品的世界市场状况的措施,包括为这些产品的出口获得稳定、公平和有利价格所采取的措施;
    (乙)在贸易与发展政策方面,同联合国及它的附属机构,包括根据联合国贸易和发展会议的建议而产生的任何机构,谋求适当合作;
    (丙)与发展中的缔约国一起共同分析它们的发展计划和政策,共同研究贸易和援助的关系,以便拟定具体措施,以促进出口潜力的发展和便利因此发展起来的工业品进入出口市场,并应在这方面同各国政府和各个国际组织,特别是同有关主管财政援助以发展经济的国际组织进行适当合作,系统研究各个发展中的缔约国的贸易和援助关系,以便对出口潜力、市场前景及任何需要进一步采取的措施,能有一个明确的分析;
    (丁)从发展中的缔约国的贸易增长率的角度,经常检查世界贸易的发展情况,并在必要时向各缔约国提供建议;
    (戊)通过国际性的协调和调整各国的政策和规章,通过影响生产、运输和销售的技术和商业标准,以及通过建立机构来便利交流贸易情报和发展市场调研的促进出口的措施,共同谋求开展贸易、发展经济的可行办法;
    (己)建立某些必要的机构以促进实现本协定第三十六条所规定的目标和贯彻实施本协定第四部分的规定。
ANNEX A    LIST OF TERRITORIES REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPH 2 (a) OF ARTICLE I
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Dependent territories of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Canada
Commonwealth of Australia
Dependent territories of the Commonwealth of Australia
New Zealand
Dependent territories of New Zealand
Union of South Africa including South West Africa
Ireland
India (as on April 10, 1947)
Newfoundland
Southern Rhodesia
Burma
Ceylon
Certain of the territories listed above have two or more preferential rates in force for certain products.  Any such territory may, by agreement with the other contracting parties which are principal suppliers of such products at the most-favoured-nation rate, substitute for such preferential rates a single preferential rate which shall not on the whole be less favourable to suppliers at the most-favoured-nation rate than the preferences in force prior to such substitution.
The imposition of an equivalent margin of tariff preference to replace a margin of preference in an internal tax existing on April 10, 1947 exclusively between two or more of the territories listed in this Annex or to replace the preferential quantitative arrangements described in the following paragraph, shall not be deemed to constitute an increase in a margin of tariff preference.
The preferential arrangements referred to in paragraph 5 (b) of Article XIV are those existing in the United Kingdom on 10 April 1947, under contractual agreements with the Governments of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, in respect of chilled and frozen beef and veal, frozen mutton and lamb, chilled and frozen pork and bacon.  It is the intention, without prejudice to any action taken under subparagraph (h)  of Article XX, that these arrangements shall be eliminated or replaced by tariff preferences, and that negotiations to this end shall take place as soon as practicable among the countries substantially concerned or involved.
The film hire tax in force in New Zealand on 10 April 1947, shall, for the purposes of this Agreement, be treated as a customs duty under Article I.  The renters' film quota in force in New Zealand on April 10, 1947, shall, for the purposes of this Agreement, be treated as a screen quota under Article IV.
The Dominions of India and Pakistan have not been mentioned separately in the above list since they had not come into existence as such on the base date of April 10, 1947.
ANNEX B    LIST OF TERRITORIES OF THE FRENCH UNION REFERRED TO IN
PARAGRAPH 2 (b) OF ARTICLE I

France
French Equatorial Africa (Treaty Basin of the Congo   and other territories)
French West Africa
Cameroons under French Trusteeship8
French Somali Coast and Dependencies
French Establishments in Oceania
French Establishments in the Condominium of the New Hebrides8
Indo-China
Madagascar and Dependencies
Morocco (French zone)8
New Caledonia and Dependencies
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Togo under French Trusteeship8
Tunisia
ANNEX C    LIST OF TERRITORIES REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPH 2 (b) OF ARTICLE I AS RESPECTS THE CUSTOMS UNION OF BELGIUM, LUXEMBURG
AND THE NETHERLANDS

The Economic Union of Belgium and Luxemburg
Belgian Congo
Ruanda Urundi
Netherlands
New Guinea
Surinam
Netherlands Antilles
Republic of Indonesia
For imports into the territories constituting the Customs Union only.
ANNEX D    LIST OF TERRITORIES REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPH 2 (b) OF ARTICLE I AS RESPECTS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
United States of America (customs territory)
Dependent territories of the United States of America
Republic of the Philippines
The imposition of an equivalent margin of tariff preference to replace a margin of preference in an internal tax existing on 10 April, 1947, exclusively between two or more of the territories listed in this Annex shall not be deemed to constitute an increase in a margin of tariff preference.
ANNEX E    LIST OF TERRITORIES COVERED BY PREFERENTIAL ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN CHILE AND NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES REFERRED TO
IN PARAGRAPH 2 (d) OF ARTICLE I

Preferences in force exclusively between Chile on the one hand, and
1. Argentina
2. Bolivia
3. Peru
on the other hand.
ANNEX F    LIST OF TERRITORIES COVERED BY PREFERENTIAL ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN LEBANON AND SYRIA AND NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPH 2 (d) OF ARTICLE I
Preferences in force exclusively between the Lebano-Syrian Customs Union, on the one hand, and
1. Palestine
2. Transjordan
on the other hand.
ANNEX G    DATES ESTABLISHING MAXIMUM MARGINS OF PREFERENCE REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPH 4  OF ARTICLE I
Australia …………………………………………………………………………. October 15, 1946
Canada ………………………………………………………………………….…..…. July 1, 1939
France  …………………………………………………………………………..…January 1, 1939
Lebano-Syrian Customs Union ………………………………………………...November 30, 1938
Union of South Africa ……………………………………………………………...…..July 1, 1938
Southern Rhodesia …………………………………………………………………..... May 1, 1941
ANNEX H    PERCENTAGE SHARES OF TOTAL EXTERNAL TRADE TO BE USED FOR THE PURPOSE OF MAKING THE DETERMINATION REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE XXVI(BASED ON THE AVERAGE OF 1949-1953)
If, prior to the accession of the Government of Japan to the General Agreement, the present Agreement has been accepted by contracting parties the external trade of which under Column I accounts for the percentage of such trade specified in paragraph 6 of Article XXVI, column I shall be applicable for the purposes of that paragraph.  If the present Agreement has not been so accepted prior to the accession of the Government of Japan, column II shall be applicable for the purposes of that paragraph.
Column I
(Contracting parties on 1 March 1955) 
Column II
(Contracting parties on 1 March 1955 and Japan)
Australia 3.1 3.0
Austria 0.9 0.8
Belgium-Luxemburg 4.3 4.2
Brazil 2.5 2.4
Burma 0.3 0.3
Canada 6.7 6.5
Ceylon 0.5 0.5
Chile 0.6 0.6
Cuba 1.1 1.1
Czechoslovakia 1.4 1.4
Denmark 1.4 1.4
Dominican Republic 0.1 0.1
Finland 1.0 1.0
France 8.7 8.5
Germany, Federal Republic of 5.3 5.2
Greece 0.4 0.4
Haiti 0.1 0.1
India 2.4 2.4
Indonesia 1.3 1.3
Italy 2.9 2.8
Netherlands, Kingdom of the 4.7 4.6
New Zealand 1.0 1.0
Nicaragua 0.1 0.1
Norway 1.1 1.1
Pakistan 0.9 0.8
Peru 0.4 0.4
Rhodesia and Nyasaland 0.6 0.6
Sweden 2.5 2.4
Turkey 0.6 0.6
Union of South Africa 1.8 1.8
United Kingdom 20.3 19.8
United States of America 20.6 20.1
Uruguay 0.4 0.4
Japan - 2.3
 _____
100.0 _____
100.0
Note:  These percentages have been computed taking into account the trade of all territories in respect of which the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is applied.
ANNEX I    NOTES AND SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
Ad Article I
Paragraph 1
The obligations incorporated in paragraph 1 of Article I by reference to paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article III and those incorporated in paragraph 2 (b) of Article II by reference to Article VI shall be considered as falling within Part II for the purposes of the Protocol of Provisional Application.
The cross-references, in the paragraph immediately above and in paragraph 1 of Article I, to paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article III shall only apply after Article III has been modified by the entry into force of the amendment provided for in the Protocol Modifying Part II and Article XXVI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated September 14, 1948.
Paragraph 4
The term "margin of preference" means the absolute difference between the most-favoured-nation rate of duty and the preferential rate of duty for the like product, and not the proportionate relation between those rates.  As examples:
(1) If the most-favoured-nation rate were 36 per cent ad valorem and the preferential rate were 24 per cent ad valorem, the margin of preference would be 12 per cent ad valorem, and not one-third of the most-favoured-nation rate;
(2) If the most-favoured-nation rate were 36 per cent ad valorem and the preferential rate were expressed as two-thirds of the most-favoured-nation rate, the margin of preference would be 12 per cent ad valorem;
(3) If the most-favoured-nation rate were 2 francs per kilogramme and the preferential rate were 1.50 francs per kilogramme, the margin of preference would be 0.50 franc per kilogramme.
The following kinds of customs action, taken in accordance with established uniform procedures, would not be contrary to a general binding of margins of preference:
(i) The re-application to an imported product of a tariff classification or rate of duty, properly applicable to such product, in cases in which the application of such classification or rate to such product was temporarily suspended or inoperative on April 10, 1947;  and
(ii) The classification of a particular product under a tariff item other than that under which importations of that product were classified on April 10, 1947, in cases in which the tariff law clearly contemplates that such product may be classified under more than one tariff item.
Ad Article II
Paragraph 2 (a)
The cross-reference, in paragraph 2 (a) of Article II, to paragraph 2 of Article III shall only apply after Article III has been modified by the entry into force of the amendment provided for in the Protocol Modifying Part II and Article XXVI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated September 14, 1948.
Paragraph 2 (b)
See the note relating to paragraph 1 of Article I.
Paragraph 4
Except where otherwise specifically agreed between the contracting parties which initially negotiated the concession, the provisions of this paragraph will be applied in the light of the provisions of Article 31 of the Havana Charter. 
Ad Article III
Any internal tax or other internal charge, or any law, regulation or requirement of the kind referred to in paragraph 1 which applies to an imported product and to the like domestic product and is collected or enforced in the case of the imported product at the time or point of importation, is nevertheless to be regarded as an internal tax or other internal charge, or a law, regulation or requirement of the kind referred to in paragraph 1, and is accordingly subject to the provisions of Article III.
Paragraph 1
The application of paragraph 1 to internal taxes imposed by local governments and authorities with the territory of a contracting party is subject to the provisions of the final paragraph of Article XXIV.  The term "reasonable measures" in the last-mentioned paragraph would not require, for example, the repeal of existing national legislation authorizing local governments to impose internal taxes which, although technically inconsistent with the letter of Article III, are not in fact inconsistent with its spirit, if such repeal would result in a serious financial hardship for the local governments or authorities concerned.  With regard to taxation by local governments or authorities which is inconsistent with both the letter and spirit of Article III, the term "reasonable measures" would permit a contracting party to eliminate the inconsistent taxation gradually over a transition period, if abrupt action would create serious administrative and financial difficulties.
Paragraph 2
A tax conforming to the requirements of the first sentence of paragraph 2 would be considered to be inconsistent with the provisions of the second sentence only in cases where competition was involved between, on the one hand, the taxed product and, on the other hand, a directly competitive or substitutable product which was not similarly taxed.
Paragraph 5
Regulations consistent with the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph 5 shall not be considered to be contrary to the provisions of the second sentence in any case in which all of the products subject to the regulations are produced domestically in substantial quantities.  A regulation cannot be justified as being consistent with the provisions of the second sentence on the ground that the proportion or amount allocated to each of the products which are the subject of the regulation constitutes an equitable relationship between imported and domestic products.
Ad Article V
Paragraph 5
With regard to transportation charges, the principle laid down in paragraph 5 refers to like products being transported on the same route under like conditions.
Ad Article VI
Paragraph 1
1. Hidden dumping by associated houses (that is, the sale by an importer at a price below that corresponding to the price invoiced by an exporter with whom the importer is associated, and also below the price in the exporting country) constitutes a form of price dumping with respect to which the margin of dumping may be calculated on the basis of the price at which the goods are resold by the importer.
2. It is recognized that, in the case of imports from a country which has a complete or substantially complete monopoly of its trade and where all domestic prices are fixed by the State, special difficulties may exist in determining price comparability for the purposes of paragraph 1, and in such cases importing contracting parties may find it necessary to take into account the possibility that a strict comparison with domestic prices in such a country may not always be appropriate.
Paragraphs 2 and 3
1. As in many other cases in customs administration, a contracting party may require reasonable security (bond or cash deposit) for the payment of anti-dumping or countervailing duty pending final determination of the facts in any case of suspected dumping or subsidization.
2. Multiple currency practices can in certain circumstances constitute a subsidy to exports which may be met by countervailing duties under paragraph 3 or can constitute a form of dumping by means of a partial depreciation of a country's currency which may be met by action under paragraph 2.  By "multiple currency practices" is meant practices by governments or sanctioned by governments.
Paragraph 6 (b)
Waivers under the provisions of this subparagraph shall be granted only on application by the contracting party proposing to levy an anti-dumping or countervailing duty, as the case may be.
Ad Article VII
Paragraph 1
The expression "or other charges" is not to be regarded as including internal taxes or equivalent charges imposed on or in connection with imported products.
Paragraph 2
1. It would be in conformity with Article VII to presume that "actual value" may be represented by the invoice price, plus any non-included charges for legitimate costs which are proper elements of "actual value" and plus any abnormal discount or other reduction from the ordinary competitive price.
2. It would be in conformity with Article VII, paragraph 2 (b), for a contracting party to construe the phrase "in the ordinary course of trade ...  under fully competitive conditions", as excluding any transaction wherein the buyer and seller are not independent of each other and price is not the sole consideration.
3. The standard of "fully competitive conditions" permits a contracting party to exclude from consideration prices involving special discounts limited to exclusive agents.
4. The wording of subparagraphs (a) and (b) permits a contracting party to determine the value for customs purposes uniformly either (1) on the basis of a particular exporter's prices of the imported merchandise, or (2) on the basis of the general price level of like merchandise.
Ad Article VIII
1. While Article VIII does not cover the use of multiple rates of exchange as such, paragraphs 1 and 4 condemn the use of exchange taxes or fees as a device for implementing multiple currency practices;  if, however, a contracting party is using multiple currency exchange fees for balance of payments reasons with the approval of the International Monetary Fund, the provisions of paragraph 9 (a) of Article XV fully safeguard its position.
2. It would be consistent with paragraph 1 if, on the importation of products from the territory of a contracting party into the territory of another contracting party, the production of certificates of origin should only be required to the extent that is strictly indispensable.
Ad Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV and XVIII
Throughout Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV and XVIII, the terms "import restrictions" or "export restrictions" include restrictions made effective through state-trading operations.
Ad Article XI
Paragraph 2 (c)
The term "in any form" in this paragraph covers the same products when in an early stage of processing and still perishable, which compete directly with the fresh product and if freely imported would tend to make the restriction on the fresh product ineffective.
Paragraph 2, last subparagraph
The term "special factors" includes changes in relative productive efficiency as between domestic and foreign producers, or as between different foreign producers, but not changes artificially brought about by means not permitted under the Agreement.
Ad Article XII
The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall make provision for the utmost secrecy in the conduct of any consultation under the provisions of this Article.
Paragraph 3 (c)(i)
Contracting parties applying restrictions shall endeavour to avoid causing serious prejudice to exports of a commodity on which the economy of a contracting party is largely dependent.
Paragraph 4 (b)
It is agreed that the date shall be within ninety days after the entry into force of the amendments of this Article effected by the Protocol Amending the Preamble and Parts II and III of this Agreement.  However, should the CONTRACTING PARTIES find that conditions were not suitable for the application of the provisions of this subparagraph at the time envisaged, they may determine a later date;  Provided that such date is not more than thirty days after such time as the obligations of Article VIII, Sections 2, 3 and 4, of the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund become applicable to contracting parties, members of the Fund, the combined foreign trade of which constitutes at least fifty per centum of the aggregate foreign trade of all contracting parties.
Paragraph 4 (e)
It is agreed that paragraph 4 (e) does not add any new criteria for the imposition or maintenance of quantitative restrictions for balance of payments reasons.  It is solely intended to ensure that all external factors such as changes in the terms of trade, quantitative restrictions, excessive tariffs and subsidies, which may be contributing to the balance of payments difficulties of the contracting party applying restrictions, will be fully taken into account.
Ad Article XIII
Paragraph 2 (d)
No mention was made of "commercial considerations" as a rule for the allocation of quotas because it was considered that its application by governmental authorities might not always be practicable.  Moreover, in cases where it is practicable, a contracting party could apply these considerations in the process of seeking agreement, consistently with the general rule laid down in the opening sentence of paragraph 2.
Paragraph 4
See note relating to "special factors" in connection with the last subparagraph of paragraph 2 of Article XI.
Ad Article XIV
Paragraph 1
The provisions of this paragraph shall not be so construed as to preclude full consideration by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, in the consultations provided for in paragraph 4 of Article XII and in paragraph 12 of Article XVIII, of the nature, effects and reasons for discrimination in the field of import restrictions.
Paragraph 2
One of the situations contemplated in paragraph 2 is that of a contracting party holding balances acquired as a result of current transactions which it finds itself unable to use without a measure of discrimination.
Ad Article XV
Paragraph 4
The word "frustrate" is intended to indicate, for example, that infringements of the letter of any Article of this Agreement by exchange action shall not be regarded as a violation of that Article if, in practice, there is no appreciable departure from the intent of the Article.  Thus, a contracting party which, as part of its exchange control operated in accordance with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, requires payment to be received for its exports in its own currency or in the currency of one or more members of the International Monetary Fund will not thereby be deemed to contravene Article XI or Article XIII.  Another example would be that of a contracting party which specifies on an import licence the country from which the goods may be imported, for the purpose not of introducing any additional element of discrimination in its import licensing system but of enforcing permissible exchange controls.
Ad Article XVI
The exemption of an exported product from duties or taxes borne by the like product when destined for domestic consumption, or the remission of such duties or taxes in amounts not in excess of those which have accrued, shall not be deemed to be a subsidy.
Section B
1. Nothing in Section B shall preclude the use by a contracting party of multiple rates of exchange in accordance with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund.
2. For the purposes of Section B, a "primary product" is understood to be any product of farm, forest or fishery, or any mineral, in its natural form or which has undergone such processing as is customarily required to prepare it for marketing in substantial volume in international trade.
Paragraph 3
1. The fact that a contracting party has not exported the product in question during the previous representative period would not in itself preclude that contracting party from establishing its right to obtain a share of the trade in the product concerned.
2. A system for the stabilization of the domestic price or of the return to domestic producers of a primary product independently of the movements of export prices, which results at times in the sale of the product for export at a price lower than the comparable price charged for the like product to buyers in the domestic market, shall be considered not to involve a subsidy on exports within the meaning of paragraph 3 if the CONTRACTING PARTIES determine that:
(a) the system has also resulted, or is so designed as to result, in the sale of the product for export at a price higher than the comparable price charged for the like product to buyers in the domestic market;  and
(b) the system is so operated, or is designed so to operate, either because of the effective regulation of production or otherwise, as not to stimulate exports unduly or otherwise seriously to prejudice the interests of other contracting parties.
Notwithstanding such determination by the CONTRACTING PARTIES, operations under such a system shall be subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 where they are wholly or partly financed out of government funds in addition to the funds collected from producers in respect of the product concerned.
Paragraph 4
The intention of paragraph 4 is that the contracting parties should seek before the end of 1957 to reach agreement to abolish all remaining subsidies as from 1 January 1958;  or, failing this, to reach agreement to extend the application of the standstill until the earliest date thereafter by which they can expect to reach such agreement.
Ad Article XVII
Paragraph 1
The operations of Marketing Boards, which are established by contracting parties and are engaged in purchasing or selling, are subject to the provisions of subparagraphs (a) and (b).
The activities of Marketing Boards which are established by contracting parties and which do not purchase or sell but lay down regulations covering private trade are governed by the relevant Articles of this Agreement.
The charging by a state enterprise of different prices for its sales of a product in different markets is not precluded by the provisions of this Article, provided that such different prices are charged for commercial reasons, to meet conditions of supply and demand in export markets.
Paragraph 1 (a)
Governmental measures imposed to insure standards of quality and efficiency in the operation of external trade, or privileges granted for the exploitation of national natural resources but which do not empower the government to exercise control over the trading activities of the enterprise in question, do not constitute "exclusive or special privileges".
Paragraph 1 (b)
A country receiving a "tied loan" is free to take this loan into account as a "commercial consideration" when purchasing requirements abroad.
Paragraph 2
The term "goods" is limited to products as understood in commercial practice, and is not intended to include the purchase or sale of services.
Paragraph 3
Negotiations which contracting parties agree to conduct under this paragraph may be directed towards the reduction of duties and other charges on imports and exports or towards the conclusion of any other mutually satisfactory arrangement consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.  (See paragraph 4 of Article II and the note to that paragraph.)
Paragraph 4 (b)
The term "import mark-up" in this paragraph shall represent the margin by which the price charged by the import monopoly for the imported product (exclusive of internal taxes within the purview of Article III, transportation, distribution, and other expenses incident to the purchase, sale or further processing, and a reasonable margin of profit) exceeds the landed cost.
Ad Article XVIII
The CONTRACTING PARTIES and the contracting parties concerned shall preserve the utmost secrecy in respect of matters arising under this Article.
Paragraphs 1 and 4
1. When they consider whether the economy of a contracting party "can only support low standards of living", the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall take into consideration the normal position of that economy and shall not base their determination on exceptional circumstances such as those which may result from the temporary existence of exceptionally favourable conditions for the staple export product or products of such contracting party.
2. The phrase "in the early stages of development" is not meant to apply only to contracting parties which have just started their economic development, but also to contracting parties the economies of which are undergoing a process of industrialization to correct an excessive dependence on primary production.
Paragraphs 2, 3, 7, 13 and 22
The reference to the establishment of particular industries shall apply not only to the establishment of a new industry, but also to the establishment of a new branch of production in an existing industry and to the substantial transformation of an existing industry, and to the substantial expansion of an existing industry supplying a relatively small proportion of the domestic demand.  It shall also cover the reconstruction of an industry destroyed or substantially damaged as a result of hostilities or natural disasters.
Paragraph 7 (b)
A modification or withdrawal, pursuant to paragraph 7 (b), by a contracting party, other than the applicant contracting party, referred to in paragraph 7 (a), shall be made within six months of the day on which the action is taken by the applicant contracting party, and shall become effective on the thirtieth day following the day on which such modification or withdrawal has been notified to the CONTRACTING PARTIES.
Paragraph 11
The second sentence in paragraph 11 shall not be interpreted to mean that a contracting party is required to relax or remove restrictions if such relaxation or removal would thereupon produce conditions justifying the intensification or institution, respectively, of restrictions under paragraph 9 of Article XVIII.
Paragraph 12 (b)
The date referred to in paragraph 12 (b) shall be the date determined by the CONTRACTING PARTIES in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 4 (b) of Article XII of this Agreement.
Paragraphs 13 and 14
It is recognized that, before deciding on the introduction of a measure and notifying the CONTRACTING PARTIES in accordance with paragraph 14, a contracting party may need a reasonable period of time to assess the competitive position of the industry concerned.
Paragraphs 15 and 16It is understood that the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall invite a contracting party proposing to apply a measure under Section C to consult with them pursuant to paragraph 16 if they are requested to do so by a contracting party the trade of which would be appreciably affected by the measure in question.
Paragraphs 16, 18, 19 and 22
1. It is understood that the CONTRACTING PARTIES may concur in a proposed measure subject to specific conditions or limitations.  If the measure as applied does not conform to the terms of the concurrence it will to that extent be deemed a measure in which the CONTRACTING PARTIES have not concurred.  In cases in which the CONTRACTING PARTIES have concurred in a measure for a specified period, the contracting party concerned, if it finds that the maintenance of the measure for a further period of time is required to achieve the objective for which the measure was originally taken, may apply to the CONTRACTING PARTIES for an extension of that period in accordance with the provisions and procedures of Section C or D, as the case may be.
2. It is expected that the CONTRACTING PARTIES will, as a rule, refrain from concurring in a measure which is likely to cause serious prejudice to exports of a commodity on which the economy of a contracting party is largely dependent.
Paragraph 18 and 22
The phrase "that the interests of other contracting parties are adequately safeguarded" is meant to provide latitude sufficient to permit consideration in each case of the most appropriate method of safeguarding those interests.  The appropriate method may, for instance, take the form of an additional concession to be applied by the contracting party having recourse to Section C or D during such time as the deviation from the other Articles of the Agreement would remain in force or of the temporary suspension by any other contracting party referred to in paragraph 18 of a concession substantially equivalent to the impairment due to the introduction of the measure in question.  Such contracting party would have the right to safeguard its interests through such a temporary suspension of a concession;  Provided that this right will not be exercised when, in the case of a measure imposed by a contracting party coming within the scope of paragraph 4 (a), the CONTRACTING PARTIES have determined that the extent of the compensatory concession proposed was adequate.
Paragraph 19
The provisions of paragraph 19 are intended to cover the cases where an industry has been in existence beyond the "reasonable period of time" referred to in the note to paragraphs 13 and 14, and should not be so construed as to deprive a contracting party coming within the scope of paragraph 4 (a) of Article XVIII, of its right to resort to the other provisions of Section C, including paragraph 17, with regard to a newly established industry even though it has benefited from incidental protection afforded by balance of payments import restrictions.
Paragraph 21
Any measure taken pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 21 shall be withdrawn forthwith if the action taken in accordance with paragraph 17 is withdrawn or if the CONTRACTING PARTIES concur in the measure proposed after the expiration of the ninety-day time limit specified in paragraph 17.
Ad Article XX
Subparagraph (h)
The exception provided for in this subparagraph extends to any commodity agreement which conforms to the principles approved by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 30 (IV) of 28 March 1947.
Ad Article XXIV
Paragraph 9
It is understood that the provisions of Article I would require that, when a product which has been imported into the territory of a member of a customs union or free-trade area at a preferential rate of duty is re-exported to the territory of another member of such union or area, the latter member should collect a duty equal to the difference between the duty already paid and any higher duty that would be payable if the product were being imported directly into its territory.
Paragraph 11
Measures adopted by India and Pakistan in order to carry out definitive trade arrangements between them, once they have been agreed upon, might depart from particular provisions of this Agreement, but these measures would in general be consistent with the objectives of the Agreement.
Ad Article XXVIII
The CONTRACTING PARTIES and each contracting party concerned should arrange to conduct the negotiations and consultations with the greatest possible secrecy in order to avoid premature disclosure of details of prospective tariff changes.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall be informed immediately of all changes in national tariffs resulting from recourse to this Article.
Paragraph 1
1. If the CONTRACTING PARTIES specify a period other than a three-year period, a contracting party may act pursuant to paragraph 1 or paragraph 3 of Article XXVIII on the first day following the expiration of such other period and, unless the CONTRACTING PARTIES have again specified another period, subsequent periods will be three-year periods following the expiration of such specified period.
2. The provision that on 1 January 1958, and on other days determined pursuant to paragraph 1, a contracting party "may ... modify or withdraw a concession" means that on such day, and on the first day after the end of each period, the legal obligation of such contracting party under Article II is altered;  it does not mean that the changes in its customs tariff should necessarily be made effective on that day.  If a tariff change resulting from negotiations undertaken pursuant to this Article is delayed, the entry into force of any compensatory concessions may be similarly delayed.
3. Not earlier than six months, nor later than three months, prior to 1 January 1958, or to the termination date of any subsequent period, a contracting party wishing to modify or withdraw any concession embodied in the appropriate Schedule, should notify the CONTRACTING PARTIES to this effect.  The CONTRACTING PARTIES shall then determine the contracting party or contracting parties with which the negotiations or consultations referred to in paragraph 1 shall take place.  Any contracting party so determined shall participate in such negotiations or consultations with the applicant contracting party with the aim of reaching agreement before the end of the period.  Any extension of the assured life of the Schedules shall relate to the Schedules as modified after such negotiations, in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of Article XXVIII.  If the CONTRACTING PARTIES are arranging for multilateral tariff negotiations to take place within the period of six months before 1 January 1958, or before any other day determined pursuant to paragraph 1, they shall include in the arrangements for such negotiations suitable procedures for carrying out the negotiations referred to in this paragraph.
4. The object of providing for the participation in the negotiation of any contracting party with a principle supplying interest, in addition to any contracting party with which the concession was originally negotiated, is to ensure that a contracting party with a larger share in the trade affected by the concession than a contracting party with which the concession was originally negotiated shall have an effective opportunity to protect the contractual right which it enjoys under this Agreement.  On the other hand, it is not intended that the scope of the negotiations should be such as to make negotiations and agreement under Article XXVIII unduly difficult nor to create complications in the application of this Article in the future to concessions which result from negotiations thereunder.  Accordingly, the CONTRACTING PARTIES should only determine that a contracting party has a principal supplying interest if that contracting party has had, over a reasonable period of time prior to the negotiations, a larger share in the market of the applicant contracting party than a contracting party with which the concession was initially negotiated or would, in the judgement of the CONTRACTING PARTIES, have had such a share in the absence of discriminatory quantitative restrictions maintained by the applicant contracting party.  It would therefore not be appropriate for the CONTRACTING PARTIES to determine that more than one contracting party, or in those exceptional cases where there is near equality more than two contracting parties, had a principal supplying interest.
5. Notwithstanding the definition of a principal supplying interest in note 4 to paragraph 1, the CONTRACTING PARTIES may exceptionally determine that a contracting party has a principal supplying interest if the concession in question affects trade which constitutes a major part of the total exports of such contracting party.
6. It is not intended that provision for participation in the negotiations of any contracting party with a principal supplying interest, and for consultation with any contracting party having a substantial interest in the concession which the applicant contracting party is seeking to modify or withdraw, should have the effect that it should have to pay compensation or suffer retaliation greater than the withdrawal or modification sought, judged in the light of the conditions of trade at the time of the proposed withdrawal or modification, making allowance for any discriminatory quantitative restrictions maintained by the applicant contracting party.
7. The expression "substantial interest" is not capable of a precise definition and accordingly may present difficulties for the CONTRACTING PARTIES.  It is, however, intended to be construed to cover only those contracting parties which have, or in the absence of discriminatory quantitative restrictions affecting their exports could reasonably be expected to have, a significant share in the market of the contracting party seeking to modify or withdraw the concession.
Paragraph 4
1. Any request for authorization to enter into negotiations shall be accompanied by all relevant statistical and other data.  A decision on such request shall be made within thirty days of its submission.
2. It is recognized that to permit certain contracting parties, depending in large measure on a relatively small number of primary commodities and relying on the tariff as an important aid for furthering diversification of their economies or as an important source of revenue, normally to negotiate for the modification or withdrawal of concessions only under paragraph 1 of Article XXVIII, might cause them at such time to make modifications or withdrawals which in the long run would prove unnecessary.  To avoid such a situation the CONTRACTING PARTIES shall authorize any such contracting party, under paragraph 4, to enter into negotiations unless they consider this would result in, or contribute substantially towards, such an increase in tariff levels as to threaten the stability of the Schedules to this Agreement or lead to undue disturbance of international trade.
3. It is expected that negotiations authorized under paragraph 4 for modification or withdrawal of a single item, or a very small group of items, could normally be brought to a conclusion in sixty days.  It is recognized, however, that such a period will be inadequate for cases involving negotiations for the modification or withdrawal of a larger number of items and in such cases, therefore, it would be appropriate for the CONTRACTING PARTIES to prescribe a longer period.
4. The determination referred to in paragraph 4 (d) shall be made by the CONTRACTING PARTIES within thirty days of the submission of the matter to them unless the applicant contracting party agrees to a longer period.
5. In determining under paragraph 4 (d) whether an applicant contracting party has unreasonably failed to offer adequate compensation, it is understood that the CONTRACTING PARTIES will take due account of the special position of a contracting party which has bound a high proportion of its tariffs at very low rates of duty and to this extent has less scope than other contracting parties to make compensatory adjustment.
Ad Article XXVIII bis
Paragraph 3
It is understood that the reference to fiscal needs would include the revenues aspect of duties and particularly duties imposed primarily for revenue purpose, or duties imposed on products which can be substituted for products subject to revenue duties to prevent the avoidance of such duties.
Ad Article XXIX
Paragraph 1
Chapters VII and VIII of the Havana Charter have been excluded from paragraph 1 because they generally deal with the organization, functions and procedures of the International Trade Organization.
Ad Part IV
The words "developed contracting parties" and the words "less-developed contracting parties" as used in Part IV are to be understood to refer to developed and less-developed countries which are parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
Ad Article XXXVI
Paragraph 1
This Article is based upon the objectives set forth in Article I as it will be amended by Section A of paragraph 1 of the Protocol Amending Part I and Articles XXIX and XXX when that Protocol enters into force.
Paragraph 4
The term "primary products" includes agricultural products, vide paragraph 2 of the note ad Article XVI, Section B.
Paragraph 5
A diversification programme would generally include the intensification of activities for the processing of primary products and the development of manufacturing industries, taking into account the situation of the particular contracting party and the world outlook for production and consumption of different commodities.
Paragraph 8
It is understood that the phrase "do not expect reciprocity" means, in accordance with the objectives set forth in this Article, that the less-developed contracting parties should not be expected, in the course of trade negotiations, to make contributions which are inconsistent with their individual development, financial and trade needs, taking into consideration past trade developments.
This paragraph would apply in the event of action under Section A of Article XVIII, Article XXVIII, Article XXVIII bis (Article XXIX after the amendment set forth in Section A of paragraph 1 of the Protocol Amending Part I and Articles XXIX and XXX shall have become effective ), Article XXXIII, or any other procedure under this Agreement.
Ad Article XXXVII
Paragraph 1 (a)
This paragraph would apply in the event of negotiations for reduction or elimination of tariffs or other restrictive regulations of commerce under Articles XXVIII, XXVIII bis (XXIX after the amendment set forth in Section A of paragraph 1 of the Protocol Amending Part I and Articles XXIX and XXX shall have become effective13), and Article XXXIII, as well as in connection with other action to effect such reduction or elimination which contracting parties may be able to undertake.
Paragraph 3 (b)
The other measures referred to in this paragraph might include steps to promote domestic structural changes, to encourage the consumption of particular products, or to introduce measures of trade promotion.
    附件一:与第一条有关
    第一条  第2款(甲)项所称的领土名单:
    大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国
    大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国的附属领土
    加拿大
    澳大利亚联邦
    澳大利亚联邦的附属领土
    新西兰
    新西兰的附属领土
    包括西南非洲在内的南非联邦
    爱尔兰
    印度(1947年4月10日)
    纽芬兰
    南罗得西亚
    缅甸
    锡兰
    上述某些领土,对某些产品有两种或两种以上的现行优惠税率。任一这种领土,在与其它按最惠国税率供给这项产品的主要缔约国达成协议后,可以用单一的优惠税率代替前述两种或两种以上的优惠税率。但这项单一的优惠税率,总的说来,对按最惠国税率提供产品的缔约国来说,不应比代替以前更为不利。
    征收相当的关税优惠差额,以代替1947年4月10日只在本附件所列的两个领土或两个以上领土之间实施的某内地税的优惠差额,或代替下面一段里所称数量限制方面的优惠安排,不应视为构成关税优惠差额的增加。
    第十四条  第5款(乙)所称的优惠安排,系指联合王国根据它与加拿大、澳大利亚及新西兰政府所订的关于冷藏和速冻牛肉与小牛肉,冷藏和速冻羊肉与小羊肉,冷藏和速冻猪肉与腊肉的契约性规定,于1947年4月10日在联合王国内实施的优惠安排。意图是这些优惠安排,在不损害按第二十条(辛)项所采取的行动的情况下,应予以撤除或代之以关税优惠,并且为此目的要尽早在主要有关国家之间进行谈判。
    新西兰在1947年4月10日所实施的电影片出租税,应视为本协定第一条所称的关税。新西兰在1947年4月10日对租片人所实施的电影片限额,应视为本协定第四条所称的放映限额。
    印度和巴基斯坦自治领土,在上述名单中并未分列,因在1947年4月10日这一时期,印度、巴基斯坦尚未分开。
    附件二:与第一条有关
    第一条  第2款(乙)项所称法兰西联邦的领土名单:
    法兰西
    法属赤道非洲(刚果流域按条约开放部分△及其它领土)
    法属西非
    法国托管的喀麦隆
    法属索马里海岸及属地
    法国在大洋洲的居留地
    法国在新海布里地与英共管的居留地△
    印度支那
    马达加斯加及属地
    摩洛哥(法国地带)△
    新加利当尼亚及属地
    圣佩尔及弥圭琅
    法国托管的多哥△
    突尼斯
    凡有△符号者,系指输入到法国本土和法兰西联邦领土的进口而言。
    附件三:与第一条有关
    第一条  第2款(乙)项所称的比利时、卢森堡及荷兰关税联盟的领土名单:
    比利时与卢森堡经济联盟
    比属刚果
    罗安达乌朗地
    荷兰
    新几内亚
    苏里南
    荷属安地列斯
    印度尼西亚共和国
    以上仅指输入到组成关税联盟领土的进口而言。
    附件四:与第一条有关
    第一条  第2款(乙)项所称的美利坚合众国的领土名单:美利坚合众国(关税领土)
    美利坚合众国的所属领土
    菲律宾共和国
    征收相当的关税优惠差额,以代替1947年4月10日只在本附件所列的两个领土之间或两个以上领土之间实施的某内地税的优惠差额,不应视为构成关税优惠金额的增加。
    附件五:与第一条有关
    第一条  第2款(丁)项所称的智利及毗邻国家之间所订优惠安排所涉及的领土名单
    现行优惠仅限于以智利为一方,以下列领土为另一方:
    1.阿根廷
    2.玻利维亚
    3.秘鲁
    附件六:与第一条有关
    第一条  第2款(丁)项所称的黎巴嫩、叙利亚及毗邻国家之间所订优惠安排所涉及的领土名单
    现行优惠安排,仅限于以黎巴嫩--叙利亚关税联盟为一方,以下列领土为另一方:
    1.巴勒斯坦
    2.外约旦
    附件七:与第一条有关
    第一条  第4款所称的优惠最高差额的确立日期
    南非联邦
    1938年7月1日
    法兰西
    1939年1月1日
    黎巴嫩、叙利亚关税联盟
    1939年11月30日
    南罗得西亚
    1941年5月1日
    澳大利亚
    1946年10月15日
    加拿大
    1969年7月1日
    附件八:与第二十六条有关
    第二十六条  规定所称作出决议时需用的对外贸易总额的百分比分配数(以1949~1953年的平均数字为基础)
    如在日本政府加入总协定以前,缔约各国已接受现行协定,而且第一栏所列缔约各国的对外贸易百分比即作为本协定第二十六条第6款所规定的对外贸易百分比,则实施这一款时应使用第一栏。如在日本政府加入总协定以前,缔约各国还未接受现行协定,则实施这一款时应使用第二栏。
    第一栏
    (缔约各国于1955年3月1日)
    第二栏
    (缔约各国于1955年3月1日以及日本)
    澳大利亚
    3.0
    3.1
    奥地利
    0.9
    0.8
    比利时、卢森堡
    4.3
    4.2
    巴西
    2.5
    2.4
    缅甸
    0.3
    0.3
    加拿大
    6.7
    6.5
    锡兰
    0.5
    0.5
    智利
    0.6
    0.6
    古巴
    1.1
    1.1
    原捷克斯洛伐克
    1.4
    1.4
    丹麦
    1.4
    1.4
    多米尼加共和国
    0.1
    0.1
    芬兰
    1.0
    1.0
    法兰西
    8.7
    8.5
    德意志联邦共和国
    5.3
    5.2
    希腊
    0.4
    0.4
    海地
    0.1
    0.1
    印度
    2.4
    2.4
    印度尼西亚
    1.3
    1.3
    意大利
    2.9
    2.8
    荷兰
    4.7
    4.6
    新西兰
    1.0
    1.0
    尼加拉瓜
    0.1
    0.1
    挪威
    1.1
    1.1
    巴基斯坦
    0.9
    0.8
    秘鲁
    0.4
    0.4
    罗得西亚和尼亚萨兰联邦
    0.6
    0.6
    瑞典
    2.5
    2.4
    土耳其
    0.6
    0.6
    南非联邦
    1.8
    1.8
    大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国
    20.3
    19.8
    美利坚合众国
    20.6
    20.1
    乌拉圭
    0.4
    0.4
    日本
    -
    2.3
    100
    100
    注:以上百分比是按实施关税和贸易总协定的所有领土的贸易计算的。
    附件九:注释和补充规定
    关于第一条
    第一条  
    对《暂行实施议定书》来说,第一条第1款引用的第三条第3款和第4款所规定的义务,以及第二条第2款(乙)项引用的第六条所规定的义务,应视为属于本协定的第二部分。
    前段以及第一条第1款同第三条第2款和第4款之间的相互引用,只能在1948年9月14日《关于修改关税与贸易总协定第二部分和第二十六条的议定书①》中所列的修正条款生效以后使第三条的规定得到修改的情况下,才能适用。
    ①这一议定书已于1948年12月14日生效。
    第4款
    所称优惠差额,系指相同产品的最惠国税率和优惠税率的绝对差额,而不是指这些税率的比例关系。例如:
    1.如最惠国税率是从价36%,优惠税率是从价24%,则优惠差额是从价12%,而不是最惠国税率的1/3。
    2.如最惠国税率是从价36%,优惠税率为最惠国税率的2/3,则优惠差额是从价12%。
    3.如最惠国税率是每公斤2法郎,优惠税率是每公斤1.5法郎,则优惠差额是每公斤0.50法郎。
    按照既定的统一程序所采取的下述海关措施,将不视为违反优惠差额的一般约束:(1)如果税则分类或税率于1947年4月10日对某些产品暂停实施或暂不生效,对这种进口产品重新实施对它本来适用的税则分类或税率。(2)如果税则明确规定某项产品可以按几种不同税目进行分类,将这种产品按1947年4月10日所实行的分类项目以外的其它税则项目进行分类。
    关于第二条
    第2款(甲)项
    第二条  第2款(甲)项同第三条第2款的相互引用,只能在1948年9月14日《关于修改关税与贸易总协定第二部分和第二十六条的议定书①》中所列的修正条款生效以后使第三条的规定得到修改的情况下,才能适用。
    ①这一议定书已于1948年12月14日生效。
    第2款(乙)项
    见第一条第1款注释
    第4款
    除原谈判减让的缔约各国另有特别协议以外,本款的规定应参照哈瓦那宪章第三十一条的规定予以实施。
    关于第三条
    本条第1款规定的适用于进口产品和相同国产品并在输入时或在输入地点对进口产品征收的任何国内税或其它国内费用,或实施的任何法令、条例或规定,仍应视为第1款规定的国内税或其它国内费用,或法令、条例或规定,并因此应受第三条规定的约束。
    第1款
    第1款的规定适用于一缔约国领土内的地方政府和当局所征收的国内税,应受第二十四条最后一款规定的约束。在上述一款中?quot;合理措施"一词并不要求诸如废除现行的授权地方政府征收某项国内税的本国立法,如所征收的国内税从技术上来看虽与第三条的文字规定不符,但在实际上却不违背这条规定的精神,而撤销这一国内税将给有关地方政府或当局造成严重的财政困难的话。至于地方政府或当局所征收的那种与第三条规定的文字和精神均不相符的国内税,如果突然采取行动将产生行政上和财政上的严重困难,则所称"合理措施",应准许缔约国在一个过渡时期内逐步撤除这一不合规定的税收。
    第2款
    凡符合第2款第一句要求的税收,只有在已税产品为一方和未同样征税的直接竞争品或代替品为另一方之间有竞争的情况下,才被认为与第二句的规定不符。
    第5款
    凡符合第5款第一句规定的规章,只要规章管理对象产品都在国内大量生产,即不得认为违背第5款第二句的规定。不能因对规章管理对象的每项产品在进口产品和国产品之间所分配的比例和数量是公平的,就认为这项规章是符合第5款第二句的规定。
    关于第五条
    第5款
    关于运输费用,第5款中所规定的原则,系指在同样情况下,经由同一路线运输相同产品而言。
    关于第六条
    第1款
    1.由于商户联号而造成的隐蔽倾销(即某进口商的销售价格,低于与它是联号的出口商所开发票价格的相当价格,也低于在输出国国内的价格),应构成价格倾销的一种形式。有关这种倾销的倾销差额,可以进口商转售货物的价格作为基础加以计算。
    2.应当承认,对全部或大体上全部由国家垄断贸易并由国家规定国内价格的国家进口的货物,在为第1款的目的决定可比价格时,可能存在特殊的困难,在这种情况下,进口缔约国可能发现有必要考虑这种可能性:与这种国家的国内价格作严格的比较不一定经常适当。
    第2款和第3款
    1.如同海关对其它案件一样,在对任何可疑的倾销或补贴作出最后结论以前,缔约国可以要求对应付的反倾销税或反补贴税提供适当保证(书面保证或押金)。
    2.复币制在某种情况下可能构成一种出口补贴,对此可以第3款的反补贴税予以抵销;复币制还可以通过国家货币部分贬值的办法构成某种形式的倾销,对此可以按第2款采取行动予以抵销。所称"复币制",系指由政府实施或核准的制度。
    第6款(乙)项
    只有经拟征收反倾销税或反补贴税的缔约国提出申请,才能批准解除本项规定的义务。
    关于第七条
    第1款
    所用"和其它费用"一词,不能认为包括对进口产品或有关进口产品所征收的内地税或相当于内地税的费用。
    第2款
    1.凡以发票价格,加上正当成本(指构成"实际价格"的合理因素)的任何未列费用,再加从一般竞争价格扣除的不正常折扣或其它削价作为"实际价格"的,应视为符合第七条规定。
    2.缔约国将买卖双方不是相互独立而且价格也不是唯一考虑因素的交易,解释为不包括在"在正常贸易过程中于充分竞争的条件下"一词的范围内,这样解释应视为符合第七条第2款(乙)项规定。
    3."充分竞争的条?quot;的标准,允许缔约国不考虑只限于对独家代理商给予特殊折扣的那种价格。
    4.第2款(甲)项和(乙)项的用词,允许一缔约国统一(1)以进口商品的特定出口价格为基础,或(2)以相同商品的一般价格水平为基础,来决定海关估价。
    关于第八条
    1.第八条虽未规定多种汇率的使用,但第1款和第4款认为因实施多种汇率而征收汇兑税或规费是不当的;
    然后,如某缔约国为了保障它的国际收支,经征得国际货币基金同意而征收货币多种汇率的规费时,第十五条和第9款(甲)项的规定足以充分保障其立场。
    2.当一缔约国领土的产品输入到另一缔约国领土时,只要求提供必不可少的原产国证书,应视为符合第1款规定。
    关于第十一条、第十二条、第十三条、第十四条第十八条
    在第十一条、第十二条、第十三条、第十四条和第十八条各条规定中,所称"进口限制"或"出口限制",包括通过国营企业的活动所实施的限制。
    关于第十一条
    第2款(丙)项
    本项所称"任何形式",包括初步加工但仍属易腐状态的同一产品,它与新鲜产品直接竞争,如准其自由进口,对新鲜产品的限制将因此失效。
    第2款最后一项
    所称"特殊因?quot;,包括本国生产者与外国生产者之间或外国生产者之间在相对生产效率方面的变动,但采取本协定所不许可的方法,人为造成的变动,则不包括在内。
    关于第十二条
    缔约国全体按照本条规定进行协商时,应当严守机密。
    第3款(丙)项(1)
    凡实施限制的缔约各国,应尽可能避免对为一缔约国的经济所大部分依赖的某种商品的出口造成严重损害。
    第4款(乙)项
    缔约各国同意,本项所指的日期,应确定在《修正本协定序言以及第二部分和第三部分的议定书》对本条所作的修正生效以后的90日以内。但如缔约国全体认为,本项规定情况不宜在原拟议的时期内实施,缔约国全体可以决定一个较晚的日期;但是,这一日期,自国际货币基金协定第八条及其第二节、第三节、第四节规定的义务适用于同时是货币基金会员国的缔约各国,而这些国家的对外贸易总额至少占所有缔约国对外贸易总额50%之时起,应不超过30日。
    第4款(戊)项
    缔约各国同意,第4款(戊)项对国际收支理由而建立或维持的数量限制,未增加任何新的标,准。这项规定的原意只是,对实施限制的缔约国的国际收支的困难产生影响的外部因素,如贸易条件、数量限制、过份的关税和补贴等的改变,都应充分加以考虑。
    关于第十三条
    第2款(丁)项
    本项没有把"商业上的考虑"作为分配限额的一条原则,因考虑到由政府实施这条原则未必全部可行。而且,在可行时,一缔约国可以按照第2款首句中所规定的一般原则,在谋求达成协议的过程中予以实施。
    第4款
    参阅第十一条第2款最后一项有关"特殊因素"的注释。
    关于第十四条
    第1款
    本款的规定不得解释为不许缔约国全体在第十二条第4款及第十八条第20款所规定的协商中充分考虑进口限制歧视的性质、后果及理由。
    第2款
    第2款所考虑的情况之一是:一缔约国从最近的交易中获得了顺差,如果不采取歧视性措施,就不能用掉。
    关于第十五条
    第4款
    所用"妨碍……实现"一词,旨在指明诸如这类的情况:比如,任何外汇方面的行动,虽与本协定某一条的明文规定有抵触,但在实际上并不违背这一条的意旨,则不应视为违反这一条的规定。因此,一缔约国如果作为其按照国际货币基金协定实施外汇管制的一部分,规定它的出口要以本国货币或以国际货币基金的某一个或某几个会员国的货币来支付,就不应视为违反本协定第十一条或第十三条的规定。又如,某缔约国在进口许可证上注明货物可以从那个国家进口,其目的不是在进口许可证制度上增加任何新的歧视因素,而是贯彻准许施行的外汇管制,也不应视为违反本协定。
    关于第十六条
    免征某项出口产品的关税,免征相同产品供内销时必需缴纳的内地税,或退还与所缴数量相当的关税或内地税,不能视为是一种补贴。
    第二节  
    1.第二节不排除缔约国按照国际货币基金协定的规定,使用多种汇率。
    2.第二节所称的"初级产品",应理解为天然形态的农业、林业、渔业或矿业产品,或为要在国际贸易中能大量销售进行过按习惯需要进行的加工的这种产品。
    第3款
    1.不能因一缔约国在以前有代表性的时期内未曾出口有关产品,而排除这一缔约国在有关产品的贸易中取得一份份额的权利。
    2.凡与出口价格无关,为稳定国内价格或为稳定某一初级产品的国内生产者收入而建立的制度,即令它有时会使出口产品的售价低于相同产品在国内市场销售时的可比价格,也不应视为造成第3款所称的出口补贴,如果缔约国全体确定:(甲)这一制度也曾造成(或这一制度的设计会造成)商品的出口售价高于相同产品在国内市场销售时的可比价格,而且(乙)这一制度的实施(或这一制度的设计会这样实施),由于生产的有效管制或其它原因,不致于不适当地刺激出口或在其它方面严重损害其它缔约国的利益。
    虽有缔约国全体的以上确定,如除了从有关产品的生产者取得资金以外,还要部分或全部从政府取得资金,则按这一制度采取的行动,仍应受第2款的限制。
    第4款
    第4款的意图是,缔约各国应争取于1957年底以前就从1958年1月1日起撤除一切补贴达成协议。如不能办到,应争取达成如下协议:在预期能达成协议的日期以前,继续维持现状。
    关于第十七条
    第1款
    缔约各国设立的,从事购买或销售业务的购销活动,应受本款(甲)项和(乙)项的规定限制。
    在缔约国设立的,不从事购买或销售业务但对私营贸易制订章则法令的购销活动,应受本协定有关条款的限制。
    本条规定不排除国营企业在不同市场内以不同价格出售商品,但是订定不同的价格,应是根据商业上的原因,适应出口市场上的供求情况。
    第1款(甲)项
    政府为保证质量标准和对外贸易业务效率而实施的措施,或为开发国家自然资源授予的特权(但对有关企业的贸易活动政府无权加以管理),都不构成本条所称的"独占权或特权"。
    第1款(乙)项
    接受某项"附有条件的贷款"的国家,在国外采购所需物品时,可以把这种贷款作为一种"商业上的考虑"加以考虑。
    第2款
    所用"商品"一词,限于商业习惯中所称的产品,而不包括购买或出售劳务。
    第3款
    缔约各国同意按本款进行的谈判,可以谋求降低进出口关税和其它费用,或缔结符合本协定规定的相互满意的其它协定(参阅第二条第4款及其注释)。
    第4款(乙)项
    本款所用的"进口加价"应指进口垄断对进口产品所订的价格(不包括第三条范围的内地税、运输、分配和其它有关购买、销售或进一步加工的费用,以及合理的盈利)与进口产品的到岸价格之间的差额。
    关于第十八条
    缔约国全体和有关缔约国对在本条规定范围内发生的问题,应严守机密。
    第1款和第4款
    1.在考虑一缔约国的经济是否"只能维持低生活水平"时,缔约国全体应考虑这一缔约国经济的正常状态,而不应以这一缔约国的某项或某几项主要出口产品暂时存在着特别有利条件的特殊情况作为判断的基础。
    2.所用"处在发展初期阶段"一词,不仅适用于经济刚开始发展的缔约各国,也适用于经济正在经历工业化的过程,以改正过份依靠初级产品的缔约各国。
    第2款、第3款、第7款、第13款和第22款
    所述建立某特定工业,不仅适用于建立一项新的工业,也包括在现有工业中建设一项新的分支生产部门以及对现有工业进行重大改建,和对只能少量供应国内需要的现有工业进行重大扩建,并应包括因战争或自然灾害而遭到破坏或重大损坏的工业的重建。
    第7款(乙)项
    第7款(甲)项所述的申请缔约国以外的一缔约国按照第7款(乙)项提出某项修改或撤销时,这项修改或撤销应于申请缔约国采取行动6个月内提出,并应自缔约国全体接到这项修改或撤销通知之日后第三十日起生效。
    第11款
    第11款中的第二句,不应解释为一缔约国必须放宽或撤除一项限制,如果放宽或撤除这项限制就因此有必要分别加强或建立第十八条第9款规定的限制。
    第12款(乙)项
    第12款(乙)项中所述日期,应为缔约国全体按照本协定第十二条第4款(乙)项所决定的日期。
    第13款和第14款
    应当承认,在决定采取某项措施和按照第14款的规定通知缔约国全体以前,缔约国可能需要一个相当期间来估计有关工业的竞争状况。
    第15款和第16款
    这应理解为,如果一缔约国的贸易因另一缔约国按本条第三节采取的措施而受到明显影响时,经这一缔约国向缔约国全体提出要求后,缔约国全体应邀请拟采取这项措施的缔约国,按照第16款与它们进行协商。
    第16款,第18款,第19款和第22款这应理解为,缔约国全体可为在特定的条件下或特定的界限内同意所拟实施的某项措施。如果拟实施的措施不符合缔约国全体所同意的条件,在不符合的程度内应视为未经缔约国全体同意。如缔约国全体同意在某一特定时期内实施某项措施,但有关缔约国认为需要在更长时期内维持这项措施以完成原定的目的,则有关缔约国可以按照第三节或第四节的规定和程序,向缔约国全体申请延长这一时期。
    可以这样期望:凡对一缔约国的经济所依赖的出口商品可能产生严重损害的措施,缔约国全体一般来说不会予以同意。
    第18款和第22款
    所用"对其它缔约国的利益已经给予适当的保护"一句,系指提供了充分的自由,允许在每一种情况下能考虑用最适当的方法来保护这些利益。所述适当方法可采取多种不同的形式,如由引用第三节和第四节规定的缔约国,在它背离本协定的其它条款的期间内,提供新的减让,或者由第18款所称的任何其它缔约国,实施某项与采取的有关措施所造成的损害大体相当的减让。这一其它缔约国应有权通过暂停实施减让的办法来保护它的利益;
    但是,当一缔约国采取的措施是在第4款(甲)项范围以内,而缔约国全体对所提的补偿性减让又认为适当时,这一其它缔约国不应行使这项权利。
    第19款
    第19款的规定,系用来适用于某一工业的存在已经超出第13款和第14款注释所述"相当期间"的那种情况,而且,即使某项新建工业已经从国际收支所实施的进口限制中得到附带的保护,但不能因此将第十九条的规定解释为可以对第十八条第4款(甲)项范围内的缔约国剥夺它引用第三节内其它条款(包括第10款在内)的权利。
    第21款
    按第17款实施的措施如已撤销,或者如缔约国全体于第17款规定的90日期限届满后,同意提议的措施,则按第21款而采取的任何措施,应即撤销。
    关于第二十条
    第(辛)项
    本项所规定的例外条款,适用于与1947年3月28日经社理事会30(IV)号决议通过的原则相符的任何商品协定。
    关于第二十四条
    第9款
    当然,第一条的规定要求:当某一产品按优惠税率向关税联盟或自由贸易区的某一成员国领土进口以后,又复出口到这一联盟或贸易区的另一成员国领土,后一成员国对此征收的关税,只应相当于已经付出的关税和这一产品如直接输至这一领土应付的较高关税之间的差额。
    第11款
    印度和巴基斯坦为执行某一达成协议的具体贸易安排而采取的措施,可能背离本协定的某项规定,但这些措施一般应与本协定规定的目的相符。
    关于第二十八条
    缔约国全体和每一个有关缔约国在安排谈判和协商时,应尽可能保密,以免过早泄露所拟改变税率的细节。按照这项规定改变的各国税率,应即通知缔约国全体。
    第1款
    1.如果缔约国全体规定一个不是以三年为一期的期限,则在这一期限届满后的第一日,缔约国可以按第二十八条第1款和第3款的规定办理,而且,除非缔约国全体又规定另一个期限,随后的期限,在规定的期限届满以后,应是三年为一期的期限。
    2.一缔约国于1958年1月1日和按照第1款规定的其它日期"可以修改或撤销……某项减让"的规定,系指在这一日和在这个期限届满后的第一日,这一缔约国按第二条所承担的法律义务已经改变;
    但这并不意味着它的关税的改变必须于这一日生效。如果按本款进行的谈判所达成的税率改变有所延迟,则补偿性减让的生效日期也可以同样延迟。
    3.在1958年1月1日以前最早不超过6个月,最迟不少于3个月的一段期间内,或在随后的任一期限满期以前,如某缔约国希望修改或撤销有关减让表中的任何减让,它应将这一情况通知缔约国全体。缔约国全体应即确定那个缔约国或那些缔约国应与它进行第一款规定的谈判或协商。被确定的任一缔约国,应与申请缔约国进行谈判或协商,以期在这一期限终结以前能达成协议。任何延长减让表的有效期限,应视为按照第二十八条第1款、第2款、第3款各款规定通过谈判修改减让表。如果缔约国全体安排于1958年1月1日以前或按照第1款规定的任何其它日期以前的6个月期间内举行多边关税谈判,则缔约国全体在为这一谈判准备的安排中,应包括有为进行本款所述谈判的适当程序。
    4.除与原议定减让的缔约国进行谈判以外,又规定在供应上具有主要利害关系的缔约国参与谈判的目的是:凡与原拟定减让的缔约国相比,在受到减让的影响的贸易中占有较大的份额的缔约国,应保证其有充分的机会来保护它根据本协定所享有的契约权利。而在另一方面,也无意使谈判的范围扩大到这种程度,以致按第二十八条进行谈判和达成协议出现不适当的困难,或使今后实施本条对由谈判达成的减让过于复杂。因此,只有当一缔约国与原议定减让的缔约国相比,在谈判前的一段相当时期内,在申请缔约国的市场上已经占有较大的份额,或者当申请缔约国不维持歧视性数量限制的情况下,根据缔约国全体的判断,将占有这样一个较大份额的情况下,缔约国全体才可以决定这一缔约国为在供应上具有主要利害关系的缔约国。所以,缔约国全体决定一个以上的缔约国,或者当存在着某些近乎相等的特殊情况下,决定两个以上的缔约国,在供应上具有主要利害关系是不恰当的。
    5.虽有第1款注释4对于在供应上具有主要利害关系的规定,但如有关减让影响了某缔约国全部出口贸易的大部分,则缔约国全体可以特别决定,这一缔约国应为在供应上具有主要利害关系的缔约国。
    6.规定在供应上具有主要利害关系的缔约国参与谈判,以及规定与申请缔约国所拟加以修改或撤销的减让具有实质利害关系的缔约国进行协商,这并不意味着所应给予的补偿或承担对方报复措施所遭受的损失,从拟撤销或修改减让的贸易状况来判断,并将申请缔约国所维持的歧视性数量限制考虑在内,应当高于所拟加以撤销或修改的减让。
    7.所用"实质利害关?quot;一词的含义范围不可能加以精确规定,因此,对缔约国全体可能引起某些困难。但是,它的原意应解释为只适用于在拟修正和撤销减让的缔约国的市场内占有,或者在没有歧视性数量限制影响它们出口的情况下,可以合理地预计在这一市场内占有重要份额的那些缔约国。
    第4款
    1.任何要求准予进行谈判的申请,应当随附所有有关统计和其它资料。对于这项申请,应于提出申请之日起30日内作出决定。
    2.应当承认,对某些主要依靠少数初级商品和依靠关税作为促进其经济多样化的重要手段或当作税收重要来源的缔约国,只允许它们根据第二十八条第1款的规定进行正常的谈判来修改或撤销减让,可能使这些缔约国在当时对减让作出某些从长远看证明是没有必要的修改或撤销。为了避免这种情况的发生,缔约国全体应当准许任何这样的缔约国,按照第4款规定进行谈判,除非缔约国全体认为这将造成或实际上导致关税水平增加,威胁到本协定减让表的稳定并给国际贸易带来不适当的紊乱。
    3.按第4款准许的为修改或撤销单项或少数项目而进行的谈判,一般预计能在60日内获得成果。但应当承认,这一期间对修改或撤销较多项目的谈判是不适宜的。在这种情况下,缔约国全体应规定一个较长期间。
    4.除非申请缔约国同意一个更长的期间以外,缔约国全体对第4款(丁)项中所称的决定应于有关问题向它提出后的30日内作出。
    5.在按照第4款(丁)项决定申请缔约国是否无理不提供适当补偿时,应理解为:缔约国全体将适当考虑一缔约国已经承担义务,把大部分关税固定在很低的水平上,因而与其它缔约国相比,作出补充调整的余地就较小这样一种特殊情况。
    关于第二十八条附加
    第3款
    当然,所述财政上的需要,应当包括关税的财政收入方面,特别应当包括以财政收入为主要目的所征的关税,或对应征财政关税的物品的代用品为防止逃税而征收的关税。
    关于第二十九条
    第1款
    第1款内未列入哈瓦那宪章的第七章和第八章,因这两章一般是处理国际贸易组织的机构、职权和程序。
    关于第四部分
    第四部分所用的"发达的缔约各国"和"发展中的缔约各国"应当理解为参加关税及贸易总协定为成员国的发达国家和发展中国家。
    关于第三十六条
    第1款
    本款按第一条规定的目的拟定,如将来《修改第一部分以及第二十九条和第三十条的议定书》①生效时,本条将按议定书第1款第一节予以修改。
    ①这一议定书已于1968年1月1日放弃。
    第4款
    所称"初级产品"包括农产品在内,参阅关于第十六条第二节第2款注释。
    第5款
    多样化的计划在考虑某缔约国的现状和不同商品的世界生产和消费的前景的同时,一般要包括提高初级产品的加工程度和发展制造工业。
    第8款
    按本条规定的目的"<不能希望得到互惠"一词自应理解为:不应当期望发展中的缔约各国贸易谈判过程中作出与它们各自的发展、财政和贸易方面的需要相抵触的贡献,但对过去的贸易发展情况应予考虑。
    凡按照第十八条第一节、第二十八条、第二十八条附加(第二十九条,当《修改第一部分以及第二十九条和第三十条的议定书》①的第1款第一节所列修正条款生效以后)、第三十三条或本协定规定的任何其它程序而采取行动时,本款的规定应予适用。
    关于第三十七条
    第1款(甲)
    对按第二十八条、第二十八条附加(第二十九条,当《修改第一部分以及第二十九条和第三十条的议定书》①的第1款第一节所列修正条款生效以后)和第三十三条为降低或撤除关税或其它贸易限制条例所进行的谈判中,以及有关为贯彻缔约各国可能承担的这种降低或撤除而采取的其它行动,本款的规定应予适用。
    ①这一议定书已于1968年1月1日放弃。
    第3款(乙)项
    本款所指的其它措施,可以包括为促进国内结构的改变,鼓励某些产品的消费,或实施新的贸易促进办法等而采取的步骤。

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