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消除对妇女歧视宣言
作者:赵丽娜律师发布   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-03-29 14:06:00

Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

消除对妇女歧视宣言

Signatory: General Assembly of the United Nations
Date of Signature: 11/07/1967
Validity Status: Valid
缔约方: 联合国大会
缔约时间: 11/07/1967
效力状态: 有效

Text

正文

The General Assembly,
Considering that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women, Considering that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserts the principle of non-discrimination and proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein without distinction of any kind, including any distinction as to sex, Taking into account the resolutions, declarations, conventions and recommendations of the United Nations and the specialized agencies designed to eliminate all forms of discrimination and to promote equal rights for men and women, Concerned that, despite the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and other instruments of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and despite the progress made in the matter of equality of rights, there continues to exist considerable discrimination against women, Considering that discrimination against women is incompatible with human dignity and with the welfare of the family and of society, prevents their participation, on equal terms with men, in the political, social, economic and cultural life of their countries and is an obstacle to the full development of the potentialities of women in the service of their countries and of humanity, Bearing in mind the great contribution made by women to social, political, economic and cultural life and the part they play in the family and particularly in the rearing of children, Convinced that the full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause of peace require the maximum participation of women as well as men in all fields, Considering that it is necessary to ensure the universal recognition in law and in fact of the principle of equality of men and women, Solemnly proclaims this Declaration:
    大会,
    鉴于联合国人民已在宪章内重申其对基本人权、人格尊严与价值以及男女平等权利的信念,鉴于世界人权宣言申明不歧视原则,并宣示人皆生而自由,其尊严及权利均各平等,且人人皆有权享受该宣言所载的一切权利与自由,无分轩轾,包括不分性别,计及联合国及各专门机构旨在消除一切形式的歧视及促进男女平等权利的决议、宣言、公约及建议,察及虽有联合国宪章、世界人权宣言、关于人权的各项国际公约及联合国与各专门机构之其他文书,虽在权利之平等方面获有进展,而歧视妇女情事,仍数见不鲜,深感关切,鉴于歧视妇女有乖人类尊严及家庭与社会之福利,阻止妇女以与男女平等的条件参加其国内政治、社会、经济与文化生活,实为充分发展妇女服务其国家与人类潜力的障碍,鉴于妇女对社会、政治、经济及文化生活的重大贡献及其在家庭方面,尤其在儿童教养方面所负的任务,深信一国的充分与完全发展,世界的福利及和平大业,均需要妇女与男子同样尽量参加所有各方面的工作,鉴于在法律上与事实上均必须确保男女平等原则的普遍承认,受郑重宣布本宣言:
 
Article 1
Discrimination against women, denying or limiting as it does their equality of rights with men, is fundamentally unjust and constitutes an offence against human dignity.
    第一条  
    对妇女的歧视,其作用为否认或限制妇女与男子平等之权利,实属根本不公平且构成侵犯人格尊严的罪行。
Article 2
All appropriate measures shall be taken to abolish existing laws, customs, regulations and practices which are discriminatory against women, and to establish adequate legal protection for equal rights of men and women, in particular:
(a) The principle of equality of rights shall be embodied in the constitution or otherwise guaranteed by law;
(b) The international instruments of the United Nations and the specialized agencies relating to the elimination of discrimination against women shall be ratified or acceded to and fully implemented as soon as practicable.
    第二条  
    为废除现行歧视妇女的法律、习俗、规章与惯例,并为男女平等权利建立适当的法律保障,应采取一切适当措施,尤应采取下列各项措施:
    (甲)权利平等原则应载入宪法或另以法律加以保证;
    (乙)联合国与各专门机构关于消除对妇女歧视的国际文书应尽速批准或加入并充分实施。
Article 3
All appropriate measures shall be taken to educate public opinion and to direct national aspirations towards the eradication of prejudice and the abolition of customary and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority of women.
    第三条  
    为教导舆论,导引国民意愿同心扫除偏见,取消基于妇女卑下观念的惯例及所有其他办法,应采取一切适当措施。
Article 4
All appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure to women on equal terms with men, without any discrimination:
(a) The right to vote in all elections and be eligible for election to all publicly elected bodies;
(b) The right to vote in all public referenda;
(c) The right to hold public office and to exercise all public functions.
Such rights shall be guaranteed by legislation.
    第四条  
    为确保妇女得以与男子同等的条件,不受任何歧视,享受下列权利,应采取一切适当措施:
    (甲)在一切选举中投票并有资格选入民选机关的权利;
    (乙)在一切公民覆决中投票的权利;
    (丙)担任公职及执行一切公众任务的权利。
    上列权利应以法律加以保证。
Article 5
Women shall have the same rights as men to acquire, change or retain their nationality. Marriage to an alien shall not automatically affect the nationality of the wife either by rendering her stateless or by forcing upon her the nationality of her husband.
    第五条  
    妇女取得、改变或保留国籍,应有与男子相同的权利。与外国人结婚不应当影响妻的国籍使其成为无国籍或强其取得夫的国籍。
Article 6
1. Without prejudice to the safeguarding of the unity and the harmony of the family, which remains the basic unit of any society, all appropriate measures, particularly legislative measures, shall be taken to ensure to women, married or unmarried, equal rights with men in the field of civil law, and in particular:
(a) The right to acquire, administer, enjoy, dispose of and inherit property, including property acquired during marriage;
(b) The right to equality in legal capacity and the exercise thereof;
(c) The same rights as men with regard to the law on the movement of persons.
2. All appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure the principle of equality of status of the husband and wife, and in particular:
(a) Women shall have the same right as men to free choice of a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent;
(b) Women shall have equal rights with men during marriage and at its dissolution. In all cases the interest of the children shall be paramount;
(c) Parents shall have equal rights and duties in matters relating to their children. In all cases the interest of the children shall be paramount.
3. Child marriage and the betrothal of young girls before puberty shall be prohibited, and effective action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.
    第六条  
    一、以不妨碍对仍为任何社会基本单位的家庭的团结与和谐所予保障为限,应采取一切适当措施,尤应采取立法措施,以确保妇女,不论已婚未婚,在民法方面享有与男子平等的权利,尤其下列权利:
    (甲)取得、管理、享用、处分及继承财产的权利,包括婚姻存续期间取得的财产在内;
    (乙)法律行为能力及其行使之平等的权利;
    (丙)对关于人身移动的法律与男子相同的权利。
    二、为保障夫妻地位平等的原则,尤其下列各项,应采取一切适当措施:
    (甲)妇女应有与男子相同的自由选择配偶与须经其自由完全同意始得结婚的权利;
    (乙)妇女在婚姻存续期间及婚姻关系消灭时,应享有与男子平等的权利。不论在何种情况下,子女的利益应居首要;
    (丙)父母对于有关子女之事项,应有平等的权利与义务。不论在何种情形下,子女的利益应居首要。
    三、童婚及少女在青春期前订婚皆应禁止,并应采取有效行动,包括制订法律在内,规定结婚最低年龄及必须在正式登记处作婚姻登记。
Article 7
All provisions of penal codes which constitute discrimination against women shall be repealed.
    第七条  
    凡刑法内构成对妇女歧视的一切规定,皆应废止。
Article 8
All appropriate measures, including legislation, shall be taken to combat all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women.
    第八条  
    为制止以一切形式贩卖妇女及意图营利使妇女卖淫的行为,应采取一切适当措施,包括制订法律在内。
Article 9
All appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure to girls and women, married or unmarried, equal rights with men in education at all levels, and in particular:
(a) Equal conditions of access to, and study in, educational institutions of all types, including universities and vocational, technical and professional schools;
(b) The same choice of curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff with qualifications of the same standard, and school premises and equipment of the same quality, whether the institutions are co-educational or not;
(c) Equal opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study grants;
(d) Equal opportunities for access to programmes of continuing education, including adult literacy programmes;
(e) Access to educational information to help in ensuring the health and well-being of families.
    第九条  
    为确保少女及妇女不论已婚未婚,皆能于各级教育享有与男子平等的权利,尤其下列各项,应采取一切适当措施:
    (甲)各种教育机关,包括大学、职业、工业及专业学校在内,入学与肄业条件相等;
    (乙)不论是否男女同校,课程的选择、考试、教员的资格标准、校舍及设备的品质,均应相伺;
    (丙)领受奖学金及其他研究补助费的机会均等;
    (丁)接受补习教育,包括成人识字教育的机会均等;
    (戊)接受教育知识借以保障家庭健康与幸福的机会。
Article 10
1. All appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure to women, married or unmarried, equal rights with men in the field of economic and social life, and in particular:
(a) The right, without discrimination on grounds of marital status or any other grounds, to receive vocational training, to work, to free choice of profession and employment, and to professional and vocational advancement;
(b) The right to equal remuneration with men and to equality of treatment in respect of work of equal value;
(c) The right to leave with pay, retirement privileges and provision for security in respect of unemployment, sickness, old age or other incapacity to work;
(d) The right to receive family allowances on equal terms with men.
2. In order to prevent discrimination against women on account of marriage or maternity and to ensure their effective right to work, measures shall be taken to prevent their dismissal in the event of marriage or maternity and to provide paid maternity leave, with the guarantee of returning to former employment, and to provide the necessary social services, including child-care facilities.
3. Measures taken to protect women in certain types of work, for reasons inherent in their physical nature, shall not be regarded as discriminatory.
    第十条  
    一、为确保妇女,不论已婚未婚,皆能在经济及社会生活方面,享有与男子平等的权利,尤其下列各项,应采取-切适当措施:
    (甲)接受职业训练、工作、自由选择专业与职业、在专业与职业方面升迁的权利,不因婚姻状况或其他理由而有歧视;
    (乙)领受与男子平等的报酬以及同等价值的工作享受同等待遇的权利;
    (丙)享受有给休假、退休优惠及失业、疾病、老年或其他丧失工作能力情形的安全保障的权利;
    (丁)以与男子同等的条件领受家属津贴的权利。
    二、为防止妇女因结婚或生育而受歧视,并为保障其对工作的有效权利,应采取措施,防止因结婚或生育而被解雇,规定有给生育假,保证回任原职,并供给必要的社会服务,包括照料儿童的设施在内。
    三、为妇女的先天体质关系对若干种类工作所采取的保护妇女的措施,不得视为歧视。
Article 11
1. The principle of equality of rights of men and women demands implementation in all States in accordance with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
2. Governments, non-governmental organizations and individuals are urged, therefore, to do all in their power to promote the implementation of the principles contained in this Declaration.
    第十一条  
    一、男女权利平等原则务须在所有国家内依联合国宪章及世界人权宣言,予以实施。
    二、爰请各国政府、各非政府组织及个人各尽所能,促进本宣言所载原则的实施。

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