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美中联合声明
作者:赵丽娜律师发布   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-03-30 16:51:00

U.S.-China Joint Statement

美中联合声明

Signatory: China; United States
Date of Signature: 11/17/2009
Validity Status: Valid
缔约方: 中国;美国
缔约时间: 11/17/2009
效力状态: 有效

Text

正文

At the invitation of President Hu Jintao of the People's Republic of China, President Barack Obama of the United States of America is paying a state visit to China from November 15–18, 2009.  The Presidents held in-depth, productive and candid discussions on U.S.-China relations and other issues of mutual interest.  They highlighted the substantial progress in U.S.-China relations over the past 30 years since the establishment of diplomatic ties, and they reached agreement to advance U.S.-China relations in the new era.  President Obama will have separate meetings with Wu Bangguo, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and Premier Wen Jiabao. President Obama also spoke with and answered questions from Chinese youth.
    应中华人民共和国主席胡锦涛邀请,美利坚合众国总统巴拉克·欧巴马于2009年11月15日至18日对中国进行国事访问。两国元首就美中关系和其他共同关心的问题进行了深入、富有成果、坦诚的会谈。他们强调了建交30年来美中两国关系所取得的实质性进展,并就在新时期推进美中关系的发展达成一致。欧巴马总统分别与全国人大常委会委员长吴邦国和温家宝总理举行会谈。欧巴马总统还与中国青年人进行了对话并回答他们的提问。
I. The U.S.-China Relationship
The United States and China agreed that regular exchanges between leaders of the two countries are essential to the long-term, sound, and steady growth of U.S.-China relations.  The two sides are of the view that the three meetings between the two presidents and other important bilateral exchanges this year have strengthened relations.  President Obama invited President Hu to make a visit to the United States next year, and President Hu accepted the invitation with pleasure.  Leaders of the two countries will continue to maintain close communication through mutual visits, meetings, telephone conversations and correspondence. 
The United States and China spoke highly of the important role of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue and recognized that the Dialogue offers a unique forum to promote understanding, expand common ground, reduce differences, and develop solutions to common problems.  Both sides believed that the first round of the Dialogue held in Washington, D.C., in July this year was a fruitful one and agreed to honor in good faith the commitments made and hold the second round in Beijing in the summer of 2010.  The two sides agreed that they will continue to use the direct communication links among senior leaders to maintain timely communication on major and sensitive issues, institutionalize the annual exchange of visits by the two foreign ministers and encourage senior officials of other departments of the two countries to exchange visits on a regular basis.
The United States and China commended the outcomes of the visit to the United States by General Xu Caihou, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Central Military Commission, in October this year, and stated that they will take concrete steps to advance sustained and reliable military-to-military relations in the future.  The two sides will prepare for the visit to the United States by General Chen Bingde, Chief of the General Staff of China's People's Liberation Army, and the visits to China by Robert Gates, the U.S. Secretary of Defense, and Admiral Michael Mullen, Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff.  The two sides will actively implement various exchange and cooperation programs agreed between the two militaries, including by increasing the level and frequency of exchanges.  The goal of these efforts is to improve their capabilities for practical cooperation and foster greater understanding of each other's intentions and of the international security environment.
The United States and China agreed to deepen counter-terrorism consultation and cooperation on an equal and mutually beneficial basis and to strengthen law-enforcement cooperation.  They agreed to exchange evidence and intelligence on law enforcement issues in a timely and reciprocal manner.  The two countries will undertake joint investigations and provide investigative assistance on cases of mutual interest.  The United States and China will strengthen cooperation on criminal investigations and deepen collaboration in combating embezzlement as well as in counter-narcotics and pre-cursor chemical control and in combating unlawful migration.  They also will boost joint efforts to combat transnational crime and criminal organizations as well as money laundering and the financing of terrorism including counterfeiting and recovery of illicit funds. They will work to combat smuggling and human trafficking.
The United States reaffirmed its support for Expo 2010 Shanghai.
The United States and China applauded the rich achievements in scientific and technological cooperation and exchanges between the two countries over the past 30 years since the signing of the U.S.-China Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology and agreed to further upgrade the level of exchanges and cooperation in scientific and technological innovation through the U.S.-China Joint Commission on Science and Technology Cooperation.
The United States and China look forward to expanding discussions on space science cooperation and starting a dialogue on human space flight and space exploration, based on the principles of transparency, reciprocity and mutual benefit.  Both sides welcome reciprocal visits of the NASA Administrator and the appropriate Chinese counterpart in 2010.
The United States and China agreed to strengthen their cooperation on civil aviation, and confirmed their intent to expand the Memorandum of Agreement for Technical Cooperation in the field of Civil Aviation between the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States of America and the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC).  The two sides welcomed cooperation by public and private bodies on the development of high speed railway infrastructure.
The United States and China undertook to implement the newly signed Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America and the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in Agriculture and Related Fields.
The two countries agreed to collaborate further in joint research in the health sector including on stem cells.  They will deepen cooperation on global public health issues, including Influenza A (H1N1) prevention, surveillance, reporting and control, and on avian influenza, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria.  They will also enhance cooperation on food and product safety and quality.
The United States and China underlined that each country and its people have the right to choose their own path, and all countries should respect each other's choice of a development model.  Both sides recognized that the United States and China have differences on the issue of human rights.  Addressing these differences in the spirit of equality and mutual respect, as well as promoting and protecting human rights consistent with international human rights instruments, the two sides agreed to hold the next round of the official human rights dialogue in Washington D.C. by the end of February 2010.  The United States and China agreed that promoting cooperation in the field of law and exchanges on the rule of law serves the interests and needs of the citizens and governments of both countries.  The United States and China decided to convene the U.S.-China Legal Experts Dialogue at an early date.
The two countries noted the importance of people-to-people and cultural exchanges in fostering closer U.S.-China bilateral relations and therefore agreed in principle to establish a new bilateral mechanism to facilitate these exchanges.  The two sides are pleased to note the continued increase in the number of students studying in each other's country in recent years.  Nearly 100,000 Chinese are now studying in the United States, and the U.S. side will receive more Chinese students and facilitate visa issuance for them.  The United States has approximately 20,000 students in China.  The United States seeks to encourage more Americans to study in China by launching a new initiative to send 100,000 students to China over the coming four years.  China welcomed this decision by the United States.  The two sides agreed to expedite negotiations to renew in 2010 the Implementing Accord for Cultural Exchange for the Period Through 2010-2012 under the Cultural Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People's Republic of China. The United States and China agreed to jointly hold the Second U.S.-China Cultural Forum in the United States at an appropriate time.
    一、美中关系
    美国和中国一致认为,两国领导人保持经常性交往对美中关系长期健康稳定发展至关重要。双方认为两国元首的三次会晤和其他重要双边交往加强了两国关系。欧巴马总统邀请胡主席于明年访问美国,胡主席愉快地接受了邀请。两国领导人将继续通过互访、会晤、电话交谈和通信等方式保持密切沟通。
    美国和中国高度评价美中战略与经济对话机制的重要作用,认为该对话为增进理解、扩大共识、减少分歧、寻求对共同问题的解决办法提供了独特的论坛。双方认为今年七月在华盛顿特区举行的首轮对话富有成果,同意诚实履行所作承诺并将于2010年夏天在北京举行第二轮对话。双方同意继续利用高层领导人的直接联系渠道就重大敏感问题保持及时沟通,将两国外长年度互访机制化,并鼓励两国其他部门高级官员定期互访。
    美国和中国对中国中央军事委员会副主席徐才厚上将今年10月访美成果表示赞许,并表示将采取具体步骤推进两军关系未来持续、可靠地向前发展。双方将为中国人民解放军总参谋长陈炳德上将访问美国以及美国防务部长罗伯特·盖茨和美军参谋长联席会议主席迈克尔·马伦上将访问中国作好准备。双方将积极执行两国军方已同意开展的交流与合作计划,其中包括提高两军交往的级别与频率。上述各项努力旨在加强双方开展务实合作的能力,增进对彼此意图和国际安全环境的理解。
    美国和中国同意在平等互利基础上深化反恐磋商与合作,并加强执法合作。两国同意以及时和对等的方式就执法事务交换证据和情报。两国将就共同关心的案件开展联合调查,并提供调查协助。美国与中国将加强在刑事调查方面的合作,深化在打击贪污、禁毒和前体化学品控制、打击非法移民活动方面的合作。两国还将加强在打击跨国犯罪和犯罪集团以及反洗钱和包括打击制造伪钞、追讨非法资金在内的反恐融资领域的共同努力。两国还将致力于打击走私和人口贩运。
    美国重申了对上海2010年世博会的支持。
    美国与中国称赞自签署《美中科技合作协定》30年来两国在科学和技术合作与交流领域取得的丰硕成果,同意通过美中科技合作联委会进一步提升科技创新领域交流与合作的水平。
    美国与中国期待本着透明、对等和互利原则,扩大在空间科学合作领域的讨论,并就载人航天飞行和空间探索开启对话。双方欢迎美国航空空间局局长和中方相应部门在2010年进行互访。
    美国与中国同意加强民用航空领域合作,并确认有意扩大《美利坚合众国联邦航空局与中华人民共和国民用航空局民用航空技术合作协议备忘录》。双方欢迎公共和私人实体在发展高速铁路基础设施领域进行合作。
    美国与中国承诺将落实新签署的《美利坚合众国农业部和中华人民共和国农业部关于农业合作的谅解备忘录》。
    两国同意就卫生健康领域进一步开展联合研究,包括干细胞联合研究等。他们将深化在全球公共卫生领域的合作,包括对甲型流感(H1N1)的预防、监测、通报及控制以及禽流感、人类免疫缺陷病毒/艾滋病、结核病和疟疾。双方还将加强在食品和产品安全与质量方面的合作。
    美国和中国强调,各国及各国人民有权选择自己的道路,所有国家都应尊重各自发展模式的选择。双方都认识到,美国与中国在人权问题上存在一些分歧。本着平等和相互尊重的精神处理有关分歧,并遵照国际人权文书促进和保护人权,双方同意于2010年2月底前在华盛顿特区举行下一轮官方人权对话。美国和中国一致认为促进法律领域的合作和法治领域的交流符合两国公民和政府的利益和需要。美国和中国决定尽早举行美中法律专家对话。
    两国注意到民间和文化交流对促进更密切的美中双边关系的重要性,因此原则上同意建立新的双边机制,以便利这些交流。双方高兴地注意到近年来在彼此国家留学的人数不断增加。目前有将近10万中国人在美学习,美方将接受更多中国学生并将为他们提供签证便利。美国在中国学生人数大约为2万人。美国希望鼓励更多的美国人前往中国学习,为此将启动一项新计划,在今后四年时间内向中国派出10万名学生。中国对美国的这一决定表示欢迎。双方同意加速谈判为了在2010年续签《美利坚合众国政府和中华人民共和国政府文化协定二0一0至二0一二年执行计划》,美国和中国同意在适当的时候在美国联合举办第二届美中文化论坛。
II. Building and Deepening Bilateral Strategic Trust
The United States and China are of the view that in the 21st century, global challenges are growing, countries are more interdependent, and the need for peace, development, and cooperation is increasing.  The United States and China have an increasingly broad base of cooperation and share increasingly important common responsibilities on many major issues concerning global stability and prosperity.  The two countries should further strengthen coordination and cooperation, work together to tackle challenges, and promote world peace, security and prosperity.
The two countries believe that to nurture and deepen bilateral strategic trust is essential to U.S.-China relations in the new era.  During their discussions, the Chinese side said that it resolutely follows the path of peaceful development and a win-win strategy of opening-up, and is committed to promoting the building of a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity.  The United States reiterated that it welcomes a strong, prosperous and successful China that plays a greater role in world affairs.  The United States stated that it is committed to working with other countries in addressing the most difficult international problems they face. China welcomes the United States as an Asia-Pacific nation that contributes to peace, stability and prosperity in the region.  The two sides reiterated that they are committed to building a positive, cooperative and comprehensive U.S.-China relationship for the 21st century, and will take concrete actions to steadily build a partnership to address common challenges.
The United States and China underscored the importance of the Taiwan issue in U.S.-China relations.  China emphasized that the Taiwan issue concerns China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and expressed the hope that the United States will honor its relevant commitments and appreciate and support the Chinese side's position on this issue.  The United States stated that it follows its one China policy and abides by the principles of the three U.S.-China joint communiqués.  The United States welcomes the peaceful development of relations across the Taiwan Strait and looks forward to efforts by both sides to increase dialogues and interactions in economic, political, and other fields, and develop more positive and stable cross-Strait relations.
The two countries reiterated that the fundamental principle of respect for each other's sovereignty and territorial integrity is at the core of the three U.S.-China joint communiqués which guide U.S.-China relations.  Neither side supports any attempts by any force to undermine this principle.  The two sides agreed that respecting each other's core interests is extremely important to ensure steady progress in U.S.-China relations.
The United States and China believe that bilateral cooperation on common global challenges will contribute to a more prosperous and secure world.  They reaffirmed their commitment made on 27 June 1998 not to target at each other the strategic nuclear weapons under their respective control.  The two sides believed that the two countries have common interests in promoting the peaceful use of outer space and agree to take steps to enhance security in outer space.  The two sides agreed to discuss issues of strategic importance through such channels as the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue and military-to-military exchanges.
The United States and China agreed to handle through existing channels of consultations and dialogue military security and maritime issues in keeping with norms of international law and on the basis of respecting each other's jurisdiction and interests.
    二、建立和深化双边战略互信
    美国和中国都认为,在21世纪,全球性的挑战在增加,各国相互依赖的程度更高,对和平、发展与合作的需要在增加。美国和中国在事关全球稳定与繁荣的众多重大问题上,拥有越来越广泛的合作基础,肩负日益重要的共同责任。两国应进一步加强协调与合作,共同努力应对挑战,并促进世界和平、安全和繁荣。
    两国相信,培育和深化双边战略互信对新时代的美中关系至关重要。在讨论中,中方表示,中国始终不渝走和平发展道路,始终不渝奉行互利共赢的开放战略,致力于推动建立持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界。美国重申,欢迎一个强大、繁荣、成功、在世界事务中发挥更大作用的中国。美国表示致力于与其他国家共同努力应对它们所面临的最困难的国际问题。中国欢迎美国作为一个亚太国家对该地区的和平、稳定与繁荣作出贡献。双方重申致力于为21世纪建立积极、合作、全面的美中关系,并将采取切实行动稳步建立应对共同挑战的伙伴关系。
    美国和中国强调了台湾问题在美中关系中的重要性。中国强调了台湾问题涉及中国主权和领土完整,希望美国信守有关承诺,理解和支持中方在此问题上的立场。美国表示遵循它的一个中国政策,遵守美中三个联合公报的原则。美国欢迎台湾海峡两岸关系的和平发展,期待双方都努力增加经济、政治及其他领域的对话与互动,发展更加积极和稳定的跨海峡关系。
    两国重申,互相尊重主权和领土完整的根本原则是属于指导美中关系的美中三个联合公报的核心内容。双方均不支持任何势力破坏这一原则的任何企图。双方一致认为,尊重彼此核心利益对确保美中关系稳步进展极端重要。
    美国和中国相信,在应对共同全球性挑战方面的双边合作将有助于促进一个更繁荣和安全的世界。两国重申了1998年6月27日作出的承诺,不将各自控制下的战略核武器瞄准对方。双方相信,两国在推动和平利用外层空间方面着有共同利益,同意采取步骤加强外层空间的安全。双方同意通过美中战略与经济对话、两军交往等渠道就具有战略重要性的问题进行讨论。
    美国和中国同意通过现有磋商和对话渠道,根据国际法准则,在相互尊重管辖权和利益的基础上处理军事安全和海事问题。
III. Economic Cooperation and Global Recovery
The two sides are determined to work together to achieve more sustainable and balanced global economic growth.  To that end, the two sides noted that their forceful and timely policy responses helped stem the decline in global output and stabilized financial markets.  The two sides agreed to sustain measures to ensure a strong and durable global economic recovery and financial system.  The two sides reiterated that they will continue to strengthen dialogue and cooperation on macro-economic policies.  The two sides pledge to honor all commitments made at the inaugural meeting of the Strategic and Economic Dialogue, the G-20 summits, and APEC in Singapore.
The two sides commended the important role of the three G-20 summits in tackling the global financial crisis, and committed to work with other members of the G-20 to enhance the G-20's effectiveness as the premier forum for international economic cooperation.  The two sides agreed to work together, including through a cooperative process on mutual assessment to make the G-20 Framework for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth a success.  The two sides welcomed recent agreements by the G-20 to ensure that the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) have sufficient resources and to reform their governance structures in order to improve IFIs credibility, legitimacy and effectiveness.  The two sides stressed the need to follow through on the quantified targets for the reform of quota and voting shares of IFIs as soon as possible, increasing the voice and representation of emerging markets and developing countries in these institutions consistent with the Pittsburgh Summit Leaders Statement.  They also agreed to work together to strengthen the capacity of these institutions to prevent and respond to future crises.
The two sides will further enhance communication and the exchange of information regarding macro-economic policy, and work together to pursue policies of adjusting domestic demand and relative prices to lead to more sustainable and balanced trade and growth.  China will continue to implement the policies to adjust economic structure, raise household incomes, expand domestic demand to increase contribution of consumption to GDP growth and reform its social security system.  The United States will take measures to increase national saving as a share of GDP and promote sustainable non-inflationary growth.  To achieve this, the United States is committed to returning the federal budget deficit to a sustainable path and pursuing measures to encourage private saving.  Both sides will also pursue forward-looking monetary policies with due regard for the ramifications of those policies for the international economy.
The two sides recognize the importance of open trade and investment to their domestic economies and to the global economy, and are committed to jointly fight protectionism in all its manifestations.  The two sides agreed to work proactively to resolve bilateral trade and investment disputes in a constructive, cooperative, and mutually beneficial manner. Both sides will expedite negotiation on a bilateral investment treaty. The two sides are committed to seeking a positive, ambitious, and balanced conclusion to the Doha Development Agenda in 2010.
The two sides spoke highly of the outcomes of the 20th Meeting of the U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade.  The two sides reaffirmed the commitment at this JCCT meeting and look forward to their full implementation.
    三、经济合作和全球复苏
    双方决心共同努力,实现更可持续和平衡的全球经济增长。为此,双方注意到各自强有力和及时的政策回应措施已有助于遏制全球产出下降,并稳定了金融市场。双方同意延续旨在确保强劲、可持续的全球经济复苏和金融体系的措施。双方重申将继续在宏观经济政策领域加强对话与合作。双方承诺履行在首轮战略与经济对话、20方集团峰会和在新加坡举行的亚太经合组织会议中作出的所有承诺。
    双方高度评价了三次20方集团峰会在应对全球金融危机中所发挥的重要作用,并承诺和20方集团其他成员共同努力提高20方集团作为国际经济合作首要论坛的效力。双方同意共同努力,包括通过一个有关相互评估的合作进程,使2方集团“为了实现强有力、可持续、平衡增长框架”获得成功。双方欢迎20方集团近期达成的共识,即确保国际金融机构有充分资源,并改革自身治理结构以提高国际金融机构的可信性、正当性和有效性。双方强调必须尽早落实国际金融机构份额和投票权量化的改革目标,按照皮兹堡峰会领导人声明增加新兴市场和发展中国家在这些机构中的发言权和代表性。双方还同意共同努力加强这些机构防范和应对未来危机的能力。
    双方将进一步加强宏观经济政策的沟通与信息交流,共同努力采取调整国内需求和相对价格的政策,以导致更可持续更平衡的贸易与增长。中国将继续落实政策,调整经济结构,提高家庭收入,扩大内需,增加消费对国内生产总值的贡献,改革社会保障体系。美国将采取措施提高国内储蓄在国内生产总值中的比重,推动可持续的非通货膨胀的增长。为此,美国致力于让联邦预算赤字重归可持续的路径并采取措施鼓励私人储蓄。双方还将采取前瞻性的货币政策,并适当关注这些政策对国际经济的影响。
    双方认识到开放贸易和投资对各自国内经济和全球经济的重要性,并致力于共同打击各种形式的保护主义。双方同意以建设性、合作性和互利性的方式,积极努力解决双边贸易和投资争端。双方将加快双边投资条约的谈判。双方致力于推动多哈发展议程在2010年取得一个积极、富有雄心、平衡的最终结果。
    双方高度评价了第20届美中商贸联委会会议的成果。双方重申在会议中所作承诺并期待其得到全面落实。
IV. Regional and Global Challenges
The two sides noted that, at a time when the international environment is undergoing complex and profound changes, the United States and China share a responsibility to cooperatively address regional and global security challenges. The two sides stressed that they share broad common interests in the Asia-Pacific region and support the development and improvement of an open and inclusive regional cooperation framework that is beneficial to all.  The two sides will work to encourage APEC to play a more effective role in promoting regional trade and investment liberalization and economic and technical cooperation and for the ASEAN Regional Forum to play a more effective role in strengthening regional security cooperation.
The two sides agreed that respect for the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA mandates, and implementation of all relevant UN Security Council resolutions are essential for the success of our joint efforts to stem the spread of nuclear weapons.  The two presidents recalled their participation at the September 24, 2009, UN Security Council Summit on nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear disarmament.  They welcomed the outcome of the Summit and expressed their strong support for UN Security Resolution 1887.
The two sides reaffirmed the importance of continuing the Six-Party Talks process and implementing the September 19, 2005, Joint Statement, including denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, normalization of relations and establishment of a permanent peace regime in Northeast Asia.  The two sides stated that they will work together with other parties concerned to comprehensively achieve the purpose and overall goal of the Six-Party Talks through consultations and dialogues.  The Chinese side welcomed the start of high-level contacts between the United States and the DPRK.  The two sides expressed the hope that the multilateral mechanism of the Six Party Talks would convene at an early date.
The two sides noted with concern the latest developments with regard to the Iranian nuclear issue.  The two sides agreed that Iran has the right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy under the NPT and it should fulfill its due international obligations under that treaty.  They welcomed the talks in Geneva on October 1st between the P5+1 and Iran as a promising start towards addressing international concerns about Iran's nuclear program, and expressed their readiness to continue that engagement as soon as possible.  The two sides emphasized that all efforts should be made to take confidence building steps and called on Iran to respond positively to the proposal of the IAEA Director General.  The two sides reaffirmed their strong support for a comprehensive and long-term solution to the Iranian nuclear issue through negotiations, and called on Iran to engage constructively with the P5+1 and to cooperate fully with the IAEA to facilitate a satisfactory outcome. 
The two sides welcomed all efforts conducive to peace, stability and development in South Asia.  They support the efforts of Afghanistan and Pakistan to fight terrorism, maintain domestic stability and achieve sustainable economic and social development, and support the improvement and growth of relations between India and Pakistan.  The two sides are ready to strengthen communication,  dialogue and cooperation on issues related to South Asia and work together to promote peace, stability and development in that region.
The two sides underlined their commitment to the eventual realization of a world free of nuclear weapons.  They reiterated their opposition to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and will jointly uphold the international nuclear non-proliferation regime.  They agreed to enhance non-proliferation cooperation on the basis of mutual respect and equality.  They will work together to achieve a successful Review Conference of Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 2010.  They committed to pursue ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty as soon as possible, and will work together for the early entry into force of the CTBT.  They support the launching of negotiations on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty at an early date in the Conference on Disarmament, and stand ready to strengthen communication and cooperation in nuclear safety and security and in combating nuclear terrorism.  China attaches importance to the U.S. initiative to hold a nuclear security summit in April 2010 and will actively participate in the preparations for the summit.
The two sides also discussed the importance of UN peacekeeping operations in promoting international peace and security.
The two sides agreed to enhance dialogue on development issues to explore areas of cooperation and coordination and to ensure that both countries' efforts are conducive to achieving sustainable outcomes.
    四、地区及全球性挑战
    双方注意到,在国际环境发生复杂深刻变化之际,美国和中国在合作应对地区和全球安全挑战方面负有共同责任。双方强调两国在亚太地区有着广泛的共同利益,并支持发展和改善一个对各方有利的开放、包容的地区合作框架。双方将努力鼓励亚太经合组织在促进地区贸易投资自由化和经济技术合作方面发挥更有效的作用,并敦促东盟地区论坛在加强地区安全合作方面发挥更有效的作用。
    双方一致认为遵守《不扩散核武器条约》和国际原子能机构的规定并执行联合国安理会所有相关决议对我们共同成功阻止核武器扩散至关重要。两国元首回忆了在2009年9月24日出席的联合国安理会核不扩散与核裁军峰会。他们对峰会的成果表示欢迎并坚决支持联合国安理会《1887号决议》。
    双方重申了继续六方会谈进程和落实2005年9月19日《共同声明》的重要性,包括朝韩半岛无核化、关系正常化及在东北亚建立永久和平机制。双方表示,将与其他有关各方共同努力,通过协商和对话,面实现六方会谈宗旨和总体目标。中方对美朝开始高级别接触表示欢迎。双方表示希望六方会谈的多边机制早日启动。
    双方关切地注意到伊朗核问题相关的最新动向。双方同意,伊朗根据《不扩散核武器条约》拥有和平利用核能的权利,也应履行其根据该条约所应尽的国际义务。双方对10月1日“五常加一”和伊朗在日内瓦举行的会谈表示欢迎,认为这是朝向解决国际社会对伊朗核项目关注的一个有希望的开端,并表示愿尽快继续此类接触。双方强调应尽一切努力采取建立信心措施,并呼吁伊朗对国际原子能机构总干事的提议作出积极回应。双方重申坚定支持通过谈判达成对伊朗核问题的长期全面解决办法,呼吁伊朗与“五常加一”进行建设性接触,并与国际原子能机构全面合作,以取得令人满意的结果。
    双方欢迎一切有助于南亚和平、稳定和发展的努力。双方支持阿富汗和巴基斯坦为打击恐怖主义、维护国内稳定、实现经济和社会可持续发展所作出的努力,支持印度和巴基斯坦关系的改善和增长。双方愿就南亚相关问题加强沟通、对话与合作,并共同促进该地区的和平、稳定和发展。
    双方强调了致力于最终实现一个没有核武器的世界。双方重申反对大规模毁灭性武器扩散,并将共同维护国际核不扩散体系。双方同意在相互尊重和平等的基础上加强防扩散合作。双方将为2010年的《不扩散核武器条约》缔约方审议大会取得成功而共同努力。双方致力于尽早批准《全面禁止核试验条约》,并将共同努力使条约早日生效。双方支持在裁军会议中早日启动“禁止生产裂变材料条约”谈判,并随时准备在核安全保安和打击核恐怖主义方面加强沟通与合作。中国重视美国提出的在2010年4月举行核安全峰会的倡议,将积极参与峰会筹备。
    双方还讨论了联合国维和行动对促进国际和平与安全的重要性。
    双方同意就发展问题加强对话,探讨合作和协调领域,并确保两国的努力有助于取得可持续的成果
V. Climate Change, Energy and Environment
The two sides held a constructive and productive dialogue on the issue of climate change.  They underscored that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time.  The two sides maintain that a vigorous response is necessary and that international cooperation is indispensable in responding to this challenge. They are convinced of the need to address climate change in a manner that respects the priority of economic and social development in developing countries and are equally convinced that transitioning to a low-carbon economy is an opportunity to promote continued economic growth and sustainable development in all countries.      
Regarding the upcoming Copenhagen Conference, both sides agree on the importance of actively furthering the full, effective and sustained implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in accordance with the Bali Action Plan. The United States and China, consistent with their national circumstances, resolve to take significant mitigation actions and recognize the important role that their countries play in promoting a sustainable outcome that will strengthen the world's ability to combat climate change.  The two sides resolve to stand behind these commitments.
In this context both sides believe that, while striving for final legal agreement, an agreed outcome at Copenhagen should, based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, include emission reduction targets of developed countries and nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing countries.  The outcome should also substantially scale up financial assistance to developing countries, promote technology development, dissemination and transfer, pay particular attention to the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable to adapt to climate change, promote steps to preserve and enhance forests, and provide for full transparency with respect to the implementation of mitigation measures and provision of financial, technology and capacity building support.
The two sides are committed to working together and with other countries in the weeks ahead for a successful outcome at Copenhagen.
The two sides agreed that the transition to a green and low-carbon economy is essential and that the clean energy industry will provide vast opportunities for citizens of both countries in the years ahead and welcomed significant steps forward to advance policy dialogue and practical cooperation on climate change, energy and the environment, building on the U.S.-China Memorandum of Understanding to Enhance Cooperation on Climate Change, Energy and Environment announced at the first round of U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue this July and formally signed during the Presidential visit.
The two sides recognized the importance of the Ten Year Framework on Energy and Environment Cooperation (TYF) and commit to strengthen cooperation in promoting clean air, water, transportation, electricity, and resource conservation.  Through a new U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan under the TYF, the United States and China will work together to achieve cost-effective energy efficiency improvements in industry, buildings and consumer products through technical cooperation, demonstration and policy exchanges.  Noting both countries significant investments in energy efficiency, the two Presidents underscored the enormous opportunities to create jobs and enhance economic growth through energy savings.
The two sides welcomed the signing of the Protocol Between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Energy Administration of the People's Republic of China on a Clean Energy Research Center.  The Center will facilitate joint research and development on clean energy by teams of scientists and engineers from both countries, as well as serve as clearing house to help researchers in each country, with public and private funding of at least $150 million over five years split evenly between the two countries.  The Center will have one headquarters in each country. Priority topics to be addressed will include energy efficiency in buildings, clean coal (including carbon capture and sequestration), and clean vehicles.
The two sides welcomed the launch of a U.S.-China Electric Vehicles Initiative designed to put millions of electric vehicles on the roads of both countries in the years ahead. Building on significant investments in electric vehicles in both the United States and China, the two governments announced a program of joint demonstration projects in more than a dozen cities, along with work to develop common technical standards to facilitate rapid scale-up of the industry.  The two sides agreed that their countries share a strong common interest in the rapid deployment of clean vehicles.
The two sides strongly welcomed work in both countries to promote 21st century coal technologies.  They agreed to promote cooperation on large-scale carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) demonstration projects and to begin work immediately on the development, deployment, diffusion, and transfer of CCS technology.  The two sides welcomed recent agreements between Chinese and U.S. companies, universities, and research institutions to cooperate on CCS and more efficient coal technologies.
The two sides welcomed the signing of the Memorandum of Cooperation between the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States and the National Development and Reform Commission of China to Build Capacity to Address Climate Change.
The two sides welcomed the launch of The U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership.  Through this Partnership, the two countries will chart a pathway to wide-scale deployment of wind, solar, advanced bio-fuels, and a modern electric power grid in both countries and cooperate in designing and implementing the policy and technical tools necessary to make that vision possible. Given the combined market size of the two countries, accelerated deployment of renewable energy in The United States and China can significantly reduce the cost of these technologies globally.
The two sides welcomed the establishment of The U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP), a partnership between government and industry to enhance energy security and combat climate change.  The ECP will leverage private sector resources and expertise to accelerate the deployment of clean energy technology.
The two sides commended the results of the recently-held Fourth U.S.-China Energy Policy Dialogue and Ninth U.S.-China Oil and Gas Industry Forum and welcomed the launch of a U.S.-China Shale Gas Resource Initiative to accelerate the development of unconventional natural gas resources in China.  Drawing on recent experience in the United States, this initiative aims to improve energy security in both countries and help China transition to a low-carbon economy.
The two sides agreed to work together to advance global efforts to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy.  They welcomed the recently-concluded Third Executive Committee Meeting of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, and the commitment of the partnership to explore ways to enhance the international framework for civil nuclear energy cooperation.  They agreed to consult with one another in order to explore such approaches -- including assurance of fuel supply and cradle-to-grave nuclear fuel management so that countries can access peaceful nuclear power while minimizing the risks of proliferation.
    五、气候变化、能源与环境
    双方就气候变化问题进行了建设性和富有成效的对话。双方强调气候变化是我们时代的最大挑战之一。双方认为有必要对这一挑战作出强有力的回应,而且国际合作是不可或缺的。双方确信,应对气候变化需要尊重发展中国家把经济和社会发展作为优先事项,并同样地确信,向低碳经济转型是促进所有国家经济持续增长和可持续发展的机会。
    关于即将召开的哥本哈根会议,双方同意,依据“巴厘行动计划”积极促进《联合国气候变化框架公约》全面、有效和可持续实施具有重要意义。美国和中国决心根据各自国情采取有意义的减缓行动,并认识到两国在促成加强世界应对气候变化能力的可持续成果方面具有重要作用。双方决心支持这些承诺。
    在此背景下,双方相信,在致力于达成最终的法律协议的同时,哥本哈根的一个同意的成果应在共同但有区别的责任原则和各自能力的基础上,包括发达国家的减排目标和发展中国家的国家适当减缓行动。这一成果也应实质性地增加给发展中国家的资金帮助,促进技术开发、推广和转移,尤其应注意最贫穷国家和最脆弱国家适应气候变化的需要,促进保护和增强森林的措施,并在执行减缓措施以及提供资金、技术和能力建设支持方面提供全面的透明度。
    双方决心共同并与其他国家一道在未来几周内为了在哥本哈根取得成功的成果而努力。
    双方一致认为,向绿色、低碳经济转型十分关键,未来数年中清洁能源产业将为两国公民提供大量机会,并且欢迎基于今年7月首轮美中战略与经济对话期间宣布,在总统访问期间正式签署的《美中关于加强气候变化、能源和环境合作的谅解备忘录》基础上,双方为推进气候变化、能源和环境的政策对话和务实合作采取重要步骤。
    双方认识到《能源和环境合作十年框架》的重要性,并致力于加强清洁的大气、水、交通、电力和资源保护领域的合作。根据在10年合作框架下新制订的美中能效行动计划,美中两国将通过技术合作、示范和政策交流,共同努力在产业、建筑和消费品领域以低成本高效益的方式提高能源效率。两国元首注意到双方在能效领域的重要投资,强调通过节约能源将带来的创造就业和促进经济增长的巨大机会。
    双方欢迎《美利坚合众国国能源部与中华人民共和国科技部、国家能源局关于美中清洁能源联合研究中心合作议定书》的签署。这个中心将为来自两国科学家和工程人员从事清洁能源联合研发提供便利,并为在两国的研究人员提供交流平台,其未来5年内将得到来自公共与私人的资金至少1.5亿美元,两国平均承担。该中心在两国各设一总部。优先研究课题将包括建筑能效、清洁煤(包括碳捕集与封存)及清洁车辆。
    双方欢迎启动美中电动车辆倡议,使两国在未来数年中有几百万辆电动车投入使用。基于美中两国境内在电动汽车领域的巨大投资,两国政府宣布在超过十二个城市开展联合示范项目,并努力开发共同的技术标准以推动此产业规模快速增长。双方一致认为两国对清洁车的快速利用拥有很大的共同利益。
    双方非常欢迎在两国国内发展21世纪煤炭技术方面的努力。双方同意促进大规模碳捕集与封存示范项目方面的合作,并就碳捕集与封存技术的开发、利用、推广和转移方面立即开展工作。双方欢迎美中两国企业、大学和研究机构最近达成的碳捕集与封存以及煤炭高效利用技术合作协议。
    双方欢迎《美国环境保护局与中国国家发展和改革委员会关于应对气候变化能力建设合作备忘录》的签署。
    双方对美中可再生能源伙伴关系的启动表示欢迎。通过该伙伴关系,两国将就大规模利用风能、太阳能、先进生物燃料和现代电网制定路线,在设计和执行实现这一远景所需的政策和技术手段方面进行合作。鉴于两国相加市场规模巨大,在美国和中国加快利用可再生能源可以在全球范围内大幅度降低这些技术的成本。
    双方欢迎建立美中能源合作项目——一种政府和产业间的伙伴关系,其目的是加强能源安全和应对气候变化。该项目将利用私营部门资源和专长,加快清洁能源技术的应用。
    双方对近期举办的第四届美中能源政策对话和第九届美中石油和天然气产业论坛表示赞许,并对加速中国非常规天然气资源发展的美中页岩气资源合作倡议的启动表示欢迎。该倡议旨在利用美国近期的经验,改善两国能源安全,帮助中国向低碳经济转型。
    双方同意将为促进和平利用核能的全球努力而合作,并欢迎近期举行的全球核能伙伴关系第三次执行委员会会议,以及该伙伴关系对探索途径以强化民用核能合作的国际框架所作的承诺。双方同意互相协商,以便探讨这类方法-包括保障燃料供应和对核燃料自始至终的管理,从而在将核扩散风险降到最低的同时,使各国能够和平利用能源。

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