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Be a Successful Consultant
出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-01-03 21:07:00

Be a Successful
Consultant:
An Insider Guide to
Setting up and Running
a Consultancy Practice
Susan Nash
HOW TO BOOKS LTD
Be a Successful Consultant
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Be a Successful
Consultant
An insider guide to setting up and
running a consultancy practice
Susan Nash
howtobooks
With thanks to Courtney Bolin for her interactive layout of the book.
Published by How To Books Ltd,
3 Newtec Place, Magdalen Road,
Oxford OX4 1RE. United Kingdom.
Tel: (01865) 793806. Fax: (01865) 248780.
email: [email protected]
http://www.howtobooks.co.uk
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced
or stored in an information retrieval system (other than for purposes of review)
without the express permission of the publisher in writing.
Copyright 2003 Susan Nash
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Cover design by Baseline Arts Ltd, Oxford
Produced for How To Books by Deer Park Productions
Typeset by PDQ Typesetting, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs.
Printed and bound by Bell & Bain, Glasgow
NOTE: The material contained in this book is set out in good faith for general
guidance and no liability can be accepted for loss or expense incurred as a result of
relying in particular circumstances on statements made in the book. The laws and
regulations are complex and liable to change, and readers should check the current
position with the relevant authorities before making personal arrangements.
Contents
Preface viii
Section One ^ Getting Started 1
Chapter 1 ^ Setting the scene 3
Game plan 3
The business environment in the new millennium 3
The Shamrock Organization 4
The new self-employed market 5
Defining consulting 6
Working for a consulting firm 9
Case studies 11
Checklist 13
Scorecard 13
Chapter 2 ^ Evaluating your ¢t 14
Game plan 14
Being realistic about consulting 14
Advantages and disadvantages of consulting 15
Characteristics of successful consultants 17
Consulting and the four temperaments 26
So do people enjoy being self-employed? 33
Checklist 34
Scorecard 35
Chapter 3 ^ What type of consulting business are you running? 36
Game plan 36
Why define your business before jumping in? 36
Defining your vision 37
Defining strengths and weaknesses 41
Identifying your unique selling proposition 44
SWOT analysis 46
Establishing key result areas 49
Checklist 57
Scorecard 57
Chapter 4 ^ Establishing your business direction 59
Game plan 59
Writing a business plan 59
Deciding your legal structure 66
Setting objectives 70
v
Establishing milestones 75
Organizing systems 77
Checklist 78
Scorecard 78
SectionTwo ^ Getting clients 79
Chapter 5 ^ Marketing your business 81
Game plan 81
Creating your marketing plan 81
Conducting market research 83
Establishing marketing objectives 86
Segmenting the market 87
Defining your product or service: the first ‘P’ 89
Deciding your promotional plan: the second ‘P’ 94
Selecting distribution channels: the third ‘P’ 102
Pricing your product: the fourth ‘P’ 107
Creating a marketing schedule 107
Checklist 109
Scorecard 109
Chapter 6 ^ Selling your service 110
Game plan 110
Overcoming your fear of selling 110
Understanding the sales process 112
Establishing sales objectives 115
Evaluating sales communication channels 117
Preparing your 30-second commercial 119
Using the telephone in selling 121
Managing the sales meeting 129
Adjusting your style to maximize sales 134
Writing successful proposals 137
What if the client says no? 141
What if the client says yes? 141
Sample questions to ask 142
Checklist 145
Scorecard 145
Section 3 ^ Gettingmoney 147
Chapter 7 ^ Financing your business 149
Game plan 149
Estimating your start-up and ongoing costs 149
Funding your business in the start-up phase 152
vi / Be a Successful Consultant
Contents / vii
Establishing financial objectives 156
Creating revenue statements 157
Creating cash flow statements 159
Setting your billing rate 161
Using different fee arrangements 166
Collecting fees 172
Limit your exposure to bad debts 172
Charging for sub-contracting 173
Checklist 177
Scorecard 177
Section 4 ^ Getting organized 179
Chapter 8 ^ Organizing your business 181
Game plan 181
Setting up your office space 181
Selecting equipment and support tools 184
Identifying administrative resources 190
Prioritizing between multiple projects 192
Planning your activities 196
Organizing your office work space 201
Establishing organization/administration objectives 205
Checklist 206
Scorecard 206
Chapter 9 ^ Running your business: doing thework! 207
Game plan 207
Formalizing contracts 207
Structure of consulting assignments 209
Consulting project stages 213
Establishing project objectives 220
Checklist 221
Scorecard 221
Chapter 10 ^ Moving intoAction 222
So what will you do now? 222
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 229
Further reading 235
Index 237
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
ix
Preface
How to use this book
If one advances con¢dently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavours to live the lifewhich he
has imagined, hewill meet with success unexpected in common hours.
Henry DavidThoreau
Why consulting?
The business environment is changing drastically. No longer is there long-term
employment and job security. Consulting has become a viable and growing working
option for individuals since the 1990s. However consulting does not provide a miracle
solution to work options. Be a Successful Consultant is designed as a workbook containing
a wide variety of exercises that you can complete to help you make a consulting career for
yourself a reality not just a possibility.
Who can this book help?
This book has been written for professionals, with specific functional knowledge,
experience or expertise, who wish to evaluate whether they want to be consultants and
consider an alternative lifestyle to full-time work. So this book is for:
  Individuals who are debating leaving ‘corporate life’ and want to explore
alternative career options.
  Consultants who are running their own business who want to increase their market
share and revenue.
  People between jobs who wish to generate income.
  Entrepreneurs in the making who wish to begin an independent life style.
  Those who are looking for greater flexibility and more choices in the work they wish
to do.
What will you achieve by using this book?
After reading this book, you will:
  Have a clear understanding of consulting and the entire consulting process.
  Understand the benefits and challenges of consulting as a career choice.
  Learn how your own strengths and challenges fit with the consulting lifestyle.
  Be able to define and establish the strategic direction for your consulting business.
  Be able to create and implement a marketing strategy.
  Learn skills and practical tools to find clients and close deals.
  Understand how to raise finances and maintain financial control of your business.
  Be able to balance on-going business while maintaining the marketing process to
avoid the ‘feast or famine’ syndrome.
  Know how to organize your consulting business.
  Have paying clients!
Exercise P.1 What do youwant to achieve using this book?To help you identify what you
want to achieve from using this book, answer the following questions:
  What are you doing currently? Are you just starting out? Have you been a consultant
for a while?
  What would you like to learn from reading this book?
  What would you like to do as a result of using this book?
  What would you like to achieve?
  Which of the objectives above most appealed to you and why?
Coaching point
De¢ning your goals for reading this book will help focus your attention in the areas that are of
the most interest to you.
So now you have decided what you want to achieve, let ’s look at how you can use this book
to make it happen.
x / Be a Successful Consultant
Preface / xi
Through the rest of the book we will introduce the principal concepts, knowledge
and information you require interspersed with exercises, within specific areas, to become a
successful consultant. Then we will use checklists and discussion questions to help you
implement the key ideas. In addition, we will follow four people as they evaluate whether
they wish to be consultants, and as they make a start in the consulting profession. Extra
examples will be provided where necessary to clarify points.
The book is hands on, and throughout you will find the material organized into
several categories designed to create a learning experience that is interactive, inspiring,
informative, and clear.
The information types include:
Game plan
An overview of what youwill achievewithin each chapter.
Exercises
Activities that can be used to tryoutmaterial and put concepts towork.
Foul!
To clear up a perception that may not be accurate.
Coaching point
A note or reminder about what to do or look for as you tryout the material.
T|me out!
A clari¢cation or side note.
Scorecard
A series of questions to help you review outcomes from each chapter.
What’s in this book?
This book comprises four main sections.
  Section one: getting started. This section includes setting the scene on the consulting
industry, evaluating your fit, deciding what type of consulting business you want to
run and what you want success to look like. While the content could appear too
high-level, time invested in this section will help secure a clear business direction.
  Section two: getting clients. This section includes the part that most prospective
consultants either miss or avoid: getting clients! This section includes practical tips
to reduce the fear of selling and open up market opportunities in the most timee
fficient way.
  Section three: getting money. This section covers the content which most people
gravitate towards – how much to charge and how to collect fees. Most of us want to
make money as a consultant – this section will help you do that!
  Section four: getting organized. This section describes techniques for organizing
your business including getting your office set up, structuring consulting assignments
and creating your consulting action plan. Unlike a ‘real job’ there is no
company structure – you have to do all the organizing yourself!
Where to start
The following approach is recommended to optimize your use of this book.
1. Read Chapter 1: Setting the Scene. This chapter and its exercises will help to clarify what
we mean by consulting. If you are an existing consultant, you can then choose which
section of the book you think would help you most in your current business situation. If
xii / Be a Successful Consultant
you are a new consultant, we recommend completing Section One in its entirety before
moving on to other sections.
2. Use the section most relevant to you. From this point the choice is yours, choose the
section in which you have the most interest and jump in!
3. Complete the exercises. Many of the concepts described in this book are self-evident, but
just because they are common sense does not mean that they are common practice.
Spending time completing the exercises can help to surface issues and enable you to make
behaviour changes.
4. Share the exercises with those who are close to you. As we discuss later in this book,
having a support structure is a critical differentiator between making the grade and failing
as a consultant. Working through these exercises with those who are part of your support
structure can not only help you to surface other issues, but can increase the mutual
understanding of what you are doing and why!
If you can imagine it, you can achieve it. If you can dream it, you can become it.
William ArthurWard
What else?
Feel free to make the book your own: write in the spaces provided, complete the exercises
and make a note of your learning. Remember, any behaviour change needs constant
reinforcement: use this book as one of the tools in your toolkit in achieving consulting
excellence!
As a result of reading this book you will be able to evaluate whether consulting is
an option you wish to consider. If you decide yes, then this book will give you an
understanding of the steps you need to take to create a successful consulting business. I
made the decision in 1994 and would never go back. Good luck!
Susan Nash
Preface / xiii
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
SECTION ONE:
Getting Started
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
3
CHAPTER ONE
Setting the Scene
Game plan
The purpose of this chapter is to:
  Explain why the current business environment is conducive to becoming a
consultant.
  Describe the self-employed market.
  Define, for the purpose of this book, what we mean by consulting.
  Understand the advantages and disadvantages of working for a consulting firm.
  Introduce the case studies that we will be following throughout the book.
The business environment in the new millennium
Business life is changing drastically and these changes are creating new opportunities in
the world of work, which is moving from a stable business environment in earlier decades
to radical, complex and increasing change. Thirty years ago companies saw the future as
somewhat predictable and manageable with gradual incremental change. Change occurred
in a linear fashion where one cause produced only one effect, with a simple additive
property, i.e. 1 + 1 = 2. Change now is being driven from a variety of perspectives and is
happening exponentially. There are non-linear relationships between causes and effects,
where there can be multiple solutions to one problem and there is synergy with the
interaction of the parts, i.e. 1 + 1 = 4!
4 / Be a Successful Consultant
T|me Out!
Did you know that...
  On average, individuals nowhave eight careers in their working lives.
  In 1990 automobiles took six years from concept to production. By 1997 the process
only took two years.
  In 1984 the average product development cycle lasted three years. In 1990 it dropped to
18 months. In 1997 it was six months and still falling.
  Most of Hewlett Packard’s revenues come from products that did not exist 24 months
ago.
  It used to take 7^14 years for half of aworker’s skills to be outdated.Today, it only takes
three years for 50% or our skills to be outdated.
Some of the causes of change are:
  global competition
  technological advances
  decreasing product life cycles
  multiple communication channels
  expectation of instant/24 hour availability
  change from manual to cerebral skills (70% of all jobs in Europe and 80% of all
jobs in the USA will require cerebral skills)
  virtual elimination of ‘jobs for life’.
The Shamrock Organization
As these changes are taking place the 1980s and 1990s saw a drastic restructuring in the
economic workplace. David Birch describes this phenomenon as ‘atomizing’, where more
and smaller businesses are performing the work that fewer and larger organizations did
before. This strategy provides organizations with greater flexibility, reduction in costs
(ensuring full-time people are not employed in quiet times) and greater adaptability. This
atomizing has brought many changes to the way people work. In the USA almost 33
million people - more than the population of Canada - were found to be working from
FULL-TIME:
knowledge
workers
CONTRACT:
knowledge
workers
PART-TIME:
hourly,
temporary
Fig. 1.1 Shamrock Organization.
home in the Link Resources 1990 National Work-at-Home Survey.
Charles Handy, in his book The Age of Unreason, talked about the Shamrock
Organization of the future (see Figure 1.1) which comprises three key components:
  Full-time knowledge workers with specialized expertise.
  Part-time, hourly or temporary workers who are flexible and provide less complex
skills.
  Contract workers who also possess specialized expertise but who provide this on a
consulting or contract basis.
The new self-employed market
No bird soars too high if he soars with his ownwings.
William Blake
With the recession of the 90s, and collapse of the perceived employment contract between
employers and employees, there has been an enormous jump in the number of people
classified as self-employed.
Setting the Scene / 5
T|me out!
Did you know that:
  In the UK the self-employed workforce comprises approximately 3.3 million people,13%
of theworkforce contributing an estimated 65 billion pounds to the country’s economy,
and over 1.5 million newjobs, according to the Barclay’s Bank Research Review, Starting
Up in Business, July 1999.
  The businesseswhich do best in the self-employedmarket are service businesses which
historically require lower start up costs and less capital overhead, according to Godfrey
Golzen in the DailyTelegraph,Working forYourself Book.
The role of consulting is part of the self-employed service industry. Consulting remains a
lucrative growth industry for those who are able to innovate for their clients’ benefit and it
continues to be a productive outlet for thousands of solo practitioners who choose this
profession over a 9-to-5 job working for someone else.
De¢ning consulting
Building up small businesses is the toughest job in the world.
T|mWaterstone, Founder of theWaterstone’s bookshop chain
Before we begin discussing consulting in more depth, spend a few moments to answer the
questions below and then compare your answers with the later sections in this chapter and
the next.
Exercise 1-1 What does consulting mean to you?
What do you understand by the term consulting?
6 / Be a Successful Consultant
What is attracting you to the possibility of consulting at this time?
What do you perceive to be the benefits of consulting over a full-time position?
Coaching point
Individuals are attracted to consulting for di¡erent reasons. Understanding why you are
considering consulting, and the bene¢ts you expect, can enable you to assess objectively
whether the realityof consulting is going tomatch your ideal.
Consulting is a service business, which means that:
  The deliverable is somewhat intangible (there may be tangible components such as
products).
  It is harder to standardize.
  The person providing the service plays a considerable role in the success of the
service.
  It requires less start-up costs and often lower overheads – it can be you and an office!
T|me out!
Consulting can be de¢ned as providing independent services to meet a varietyof clients’needs
in exchange for money.
The critical factor is money.
Foul!
There will always be lots of opportunities for helping clients, but ensuring these clients are
willing to pay is critical.While some individuals believe that giving away services is away to
establish a client base and get started, you are devaluing your services by not charging for
them. Free consulting generates lots of demand for . . . more free consulting!!
Setting the Scene / 7
8 / Be a Successful Consultant
Deciding to charge a lower rate to clients in the beginning stage of your business is a
strategy we will discuss and evaluate in Chapter 7.
The types of services that consultants provide will vary from industry to industry
and individual to individual, and will include such support as problem-solving, assessing
needs, making recommendations, providing additional resources and implementing ideas.
Consulting can be viewed as a state of mind: a common approach to a situation whether you
are internal or external to an organization. Consultants can range from, to name but a few:
  Strategic planning consultants who help organizations define their vision and
direction.
  Process reengineering consultants who provide support evaluating and recommending
process improvements.
  Training consultants who provide services such as training programmes and
curriculum development.
  Computer consultants who may assess current systems effectiveness, and
recommend or implement systems improvements.
  Marketing consultants who help design new product improvements and design
product launch strategies.
T|me out!
Consulting is de¢ned as di¡erent from contracting because, among other things,
consultants:
  have more than one client
  are not told how, just what
  have their own place of work
  are responsible for their own output.
Consulting is growing as organizations focus on their areas of speciality and use
consultants to provide additional services. Many consulting companies originate when
organizations lay off individuals and then use their services on a contract basis. Oracle has
its own consulting division, and yet many consulting companies have sprung up to
supplement its services.
Because of the many changes in the business industry, there are many more
consultants today than ever before.
T|me out!
The consulting industryis diverse, unregulated and broken into several categories:
  Large national and multinational ¢rms employing more than 50 consultants, e.g.
strategic consulting ¢rms such asMcKinsey and Company, and Bain and Company, the
large accounting ¢rms such as KPMG, Ernst andYoung, etc.
  Medium-sized ¢rms employing between ten and 50 consultants.
  Individual practitioners. Venturemagazine (a US publication for small business startups)
estimates that more than half of all consulting ¢rms are one-person operations.
  Internal consultants.These consultants work with onlyone company’s divisions,
subsidiaries and newacquisitions.The money they receive is their salary.
  Public Agency consultants such as the General Accounting O⁄ce and the Service Core of
Retired Executives provide consulting both to private and public businesses and to
Government agencies.
  Individuals between jobs.
In fact, the following statement is often heard, ‘If you can’t do the work, you teach. If you
can’t teach, you consult!’
Working for a consulting ¢rm
To ¢nd out what one is ¢tted to do, and to secure an opportunity to do it is the key to happiness.
John Dewey
If you are not familiar with the consulting industry, working for a consulting firm can be a
good way to get started. Below are listed the advantages and disadvantages of working for
a consulting firm.
Setting the Scene / 9
Advantages of working for a consulting
firm
  Clients are given to you.
  Billing and collection of payment is
done for you.
  There is regular, dependable money.
  This can provide an opportunity to
learn the business.
  Other resources are available such as
copying, stationery, office space and
equipment, etc.
  You do not have to worry about taxes,
as most consulting firms will pay you
and deduct taxes at source.
  Marketing is done for you.
Disadvantages of working for a consulting
firm
  Many of the perceived disadvantages
of ordinary full-time work are
present.
  There will be the same amount of
politics as any other organization.
  It is just another job.
  The pay will not be as high.
  You will have no opportunity to select
clients.
For the purposes of this book, we will be looking at the consulting market
comprised of one-person consulting firms.
Exercise 1.2 Would you bene¢t from working for a Consulting ¢rm?
Answer the following questions to give you some insight as to whether working for a
consulting firm would be a useful strategy to consider as you begin your consulting career.
Yes No
& & Have you ever worked for a consulting company?
& & Have you ever worked for a small business?
& & Have you had direct contact with paying customers?
& & Have you had budgetary responsibility for costs and expenses?
& & Have you been involved in generating revenue from customers?
& & Have you worked in a department where you had little logistical support?
& & Have you had to do your own invoicing and collection at any time?
& & Have you had to work with no structure?
& & Have you ever worked in an environment where you decided your own
workload?
10 / Be a Successful Consultant
  If you answered no to more than six questions, you may want to carefully assess
whether you would benefit from working with a consulting company to ‘learn the
ropes’.
  If you answered yes to more than six questions, this could indicate that you have
experienced a similar environment to the one in which you may be consulting and
therefore you would not necessarily benefit from working for a consulting company.
  Based on this assessment, make a note below of what appeals to you in working for
a consulting firm.
  What concerns you about working for a consulting firm?
  What will you do as you get started?
Coaching point
Even if you answered no to many of the questions, this is no reason not to try independent
consulting: you may be at the right point in your life to face the challenge. In the same way, you
may choose to work for a consulting ¢rm even if you answered ‘yes’ more frequently as a
di¡erent way to get started and build a network of contacts and some credibility with
successful client engagements.There is no de¢nitive correct or incorrect approach!
Case studies
As we previewed in the introductory section, we will be following the paths of four
individuals as they begin their consulting careers. The purpose of these case studies is to
bring to life some of the challenges that individuals faced, and to make real the ideas and
concepts introduced in each chapter.
Setting the Scene / 11
Joe
Joe has worked in high-tech marketing helping organizations launch products in a timely
manner. He enjoys the challenge of product marketing, but feels that the environment of
working in an organization, moves far too slowly for him. He is thinking of consulting to see
if he can get more reward for what he does and create more time off for himself.
Frank
Frank is a hardware engineer who has been working for a high-tech company for several
years. As the technical support business began to be more challenging, with shorter product
life cycles and more push to generate revenue as well as ensuring customer satisfaction, he
decided to begin to evaluate different working options. He has begun to run classes for the
local college on how to reengineer support centres. He now has what appears to be a
demand for his services on a contract basis and he wants to decide whether to start his own
consulting business or to pass on the work to other colleagues who are currently
independent.
Julia
Julia has spent over 20 years in the human resources field, covering all the basic HR
functions: benefits, compensation, employee relations and legal compliance. She has
worked in both large and small companies and therefore understands the complexities and
needs inherent in both types of corporate environment. Most recently, she has worked for a
start up that has gone public and she now has a reserve of shares which means that she
does not have to work full time for a while. She is considering consulting as a more flexible
working alternative.
Marie
Marie is 39 and has been in the training business for over 15 years. She spent seven years
with a training company, which grew from three people to 100, during which time she was
in the sales and marketing section. When she left the training company she worked for
another company on the implementation side running training programmes and designing
curricula. She then joined a retail company as Director of Training but is wondering whether
running her own training consulting firm would be a more lucrative and rewarding option.
12 / Be a Successful Consultant
Checklist
1. Did you define consulting and identify why you are interested in it?
2. Did you consider working for a full-time consulting firm?
Scorecard
Before moving on to Chapter 2, think about the following questions:
  When you de¢ned consulting, what attracted you to consulting at this point and how
objectivewere you in that assessment? Towhat extentwere you imagining an unrealistic
upside to consulting as a career? How could you be more realistic in your assessment of
consulting as an option?
  When you evaluated working for a consulting ¢rm, what insights did you gain from that
exercise? What could working for a consulting ¢rm provide to you as a career choice?
What were the disadvantages youwere most aware of? How can you get the best of both
worlds: independent consulting and working for a company?
Setting the Scene / 13
CHAPTER TWO
EvaluatingYour Fit
Game plan
The purpose of this chapter is to:
  Identify the strengths and possible challenges inherent in pursuing an independent
consulting career.
  Present the characteristics of successful consultants.
  Enable you to assess your strengths and possible challenges as a consultant.
  Decide a plan of attack for the rest of this book.
Being realistic about consulting
Hard work spotlights the character of people: some turn up their sleeves, some turn up their
noses, and some don’t turn up at all. Sam Ewig
Often when professionals consider consulting as a profession, they see only the money that
other consultants charge and focus on the advantages of consulting as an alternative to
corporate employment. In reality, running your own consulting business has certain
advantages and disadvantages. It is important to understand and consider both to ensure
you capitalize on the advantages and manage the disadvantages. Being honest with
yourself and keeping your eyes open will increase your chances of building a successful
consulting business.
14
Evaluating Your Fit / 15
Exercise 2.1 Consulting advantages and disadvantages
Let’s see how you perceived the advantages of consulting as a possible career choice. Go
back to Exercise 1.2, the second and third questions.
What do you perceive to be the benefits of working as an independent consultant?
What do you perceive to be the possible disadvantages of working as an independent
consultant? You may want to involve significant others in your life in this discussion!
Coaching point
>
It can be very tempting to view consulting as the solution to all evils, the ‘miracle cure’ ^
particularly if you have just experienced a di⁄cult redundancy situation. However, in reality
there are many disadvantages to a career as a full time consultant. Being aware of these can
help you avoid them.
Advantages and disadvantages of consulting
On page 16 are listed some of the advantages and disadvantages that need to be evaluated
when considering consulting as a full-time career.
Foul!
One of the most common false assumptions is that youwill earn more moneyand have greater
£exibility in hours ^ time o¡ when you feel like it. Unfortunately that doesn’t factor the client
into the equationwho alwayshas a critical project they want you towork on as soon as you try
to take a holidayor dayo¡!
Advantages of consulting
  flexibility in hours and clothes
  creativity in projects
  diversity in work
  higher pay (when working)
  able to work own hours to match
body clock
  focus on work you like to do
  no performance reviews
  can choose work associates and
environment
  fewer politics
  see the result of the work you do
  get paid for the work you do not your
political savvy
  higher challenges
  less constrained by a job description
  greater impact
  can hide money for retirement
  in control of your own destiny
  project orientation with a beginning,
a middle and an end
  wider opportunities
  there is an opportunity for
continuous learning
  more time off.
Disadvantages of consulting
  uncertain and variable income – feast
or famine
  hard to find clients
  always looking for work – constant
marketing
  must perform all tasks: marketing,
finance, etc
  no work, no pay
  taxes can be a problem – time
consuming and detail oriented
  hard to get accurate feedback
  very vulnerable to business cycles
  many bosses
  must be self-motivated
  no holiday pay
  must be healthy
  must handle rejection
  lonely/isolated
  you have to self-train and pay for any
training you do
  it can be like starting a new job every
day
  may be difficult getting clients to pay
on time
  pay your own benefits
  no support services
  it ’s hard to leave work behind
  the need to constantly shift between
projects and other tasks.
16 / Be a Successful Consultant
Evaluating Your Fit / 17
Exercise 2.2 Consulting advantages and disadvantages to you
  Take a moment and review the previous list. Pick out the advantages that most
appeal to you and list them below. Are these realistic in your current situation?
  Now think about the disadvantages with which you most identified. How could you
minimize these disadvantages so that they don’t trip you up?
Advantages Disadvantages
__ _
__ _
__ _
__ _
Case study:Marie
Maria has evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of consulting for her and believes that
the benefits of reduced politics, greater challenge, control of the end product and variety of
projects will overcome the potential disadvantages of needing a consistent revenue stream
due to both children being at college.
Coaching point
>
Make sure you include those who are important to you in these discussions.You may perceive
lots of travel to be a bene¢t; those who are left at home to ‘man the fort’may not necessarily
agreewith you!
Not only does a consulting career involve certain advantages and disadvantages but there
are certain key characteristics that contribute to successful consultants.
Characteristics of successful consultants
The entrepreneur is essentially a visualizer and an actualizer. He can visualize something, and
when he visualizes it he sees exactly how to make it happen. Robert L. Schwartz
Lifestyle
Network
Knowledge
Ethics
Credibility
Personality
Skills
Consulting
awareness
Fig. 2.1. Categories for successful consultants.
Consulting is a demanding profession and the requirements for success are therefore also
demanding.
T|me out!
A study by the Association of Management Consultants entitled Personal Quali¢cations of
Management Consultants found the following attributes essential for successful
consultants:
  understanding of people
  integrity
  courage
  objectivity
  ambition
  problem-solving ability
  judgment
  ability to communicate
  psychological maturity
  good physical and mental health
  professional etiquette and courtesy
  stabilityof behaviour and action
  self-con¢dence
  intellectual competence
  creative imagination.
Robert E. Kelley, in his book Consulting, has summarized eight categories for successful
consultants.
18 / Be a Successful Consultant
Logistics
Conducting
projects
Administration
Financials
Marketing
Prospecting
Selling
and
negotiating
Fig. 2.2 Consulting process activities.
Evaluating Your Fit / 19
To accomplish great things, we must not only act, but also dream: not only plan, but also believe.
Anatole France
1. Consulting process awareness
Simplistically, as a consultant, you need to be able to:
  market your service
  deliver your service
  organize your administration
  be an accountant.
However, in reality it is important to understand that consulting is a process with a series
of stages. Each stage has a series of tasks that must be performed. At any one time, you
need to be marketing, meeting with prospects, writing proposals, ‘doing the real work’,
billing, collecting revenue, keeping your office organized and ensuring your services are
smoothly delivered.
Foul!
The number one reason that consultants experience feast or famine is because they forget to
continue marketing when they are working on one or multiple client projects. No matter how
busy you arewith clients, all the other activities need to take place!!
When you work for an organization, you often only have to work in a couple of areas.
Your understanding of, and your ability to work simultaneously in, all steps of the process
are critical to your overall business success. Most consultants fail because they fail to
‘multiplex’ adequately, and then neglect critical aspects of their business.
Case study:Marie
Marie has worked for a training-consulting firm as it grew from four people to over 150
employees. She has spent some time being an independent consultant, has worked as
Director of Training for a retail company, and is now considering starting up her own
consulting business again. During her employment she has continued providing limited
consulting services for other clients, negotiating time off without pay from her employer.
Because of her work with the training company, she has an excellent knowledge of the
consulting process and possesses excellent sales and marketing skills.
2. Knowledge needed
In order to consult, you must have specific expertise usually resulting from an in-depth
knowledge of a particular industry, function or technique. You also need a broad business
knowledge such as accounting, market and competitor knowledge, and company knowledge.
Individuals who have worked for larger organizations often lack this broader business
knowledge.
Case study: Frank
Frank has worked for a major computer hardware and software manufacturer for over 20
years. During this time he has been able to attend lots of training programmes, work in
many different departments and been able to practise leading edge process reengineering.
He has never done any consulting, so he believes the advantages to him are more control
over his own destiny, greater potential income and diversity of projects. He knows he has
limited knowledge of the consulting process and marketing strategies, but he believes with
his network of contacts and his experience he has enough basis to explore consulting as a
career choice.
Skills required
Most consultants have a specialized skill set. Successful consultants have all four of the
skills in the following major categories:
20 / Be a Successful Consultant
Evaluating Your Fit / 21
  Technical/functional skills. You must have something of particular value to offer the
client. This is an area of functional speciality such as marketing, product
management, training, computer training, human resources, etc. These are the
skills most individuals consider when considering consulting as a career option.
  Communication/interpersonal skills. This is the ability to convey important
information, both in verbal and written form. Ninety per cent of a consultant’s
day is spent communicating. Without effective communication skills you will have
no work. Specific communication skills include presentation skills, listening skills,
and negotiating and writing skills. You also need interpersonal skills in order to
effectively manage the behaviour of both the client and yourself during the
engagement. Many consultants fail because they can do the work, but cannot
communicate this ability to different clients.
  Business management skills. This is the ability to understand the critical elements of
running a business, including administration, cash flow, marketing, etc.
  Administrative/organizational skills. These are the skills necessary for managing
projects and paperwork.With no organization structure around you, you will not be
successful, e.g. remembering to send a bill is critical!
Case study: Julia
Julia has in-depth human resources (functional) skills originating from her work in employee
relations, benefits and compensation, and as a generalist. In addition, Julia is an excellent
communicator. She excels at defining the outcome and defining the steps to achieve it in a
logical way. Her work at small companies has provided her with a strong business
background: as part of the executive team in three start-ups, she was no stranger to
financial figures. Finally Julia is very organized – doesn’t go anywhere without her Palm
Pilot!
3. Credibility
Clients want to use someone they can trust and therefore need proof of your
trustworthiness. You can build credibility both by referring to your background, and
from your behaviour when you interact with the client. You can use accomplishments in
previous jobs and referrals to build credibility when you are getting started. In addition,
companies you have worked for in the past, and job titles you have held, can build your
credibility.
T|me out!
Did you know that the number one way to build credibility with clients is Do WhatYou SayYou
Will Do (DWYSYWD for short)?
Your curriculum vitae (CV) can provide information on proven knowledge skills or
experience. In some consulting areas specific qualifications can be used to establish
credibility e.g. certification in a certain methodology. You also build credibility by doing
what you say you will do: if you say you will send information, do it. If you can’t, call and
explain why and try to negotiate a new deadline.
4. Personality
Consultants tend to be self-starters, with high-energy levels, a high degree of selfcon
fidence and a high tolerance for ambiguity. They need to be curious and creative in
order to help clients solve problems. Other personality traits we have heard described by
clients are self-discipline, perseverance, empathy, tenacity and detail orientation.
Consultants must also be independent, assertive and tenacious. With no set pattern of
work, and no formal performance evaluation process, a consultant has to be strongly selfdirected.
A sense of humour is also a big help.
T|me out!
Did you know that, according to the Barclay’s Bank Small Business Characteristics, the
following personality attributes were the top three for success?
  90% were able to get onwith customers and sta¡
  88% were highly motivated
  84% were resilient ^ able to bounce back after problems.
5. Networking
Consulting is a relationship sell. To survive as a consultant, you need to create personal
and professional networks. These provide both a marketing base as well as a source of
22 / Be a Successful Consultant
Evaluating Your Fit / 23
support and are critical for building an on-going practice. You also need a network of
fellow consultants to provide help with specific large projects or fill in for you when
necessary. As your network is such a key business development tool, more detail about
networking is included in Chapter Five.
Case study: Joe
Joe’s number one strength is his network. He tends to be gregarious, social and energetic,
with a fantastic sense of fun. Customers, team members and friends gravitate towards him
because of his positive outlook and are always looking out for opportunities to work with
him.
6. Acode of ethics
Word travels fast. You are only as successful as your reputation is clear. A code of ethics
can help you in guiding your decisions on what work to take or not take, and normally
reflects things such as customer focus, regular examination of the consulting practice and
open attitudes towards a variety of people.
Foul!
Remember even if you are desperate for money starting out, don’t take work for which you are
not really quali¢ed. If you cannot deliver to a su⁄cient standard it will be damaging to your
credibility. Better by far to ¢nd someone else who can do the work. Ultimately you get more
work because what goes around comes around!
7. Lifestyles
A consultant’s lifestyle may involve travel, long hours and pressure. The benefits
balancing this are a high degree of autonomy, the chance to help and influence others, and
the possibility of high earnings, status and respect. Too many consultants are not
prepared, nor do they have the support structure for this lifestyle. It is important that your
significant others understand the complexity of the process, realizing that a day working at
home is not a day off, and that working at home is still working! Building a support
structure of other consultants in the business will give you someone to lean on when the
occasional proposal is rejected. Don’t kid yourself thinking you’ll have lots of time off.
You won’t!
Category
Consulting process
awareness
Knowledge
Skills
Personality
Credibility
Ethics
Network
Lifestyle
Your self-assessment
Thorough knowledge of all steps from working for Bain
and Company.
Functional knowledge in business process
reengineering. Good general business knowledge.
Excellent written communication skills. May have to
work on interpersonal skills with clients – can tend to be
too abrupt. Excellent organization and follow-through
skills.
Resourceful and independent minded.
Persistent.
Over ten years’ consulting experience with major
multinational organizations.
Haven’t thought about it – will need to consider prior to
taking first assignment.
Strong network but for the organization not for me.
Have to investigate non-compete clauses.
Not married so plenty of freedom.
Know several other independent consultants for advice
and insight if needed.
Case studies
Frank
Frank is recently divorced and has no additional financial responsibilities, so he thinks that
this is the best time to try out being a consultant.
Joe
Joe’s partner works full time and is supportive of this opportunity for Joe to try out
consulting.
Based on these characteristics, it is often helpful to assess the extent to which you possess
these qualities. Here is an example of a typical self-assessment:
24 / Be a Successful Consultant
Category
Consulting process
awareness
Knowledge
Skills
Personality
Credibility
Ethics
Network
Lifestyle
Your self-assessment
Evaluating Your Fit / 25
Exercise 2.3 Assessing your ability as a consultant
  Take a moment and review the previous categories.
  For each category, objectively assess your ability.
  What are your strengths – how can you capitalize on them?
  What about the areas in which you appeared weaker? How could you supplement
your knowledge in each area?
  Complete the table below.
  Share this table with some business and personal friends and see what else they
would add.
26 / Be a Successful Consultant
Coaching point
You don’t have to be pro¢cient in all areas, you just need to be able to work on your strengths
and balance any potentialweaknesses.
Of all the categories, probably consulting process awarenessdoes represent the most
important factor to consider because this in£uences the overall activities of your consulting
business.
Consulting, and the four temperaments
The unexamined life is not worth living. Socrates
Individuals often use a detailed self-assessment process, such as taking the Myers Briggs
Type Indicator (MBTI1) to more fully understand and work with their innate preferences
see Appendix. As a consultant, you are what you sell, so self-knowledge is critical to running
a successful business in order to capitalize on your strengths and overcome your weaknesses.
David Keirsey’s is the synthesizer of modern temperament theory. Using his
concepts of temperament will also enable you to more fully understand your innate needs
and values. Each of us views the world through our own set of lenses and perceptions,
distorting reality to match our own mental picture. We are all unique individuals with our
own complexities and idiosyncrasies, but for the 25 centuries since Socrates four basic
patterns have been consistently and cross-culturally recognized in the human personality.
T|meout!
Temperament theoryis based on four sets of themes.These sets serve as fractals of personality.
A fractal is ‘a pattern underlying seemingly random phenomena.’ The human personality is
complex and varying, but temperament reveals the underlying inborn foundation on which it is
built. In temperament theory, we start with an understanding of the core themes and then
examine our basic psychological needs, our core values, our favourite talents, our common
approaches and habitual worldview. People with the same temperament share the same core
needs and values.This does not mean that these people are all the same! There arewide
Animal Notes
Fox
Beaver
Owl
Dolphin
Adapted from Linda Berens, The Facilitator’s Guide
varieties, but with strong shared needs. For example, string instruments are a family of
musical instruments, but there are huge di¡erences between a guitar and a double bass.
Temperament characteristics
David Keirsey, in Please Understand Me and Please Understand Me II, selected an animal
as a metaphor for each temperament. He believed the innate patterns of behaviour and
preferences demonstrated by each animal were somewhat reflective of the characteristics
associated with each human temperament.
Exercise 2.4 Animal characteristics
In the space below list four or five things you know about, or associations you have,
regarding each of the following animals:
Evaluating Your Fit / 27
Animal
Fox
Beaver
Owl
Dolphin
Characteristics
  appear as fast reacting, quick and resourceful animals
  excellent sensory perception: can hear a mouse squeak from up to 100 feet!
  leave a scent mark because they want others to know they have been there
  alert to the environment – notice any change of movement in the landscape
  animals frequently play together
  take advantage of opportunities – eat any animal they find and can catch
  adaptable – change location easily based on environmental changes or alterations
in the food supply
  beautiful, well-groomed fur
  appear as busy, industrious, hard working animals
  multi-generational family structure: mate for life, are protective of their family and
live in family groups
  build strong dams to protect their lodges—specific manner of building keeps water
entrances from freezing over in winter
  build in a consistent manner and continually enlarge and repair dam and lodge as
needed
  use large flat tails for packing down materials and slapping the water to warn others
of danger
  conserving: use all parts of the tree they cut down and stockpile food for winter use
  cooperate and rarely fight with other beavers
  will change location, but with ample consideration of adequate water, forest and
seclusion
  appear as wise and knowledgeable animals
  expansive vision: see 100 times better than humans and head rotates almost 360
degrees
  big watchful eyes and solemn stance give the appearance of wisdom and composure
  scan everything from a high perch then silently swoop down to precisely pick out
prey
  from their high perch, see things coming in the forest before other animals
  anticipate food supply and stagger young accordingly
  acute hearing works in a three-dimensional sense – can precisely locate prey in the
dark or underneath groundcover
  one of the few universal animals: complex varieties are present in every region of the
world
  independent: will make sure their offspring leave the nest at a young age after
receiving the critical teachings
  appear as sociable, fun and playful animals
  seek interaction with other dolphins and other species
  stay with their group – some dolphin species die if separated
  advanced communication using complex sounds (phonations) and echolocation
  each dolphin and family group has a ‘name’ which is specific and unique to them
  aid the pregnant and injured of their own species and have a ‘healing’ quality for
those who swim with them
  use consensus decision-making to change direction
  practise hunting skills as play and aid each other against predators
  use nose to nudge and guide, but can use it to kill a shark if attacked
In the following chart you’ll find an expansion of the list you just started on the general
characteristics of the four animals. Explore each set, paying special attention to the major
patterns, and keep your own behaviours, needs and values in mind as a point of
comparison.
Animals and characteristics
28 / Be a Successful Consultant
Fox & Beaver & Owl & Dolphin &
Fox: the Artisan temperament
Driven by the need to respond in the
moment; free-thinking and adaptable,
Artisans like to live one day at a time,
seizing the day and all the freedom they
can get. They are the natural crisis
managers and performers. Words to
describe Artisans’ roles as consultants
have included tacticians, troubleshooters,
fire-fighters and negotiators.
Owl: the Rational temperament
Driven by the need for knowledge and
competence; big picture focused and
independent, Rationals seek to
understand the operating principles of all
around them and create their own
destiny. Words to describe Rationals’
roles in consulting have included
strategists, marketing, design and
systems analysts.
Evaluating Your Fit / 29
Exercise 2.5 Choosing a mascot
Which animal do you most identify with?What were the characteristics that most appealed
to you and why? Write your answers in the appropriate box.
Coaching point
Every personwill have elements ofall four temperaments.What is useful to identify is the most
important driving forces for you as an individual. This will tend to in£uence what you enjoy
about consulting and your ultimate success at it.
These animal ‘mascots’ correspond to the four temperament names we will be using in the
following ways:
Beaver: the Guardian temperament
Driven by the need to be responsible,
build results and be part of a team,
Guardians wish to serve and protect
those close to them. Words to describe
Guardians’ roles in consulting have
included process improvement, statistical
process control, reengineering and
quality management.
Dolphin: the Idealist temperament
Driven by the need to have a purpose;
relationship-focused and empathetic,
Idealists are soul-searchers who
constantly quest for meaning and
significance in their lives. Words to
describe Idealists’ roles in consulting
have included coaches, catalysts,
advocates and facilitators.
Artisan
Guardian
Rational
Idealist
As we take a closer look at the characteristics of each temperament, the symbolic meaning
of each mascot will become increasingly clear. Once we understand our own basic patterns,
it becomes much easier to make more effective choices and communicate with those who
are different from us. Let’s look at these temperaments in more detail. (see page 31)
Now that you have reviewed the characteristics of each temperament, use the
following exercise to explore yourself to see which temperament you most gravitate
towards.
Exercise 2.6 Exploring temperaments
In the space below, within each box:
  Write your name in what you perceive to be your ‘best-fit’ temperament box with the
characteristics of that temperament with which you most associate.
  You may also be gravitating towards a second temperament: write your name in
that box, also with the characteristics of that temperament with which you
associate.
  Read the case studies for further clarification. You can also read more about
temperament at keirsey.com.
30 / Be a Successful Consultant
Characteristics of each temperament
Characteristics
Estimated percentage
of world population
Driving forces/core
needs
Myers Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI)
letters
Work approach
Time preference/focus
Communication style
Language
Favourite Words/
Expressions
What appeals as a
consultant
Examples
Quote
Gift to the world
Artisan
Approximately 40%
Be noticed or make an
impact
Get a result
Act swiftly and
practically in the
moment
SP
Seek to make an impact
with their style and skills
Tactical trouble-shooters
and fire-fighters
The present: here and
now
Net it out/get to the
point
Concise communication
– less is more
Informal/casual with
occasional slang
Creatively and
humorously economical
Fun
Excitement
Challenge
Flexibility
Solve tactical problems
See tangible results
Challenge
Excitement and
stimulation
Winston Churchill,
JFK, Larry Ellison,
Michael Jordan, Barbara
Streisand
The right man is the one
who seizes the moment
Johann Wolfgang Von
Goethe
Making the best of the
present moment
Guardian
Approximately 40%
Act responsibly and
dutifully
Be part of a group or
team
Contribute to a concrete
goal or accomplishment
SJ
Get the right thing to the
right place, in the right
quantity at the right
price at the right time
Put in repeatable
processes
The past: what was done
before
Linear and sequential:
1,1a, 1b, 2, 2a, 2a.1 etc.
Structured: beginning,
middle, end
Respectful and
appropriate to the group
Conventional
‘Do you remember
when?’
‘What’s your
experience?’
Comparisons, better
than/worse than
Make a contribution
See tangible results
Structure
Improve a process
Security/stability
Queen Elizabeth, Colin
Powell, John Rockefeller,
Mother Theresa,
Barbara Walters
The buck stops here
Harry Truman
Bringing the best of the
past to the future
Rational
Approximately 10%
Demonstrate knowledge
and competence
Be an expert
Retain autonomy and
control in activities
NT
Logical, independent,
strategic thinkers
Driven to improve
systems and redesign
processes
The future: infinite time
orientation
Abstract around models
Uses critical questioning
Precise and articulate
Avoids redundancy
Why?
Conditionals: ‘If X, then
Y.’
Relevant facts and data
Intellectual stimulation
Improve a system
Leading edge
Opportunity for
independent thought
Challenge
Margaret Thatcher,
Thomas Jefferson, Bill
Gates, Ayn Rand, Cybill
Shepherd
I do not think much of a
man who is not wiser today
than he was yesterday
Abraham Lincoln
Designing a better future
Idealist
Approximately 10%
Have a greater purpose and
meaning for actions
Develop their own and
others’ potential
Seek unique identity
NF
Build bridges between
groups
Provide connection and
enthusiasm
The future: life’s a journey
forward
Empathetic
Flowing and effusive
Generalizations and
impressionistic
Employ hyperbole
Integrate
Connection
Meaning
Contribute to the overall
goal
Make a difference
Genuine relationships
Theories that can be related
to people
Being special
Gandhi, Martin Luther
King, Walt Disney, Ann
Morrow Lindbergh, Jane
Fonda
Happiness is when what you
think and what you say and
what you do are in harmony
Mahatma Gandhi
Bringing hope for a better
future
Evaluating Your Fit / 31
  Based on what you have chosen: what would be your strengths as a consultant?
What do you need in order to succeed? What might be your potential weaknesses?
Strengths Potential challenges
__ _
__ _
__ _
__ _
Coaching points
  Whether you see yourself in one of these temperament patterns or not, you are in the right
place. If you see yourself clearly in one temperament ^ great! Keep learning about it and
others. Think about what that means in terms of your actions and interactions.
  If you see yourself in more than one temperament, don’t feel lost.Most of us see a bit of
ourselves in all four groupings. Don’t feel that temperament is a box you are being stu¡ed
into.We are complex beings and these categories are a simpli¢ed set of similarities.
These are patterns to identify with and in noway will be able to completely de¢ne you.
Case studies: temperament as consultants
Joe is anArtisan. He enjoys hands-on, fast-paced work that produces concrete results. One
of his greatest highs is in seeing a new product successfully launched. He enjoys
multiplexing between different tasks and his greatest challenge at work is getting bored
because the work is tending to get repetitive. He is great at picking up opportunities in the
moment, and this has contributed to him being very successful at product launches. (His
MBTI1 type is ESFP – one of the four versions of Artisans.)
Frankis aGuardian. He enjoys working in a team, and contributing to concrete results. He
naturally establishes structure, organization and processes and uses his sequential thinking
innately in his process reengineering work. He enjoys managing projects because there is a
beginning, middle and end, and will pride himself on living up to his responsibilities. (His
MBTI type is ESTJ – one of the four versions of Guardians.)
32 / Be a Successful Consultant
Evaluating Your Fit / 33
Julia is a Rational. She enjoys starting with the big picture and using logical thinking to
achieve a long-term goal. She enjoys the independence and autonomy that her role in HR
provides and particularly enjoys working with the executive team on strategic analysis and
direction. She enjoys creating a model for human resource practices but tends to want to
move on when the work becomes more routine. (Her MBTI1 type is INTJ – one of the four
versions of Rationals.)
Marieis an Idealist. She enjoys working in the training and development field because this
innately focuses on developing people’s abilities and potential. She enjoys meeting and
interacting with a variety of people, and can normally find connections with others. Her
empathy allows people to open up to her and enables her to assess clients’ needs. (Her
MBTI1 type is ENFJ – one of the four versions of Idealists.)
So do people enjoy being self-employed?
Going towork for a large company is like getting on a train: are you going 60 miles per hour or is
the train going 60 miles an hour and you’re just sitting still?
J. Paul Getty
After considering all the previous factors, disadvantages, the knowledge, skills and
personality you need to become a successful consultant, by this point you might be
thinking ‘Is this worth it?!’
Interestingly enough, research conducted in 2000 by MORI (a major market
research agency) into Britain’s self-employed, documented in IWant To BeMy Own Boss –
Inside the New Self-Employed Revolution, came up with the following results.
T|me Out!
  86% said self-employment was more enjoyable than having a permanent job
  85% would take the same decision again towork for themselves
  78% feel they nowhave a much better qualityof life
  65% claim to have more time to do the things they enjoy.
Source: Alodis/MORI poll 2000
So, in order to assess whether consulting is for you, investigate the area in which you wish
to consult and consider another few key pointers:
  do something you really enjoy
  build a network; talk to as many people as you can in the business
  set realistic goals
  be patient.
Exercise 2.7 Is consulting for you?
Checklist
Spend a few moments reviewing the information and the characteristics described on the
previous pages and evaluate how closely you meet those criteria.
  Do you fully understand the consulting process?
  What are your functional skills or specialized content knowledge?
  How do you rate your skills?
  How credible are you as a consultant?
  Does your personality fit?
  Did you have a clearly defined code of ethics?
  What is the size of your network?
  Does consulting fit your lifestyle?
  Can you deliver the work?
  Can you market the work?
  Can you organize the work?
  Can you budget to manage the ups and downs?
  Is this work something you really enjoy?
34 / Be a Successful Consultant
Evaluating Your Fit / 35
Scorecard
Before moving on to Chapter 3, think about the following questions:
  In terms of considering the advantages and disadvantages of consulting as a profession,
have you created an objective list of pros and cons of this profession to you? Have you
discussed this list with thosewho are close to you? Have you discussed the list with
peoplewho are consultants in your chosen area of practice?
  In terms of the qualities of successful consultants, have you evaluated yourself against
the critical categories outlined by Kelley? What are your critical competencies? Where
do you rate yourself as lacking skills, knowledge or expertise? How can you capitalize on
your competencies? How could you build capabilities where you perceive you may be
exposed?
  Have you completed the exercises on temperament? Have you reviewed the other
temperament descriptions so that you are familiar with the di¡erences and complexities
of each temperament? What e¡ect do you think your temperamentmight have on your
ability as a consultant?
CHAPTER THREE
WhatType of Consulting Business Are
You Running?
Game plan
The first critical stage in starting your own practice is to be specific about your business
direction by defining your vision for the future of your consulting business, identifying
your unique selling proposition, and categorizing the main responsibilities for your
consulting business.
The purpose of this chapter therefore is to help you:
  Create a vision for your consulting business to keep you focused on ‘bad days’.
  More clearly articulate your possible strengths and weaknesses as a consultant.
  Clearly define what you can uniquely contribute to the client.
  Analyse your business using SWOT analysis.
  Build an overview of your business activities so that you can focus on what is
important.
Why de¢ne your business before jumping in?
Often when individuals consider becoming a consultant, they think of the logistical steps
in getting started such as getting business cards, setting up the office, buying a computer,
etc. But the first critical stage in starting your own practice is to define what you want your
business to ‘be’. Most people begin with a vague notion they want to be a consultant but it
is very important to become specific.
36
Vision
Unique selling
proposition
SWOT analysis
Key result areas
Objectives
Fig. 3.1. Steps in setting business direction.
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 37
Foul!
When people describewhat they want to do theymake two main mistakes:
  First, they explain what they want to do in vague, long sentences.
  Second, they try to be a‘jack-of-all-trades’and not be tied to one area.Trying to be all
things to all people can result in not being anything to anyone!
De¢ning your vision
What is a vision statement?
True vision is always twofold. It involves emotional comprehension aswell as physical perception.
Ross Parmenter
A vision is defined as a picture of future greatness, a definition of core values, and a
lighthouse towards the frontier. Your vision must make sense to others, stretch your
imagination, give an ‘aha’ effect, but at the same time be within the bounds of possibility.
Your vision statement describes the grand idea of what you are about, the future as you
want it to be: ‘I am in the business of. . .’ The vision statement must be reasonably precise
yet still provide a general direction to your consulting business.
Coaching point
While some of these exercises in this section may appear time consuming and not directly
linked to deliverables, investing in this areawill produce long term bene¢ts for you and your
consulting business through greater focus and raised motivation.
The vision statement tends to be abstract, high level, without much concrete detail. It has
also been compared to the North Star: high above, constantly present, universally known,
guiding direction. The purpose of your vision statement is to guide your decision-making,
provide a yardstick to keep you on track and provide inspiration in achieving your goals.
Examples of vision statements
Examples of Vision statements from organizations are:
Oracle: To enable the Information Age through network computing.
Kepner Tregoe: We focus on the human side of change through providing skills development
programs and consulting services.
Raychem: Towin the respect of our Customers around the world by being a leader in delivering
innovative solutions.
Case study: Frank’s vision
Frank defined his vision as ‘To help call centres optimize their productivity’. He believed this
provided a good overall direction, but that it did not limit him to only process reengineering.
Key words in his vision statement were ‘call centres’ (this could include technical support
and customer service centres), ‘optimize’, ‘productivity’. He wanted to ensure that any work
he conducted would have a tangible bottom line effect on the company. ‘If it did not make a
difference at 9 on a Monday morning, he would not have succeeded.’
Differentiating between vision andmission statements
A mission statement communicates the vision by considering several critical variables:
  What is it that the organization wants to do?
  Who is the organization’s customer?
38 / Be a Successful Consultant
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 39
  What are our values?
  What profit do we need to make?
When you are getting started in your consulting business, using a vision statement alone,
with key result areas is probably adequate. Adding another level of detail may make the
process too complex.
Creating your vision statement
T|me out!
A man was passing a work site and saw three bricklayers. He approached the ¢rst bricklayer
and asked ‘What are you doing?’ The man answered,‘Making a living.’ He asked the second
man the same question and he answered,‘Laying bricks.’He asked the third worker the same
question and the man responded,‘Building a Cathedral.’A strong vision statement enables you
to feel as though you are building a cathedral, not just laying bricks ormaking a living.
Exercise 3.1 De¢ning your vision statement
  Take a moment and think about the following questions:
– Why do you want to be a consultant?
– What is it that you primarily want to achieve?
– What do you want your customers to achieve using your services?
– What is your ultimate theme?
– What is the reason your consulting business was created?
– What would success look like for you?
– Think of an ideal day: what would you do? Who would you work with?
Where would you work? What would be the result?
– Think of some times you felt really motivated: what were you doing? With whom?
– What made it motivational for you?
  Now try to write your vision statement in the space below:
My vision statement is:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
  Now check your vision statement using the following questions.
Yes No
& & Does your vision statement energize you?
& & Does your vision statement reflect all the services you could provide?
& & Can you remember your vision statement without referring to a written
version?
  Share your answers with friends and consultants to get feedback.
  Now integrate these ideas to create a more focused vision statement. Make sure it
answers the earlier questions and that it consists of less than nine words to ensure
that it is easy to remember.
My vision statement is:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Coaching point
Creating a vision statement will take you some time to complete. Often the ¢rst ideas you
come up with tend to be more detail oriented. If this is the case you will need to continue
re¢ning the statement by talking to friends, professional acquaintances and prospective
customers.T|me invested in this areawill reap rewards for your business in the long term.
40 / Be a Successful Consultant
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 41
Case study:Marie
Marie defined her vision as ‘To provide consulting services to allow individuals and teams to
maximize results’. Although the statement is a little long, she believes the vision
encompasses the critical direction of her business: the key words are ‘consulting’, and
‘individuals’, ‘teams’, and ‘results’. She would have preferred to say ‘develop their
potential ’ but she thinks that these words might not be acceptable in the business
community.
Common challenges that arise in trying to define a vision include being too specific, too
‘pie in the sky’; not able to share with customers, or appearing as if they are not related to
business objectives.
De¢ning strengths and weaknesses
Now that we have identified our vision, we need to define what we ‘bring to the table’ to aid
our clients; our unique selling proposition. The first step in this process is to be able to
objectively define our strengths and competencies. Many are natural to us and therefore
we do not think about them, but in order to capitalize on our strengths we need to be
aware of them.
This above all; to thine own self be true.
William Shakespeare
When we raised the topic of self-knowledge while working with a 50-year-old client from
IBM, he questioned ‘Do you honestly think people reach the age of 50 without knowing
themselves?’ Our answer: ‘Absolutely!’ Understanding what is important to us and how we
operate is not necessarily as obvious as you might think. Looking inside and trying to sort
out the collage of abilities, skills, strengths and weaknesses that make up our personality
can be quite a challenge.
Consider the complexity of developing an accurate perception of your own
strengths and weaknesses. In the strengths and weaknesses window below, there are four
quadrants.
2 1
3
Some
Weaknesses
4
Some
Strengths
+ Conscious
– Unconscious
+ Competence – Incompetence
Strengths and weaknesses window
Fig. 3.2. Conscious and unconscious competence.
  Quadrant 1: Conscious competence: We are aware of certain talents, skills and
abilities.
  Quadrant 2: Conscious incompetence. We are also painfully aware of some of our
weaknesses, blind spots, and shortcomings.
However, there are also two other quadrants that others may see, but that we are not tuned
into.
  Quadrant 3: Unconscious incompetence. These include our most plaguing
weaknesses. We don’t know, but we don’t know that we don’t know!
  Quadrant 4: Unconscious competence: These are some of our key strengths,
although we take them for granted because they are natural to us. We know, but we
don’t know that we know!
How you see yourself can very significantly different from how others see you. The
implications of this possible lack of self-knowledge on your business performance are
considerable. You might think you were communicating clearly, but the client could have
no idea what you were talking about!
42 / Be a Successful Consultant
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 43
I have had more troublewith myself thanwith anyother man I have met.
Dwight L.Moody
Exercise 3-2: Looking at your strengths andweaknesses
Use the blank strengths and weaknesses window that follows to self-assess your innate
abilities, skills and aptitudes by quadrant.
  Quadrant 1: Conscious Competence. Think about a significant work achievement.
What was that achievement? What made this an important success for you? What
did you uniquely say or do that contributed to this achievement? What did you do
here that was different from what others might have done? What was it that you
were able to uniquely contribute to the success of this project? What strengths
might have enabled your accomplishment? Try to list at least three specific strengths
in quadrant 1.
  Quadrant 2: Conscious incompetence. Think about a work task that was not as
successful as you wished it to be. Why was it a disappointment? What did you
specifically say or do that might have contributed to this occurrence? What possible
weaknesses can you infer from your analysis? List them in quadrant 2.
  Quadrant 3: Unconscious incompetence. Talk to three people whom you like and
respect. Ask them for their honest feedback on what they perceive to be your
greatest weakness or challenge. List at least one challenge in quadrant 3 that they
mention, but that you did not note in quadrant 2.
  Quadrant 4: Unconscious competence. Ask the same individuals what attributes,
characteristics or competencies they value most about you. List at least three
strengths in quadrant 4 that they observe, but that you did not note in quadrant 1
2 1
3 4
+ Conscious
– Unconscious
+ Competence – Incompetence
Stengths and weaknesses window
Fig. 3.3. Your strengths and weaknesses.
Coaching point
Think about this exercise using these questions:
  What did you learn about your possible strengths fromthis exercise?
  What did you learn about your possible challenges fromthis exercise?
  What implications could this learning have for understanding your abilities as a
consultant?
Identifying your unique selling proposition
Your unique selling proposition is how you define your specific contribution within your
chosen area of expertise. It identifies why someone should buy your services and not
someone else’s. It is a statement reflecting your competitive advantage.
44 / Be a Successful Consultant
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 45
Exercise 3.3. De¢ning your unique selling proposition
Now that you have identified both your areas of conscious competence (known strengths)
and unconscious competence (innate strengths), think about what this means to your
clients in terms of what you can bring to the table that others can’t.
Example:
Adirectorof training at a retail company had rolled out a sales training programme to over 200
retail stores, resulting in a 16% comparative store sales increase. The company had tried to
roll out a sales training programme two years previouslyand it had not worked.When he asked
the question‘What did he do that the previous director of training had not done?’ he identi¢ed
the following factors that had uniquely contributed to the programme’s success.
  He had obtained senior management commitment.
  He had involved the retail team in the development of the programme.
  He had simpli¢ed the design of the content.
  He had ensured therewere follow-up strategies in place to ensure continuityof change.
From this he deduced that part of his unique selling proposition was his ability to accurately
identify customer needs, tailor an appropriate solution to customer needs and thereby to
ensure solutions were commercially viable.
Please spend a few moments and identify critical components in your unique selling
proposition.
Coaching point
Asking friends, previous employers and professional peers for their insight can provide other
useful data in documenting your unique selling proposition. Often it is hard for us to identify
our positive characteristics.
Your unique selling proposition has both an internal and an external focus. For instance a
trainer might claim her unique selling proposition (with an internal focus to her business)
is that she has excellent facilitation skills. The unique selling proposition from the
customer’s perspective (the external focus) is that she has the ability to motivate small and
large groups.
Case Study: Julia
Julia’s unique selling proposition is that she is a business-focused, strategic human
resources partner. She specializes in integrating human resources policies with business
requirements to minimize risk and legal liability. She refined this understanding by talking to
previous employers and colleagues and asking them to explain what they valued about her
insights. They told her that unlike many HR professionals who tend to talk about rules and
structure, she linked this knowledge to business issues and needs.
Your vision and unique selling proposition are valuable, in terms of the direction they
provide to your business, but also in terms of their use in marketing your services. While
the process of defining them is difficult, they are a critical step in your journey to create
your own successful consulting business. Make sure you continue working on your vision
and unique selling proposition until they are accurate.
SWOTanalysis
What is success? I think it is a mixture of having a £air for the thing that you are doing; knowing
that it is not enough, that you have got to have hard work and a certain sense of purpose.
MargaretThatcher
SWOT analysis means taking a probing look at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats that face your consulting business. The analysis is a process of investigating and
brainstorming the factors working for and against your practice that could affect overall
performance.
46 / Be a Successful Consultant
Strengths
20 years’ experience
Excellent network of contacts
Great background in successfully launching
products
Great marketing skills
Package of services available to sell
Action oriented
Opportunities
Thriving market
Companies are downsizing so there is more
demand for outsourcing services
Product marketing has proven business
results
Many business publications talk about the
speed of product release being critical to
business success
Weaknesses
Lack of administrative support
Lack of procedures
Limited financial resources
Too broad a focus
Dislike of doing the mundane part of
project management
Threats
Many one-person and larger consulting
firms
Future financial market stability
Difficulty in raising market awareness
Difficulty in clearly identifying the
advantage in his services
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 47
T|me out!
Strengthsand weaknessesrefer to your business’s internal advantages and potential
disadvantages. These factors are in your direct control. Opportunitiesand threatsallude to
aspects outside of your direct control that might open up potential (opportunities) or result
in negative consequences (threats). Opportunities and threats can both originate in the
market at large or from other consulting organizations.
The purpose of SWOT analysis is to view the world in which you are performing from a
macro perspective. This vantage point ensures that the planned strategy and direction are
possible, given your inherent strengths and weaknesses. It also assures that the strategy is
geared towards capitalizing on opportunities and minimizing threats.
Case study: Joe’s SWOTanalysis
Joe’s SWOT analysis included the following data:
Strengths Weaknesses
Opportunities Threats
Exercise 3.4 Conducting SWOTanalysis for your business
  Spend some time individually brainstorming what you perceive to be the strengths
and possible weaknesses of your consulting business. Use the ideas listed in the
conscious and unconscious competence grid to further supplement your ideas.
  Then consider the market you are targeting for your services. Spend a few moments
listing opportunities and threats of which you are aware. Take the opportunity to
talk to other people in the same market segment, friends, colleagues, other
consultants, etc. (See Chapter 5 for more detail on market research strategies.) List
the associated opportunities and threats in the grid below.
  Thinking about your strengths and weaknesses, what would you have to do to
capitalize on your strengths and minimize your weaknesses to optimize your
consulting business results?
  Considering the current business climate, what can you do to take advantage of
opportunities and minimize the risks associated with the threats?
48 / Be a Successful Consultant
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 49
Coaching point
Conducting a SWOTanalysis is great when you start your business, but is also useful once a
year to keep a pulse on your business opportunities.
Case study: Frank
Frank believed that working for large organizations was where he could add the most value.
He thought his unique selling proposition is ‘A technically competent engineer who can
accurately improve call centre operations’. He believed many engineers, while they
possessed the technical skills to undertake process reengineering, lacked the interpersonal
skills required to build relationships, and be a successful consultant. In his SWOT analysis he
identified as opportunities the huge growth in call centres, but highlighted as a possible
weakness/threat the challenges of being a small player in such a huge unregulated market.
He realized he would have to use creative marketing channels to be able to successfully
launch his business.
Establishing key result areas
Now that you have established your overall direction, it is important to define your
essential business responsibilities.
If a man knows not what harbour he seeks, any wind is the right wind.
Seneca
Linkingwhat towhen
While many consultants set objectives for their business often there is no direct link
between the business’s vision/unique selling proposition and the tasks that have to be
completed on a day-to-day basis. In fact, often you have what appears to be a never-ending
list of projects, while what you do day-to-day is not represented at all. As a result you
appear as though you are not performing and become overloaded and stressed.
T|me out!
Key result areasre£ect the most important areas of your consulting business responsibilities,
the areas inwhich results have to be achieved.You need to concentrate your time and resources
in these sectors in order to accomplish your goals. Establishing key result areas is a valuable
technique that links the overall direction of your consulting practice with project goals and
milestones.
This grouping procedure is a valuable tool in managing workload as the process
complements the way the human brain naturally works.
Guidelines for defining key result areas
Key result areas do not describe the type of results to be achieved, but rather categorize
work into headings. This grouping procedure is a valuable tool for consultants as the
process complements the way the human brain naturally works.
T|me out!
Overviewand the brain:
Did you know that. . .?
  The subconscious brainworks 24 hours a day and has, as far as we know, unlimited
capacity.
  We also have a conscious brain, whichworks only whenwe are awake and can
concentrate on one thought at a time. As a result, whenwe have a multitude of tasks to
completewe may feel overloaded.
  The preconscious brainreduces this perceived overload because it can keep an outline or
overview of seven +/- two, i.e., ¢ve to nine categories.
We now need to group all the tasks we need to complete fewer than seven to nine headings
in order to be able to build an overview of overall workload: the key result areas. This
process also gives a feeling of control and can reduce stress.
50 / Be a Successful Consultant
Be brief Use a maximum of one to four words for your key result area
titles. Example: financial management.
Headings Key result areas should be headings that describe areas within
which team results are to be achieved. They should not state
specific aims or performance standards.
Example: ‘customer satisfaction’ would be a key result area not
‘increase customer satisfaction scores by. . . %’.
Complete Key result areas should cover all aspects of your business – all you
do and ought to do needs to be included somewhere in a key
result area.
Clear Key result areas should be immediately understandable to
yourself and others.
Example: ‘problem identification’ might be too vague: what
problems?
Avoid overlapping When two key result areas are just different aspects of the same
subject, they should be combined into one topic.
Example: ‘marketing communications’ and ‘advertising’ could be
combined under ‘marketing management.’
Scope Your key result areas should not extend beyond your sphere of
responsibility.
Key result area
Target companies/clients
Explanation
This section will include specific companies that are
targeted as specific clients. When the first client is
closed and paid for (see section two), this key result
area will become current clients.
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 51
Guidelines for defining key result areas
Case study: Joe’s key result areas
Business development
Marketing activities
Product development
Organization/planning
Financial management
Networking
Professional development
This section includes activities such as his sales phone
calls, e-mails, proposals, sales appointments and
contracts. It involves everything from the time the lead
surfaces as a prospect to the time he begins the actual
work. See Chapter 6 for more specifics.
This section includes activities such as conducting
market research, advertising, PR, creating flyers,
distributing newsletters, etc. This reflects the more
indirect building of market awareness and client
interest. See Chapter 5 for more specifics.
This section includes defining and developing the range
of products and services. Joe needs to more clearly
define his product offering in terms of the benefits to
customers and the specific features that are provided.
See Chapter 5 for more specifics.
Joe is very aware that planning is not his strong suit.
This section includes a month by month action plan –
see Chapter 10 for more information
This area includes invoicing, cash management, credit
collection and forward budgeting. See Chapter 7 for
more specifics.
Joe believes at this early stage that his network is so
important that he wants to keep it as a separate key
result area to remind him to invest time and energy in
this area every week. See Chapter 5.
Joe wants to ensure he does not neglect his own
development so he has established a key result area to
highlight this aspect of his time management.
52 / Be a Successful Consultant
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 53
Key result areas
Hewhowants to do everythingwill never do anything.
Andre¤ Maurois
Productivity means accomplishing goals and achieving results. If you are to achieve your
overall goals, you need to clearly visualize them and spend your time on the right things,
your key result areas. Highly productive consultants carefully focus their planning and
management of activities around key result areas. They choose to make these a constant
priority and manage other responsibilities after these key areas are taken care of.
Examples of key results areas:
  finance   projects
  sales   quality
  marketing   research and development
  team development   manufacturing
  customer service   vendor management
  operations   purchasing
  communication   process improvement
  reporting   project management
  problem identification.
Establishing your key result areas
Now that we have reviewed the principles inherent in defining key result areas and
provided an example, it is time to define your key result areas.
Exercise 3.5 De¢ning your key result areas
  Individually list the projects/tasks and activities you have on your to-do list onto
Post-It notes.
  Write one specific task or activity on each Post-It1 note.
  In addition, you can ask yourself the following questions:
– Where do I need to pay attention in order to keep an edge on my business?
– What results am I expected to achieve?
– What activities bring the best return?
– How do I spend my time?
– In which areas can I work to create specific results for my company and/or
myself?
– What will create the future for my consulting business?
  When you cannot think of any more tasks or activities, start moving the Post-It1
notes together if they seem to relate to similar things until you have no more than
nine categories, but you could include as few as five. For instance, generating
invoices and collecting receivables would be placed next to each other.
  Think about a heading that would describe each group; this heading will be the
name of the key result area.
Example
For instance you might have ideas like:
  brainstormlist of contacts
  write business plan
  do market research
  de¢ne product/service
  talk to people who said they would help me out
  do a budget
  get a computer
  get software
These tasks could be grouped under di¡erent headings:
Marketing
  do market research
  de¢ne product/service
Networking
  brainstormlist of contacts
  talk to people who said they would help me out
54 / Be a Successful Consultant
Key result area Description
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 55
Administration/set up
  get a computer
  get software
Financial Control
  write business plan
  do a budget
  Transfer your key result areas list to the form below.
Blank key result area form
MY KEY RESULT AREAS
1 Financial control
2 Clients
A.
B.
3 Business development
4 Database management/marketing
5 Product development
6 Operational effectiveness/administration
7 Team development
8 Professional development
Sample key result areas
Below are the key result areas for most consulting businesses.
56 / Be a Successful Consultant
What Type of Consulting Business Are You Running? / 57
Coaching point
It is important that the words in the key result areas are yours ^ so that you know where you
would ‘¢le’ information.
Checklist
1. Have you created an initial vision statement?
2. Did you identify your strengths, both your areas of unconscious and conscious
competence?
3. Have you identified your unique selling proposition?
4. Have you listed three people who could give you advice on your vision and unique
selling proposition?
5. Have you conducted an initial SWOT analysis for your business?
6. Have you defined the key result areas for your business?
Scorecard
Before moving on to Chapter 4, think about the following questions:
  As you de¢ne yo,ur vision and unique selling proposition, who else can you talk to in
order to obtain feedback? What other resources could you use to give you examples and
ideas? Bywhat date do youwish to¢nalize your vision and unique selling proposition? To
what extent is there a business focus in your vision and unique selling proposition?
  As you conducted your SWOTanalysis, what speci¢c threats or weaknesses did you ¢nd
which might inhibit the future performance of your consulting business? What speci¢c
strengths and opportunities did you identify that would help you to build your consulting
business? What plans have you put in place to ensure you follow throughwith your initial
ideas?
  As you de¢ne your key result areas, are they representative of your entire workload? Do
the headingsmake sense and provide youwith an accurate overview of your workload?
Are they in alignment with your vision and unique selling proposition?
58 / Be a Successful Consultant
CHAPTER FOUR
EstablishingYour Business Direction
Game plan
Once you have established your vision, unique selling proposition, conducted your SWOT
analysis and defined the key result areas for your consulting business, it is critical to write
in more detail what you specifically wish to accomplish.
The purpose of this chapter therefore is to help you:
  Build a business plan.
  Decide the optimal legal structure with which to begin your consulting business.
  Set objectives for your practice.
  Establish preliminary milestones.
Writing a business plan
If you don’t know where you are going, youwill probably end up somewhere else
LaurenceJ. Peter
T|me out!
The business plan performs severalmajor functions:
  It forces you to think through each aspect of your business while keeping you focused and
structured. It also helps set limits.
  It provides a yardstick by which you can measure output and success.
  It allows a dry run before you actually performyour ¢rst consulting assignment, i.e. it
exposes you to potential sales, pro¢ts and problems.
  The business plan becomes a sales tool for both you and your potential investors.
59
Vision statement
Unique selling
proposition
SWOT analysis
As you defined in Chapter 3: your ultimate purpose or theme.
As you defined in Chapter 3: what you can uniquely contribute to a
client.
A seasoned businessperson realizes that every venture entails risks.
What are the possibilities of competitive responses to your actions?
Are there unfavourable trends in the industry? Use the SWOT
analysis to help you calculate your risks (also described in Chapter 3).
  strengths for your business (internal)
  weaknesses for your business (internal)
  opportunity in the marketplace (external)
  threats in the marketplace (external)
Cover Page
Introductory
summary
Table of contents
Name of company, address, phone, date, period covered, name of
person who created the plan.
This is a summary of the important information included in your
business plan. Write the summary after you have written the entire
plan. Investors often read the introductory summary and decide,
based on this section alone, whether to read the rest of the business
plan, when deciding whether to contribute funds to the venture.
This lets the reader know what is included in your business plan.
Business plans vary in length and nature and basically comprise of several main sections.
For in-depth discussion of business plans, New Venture Creation and Up Your Own
Organization provide excellent details. Generally, a business plan should be from two to
four pages. It should be a good guide, but not so complex that you don’t want to change it,
because it will change.
Writing a business plan
Sections of a typical business plan will include:
General information
Your company overview
60 / Be a Successful Consultant
Financial plan
Financial funding
Your financial plan identifies the sources and uses of your money in
your business. It shows your financial standing through two basic
documents: the profit and loss forecasts and the cash flow
statements.
After determining how much money you need through your profit
and loss and cash flow, your business plan needs to indicate where
the money will come from.
Market research
Market analysis
Marketing plan
This is a crucial section in the business plan. Many consultants
enamoured of their own good idea fail to investigate whether there
is a market for it.
In your market analysis you identify your expected major clients,
estimate your potential annual sales to each and assess your
potential market share. While this market assessment may be to a
large extent theoretical in the early stages, it none the less serves to
focus and direct your energies.
The marketing plan gives a picture of the market, your marketing
goals, promotional strategies, the definition of your products and
services, who the competition is, what you will charge for your
services and how to obtain customers.
Target clients To reach your estimated sales projections you must develop a
strategy that targets specific clients with specific sales approaches
and determine which aspects of your firm’s services you will stress
in your marketing efforts.
Establishing Your Business Direction / 61
Key result area: finance
(See Chapter 7 for more information.)
Key result area: marketing
(See Chapter 5 for more information)
Key result area: business development
Management
team
Professional
assistance
Other resources
The management team is responsible for making your business
successful. If you are a solo practitioner, then you are the
management team and perform all the major tasks for planning,
marketing, accounting, financing, organizing and consulting. The
business plan needs to include an overview of your credentials
including major accomplishments, degrees, and any other
information that will position you as an expert in your field.
You should quickly establish relationships with necessary
professionals such as a lawyer, an accountant, a banker and an
insurance agent. Capable professionals provide significant parttime
assistance when you are a sole practitioner.
You should develop a team of other consultants, e.g. technical
writers, editors, trainers, etc to have on hand when you need help
with projects. You may also get work from them when they need
help.
Research and
development
Research and development appears in many forms and has costs
associated with it. It can include such things as researching
training materials, implementing process improvements, attending
conferences to gather current data or developing new services to
meet clients’ needs.
Plan Your schedule pinpoints the timing and interrelationships of all the
major events important to starting and developing your business.
Some people use flow charts to visualize the process of starting,
operating and planning for a growing business. It should also
include your tasks and milestones.
Key result area: organization structure
Key result area: professional development
Overall schedule
62 / Be a Successful Consultant
Cover page
Introductory
summary
Table of contents
What will be the name of your company, address, phone, fax,
e-mail information etc?
When do you want this business plan to be completed?
Will you obtain any help in writing the business plan?
Remember – complete this last!
When you look at your business, what is the key data that you want
to share with clients? Investors?
What captures the essence of the business?
This lets the reader know what is included in your business plan.
Vision statement
Unique selling
proposition
SWOT analysis
Have you defined your vision statement?
If not, refer to Exercise 3.1 in Chapter 3.
Have you completed Exercise 3.3?
If so complete the answer here.
Have you completed Exercise 3.4?
What are the key strengths you wish to capitalize on?
What opportunities do you wish to exploit with your business?
What key risks do you wish to avoid?
Establishing Your Business Direction / 63
Of over 1,000 small¢rmsin1996, those that had strategic plans had 50%more revenue and pro¢t
growth than companies that didn’t have one.
Source: www.businessplans.co.uk
Exercise 4.1 Writing your business plan
  Take a moment and think about the sections in the business plan and complete the
answers, as far as possible, to the questions below.
General information
Your company overview
Financial plan
Financial funding
What are your estimated incomings (see Exercise 7.3)?
What do you see to be your initial set-up costs (see Exercise 7.1)?
What do you perceive to be your ongoing expenses (see Exercise 7.1)?
Include a simple cash flow statement (see Exercise 7.3).
How much cash do you have behind you?
What are your other resources to deal with financial demands?
Credit cards, etc (see Exercise 7.2)?
Market research
Market analysis
Marketing plan
What market research have you completed (see Exercise 5.1)?
What is it that makes you think there is a market for your product?
Who else is doing business in the market place?
What are your marketing goals (see Exercise 5.2)?
What is your product definition (see Exercise 5.4)?
How are you going to price your product (see Exercise 7.5)?
How are you going to distribute your product by the use of your
network (see Exercise 5.6)?
How are you going to promote your product to the market place
(see Exercise 5.5)?
Target clients Name three clients who could benefit from your services.
Management
team
Professional
assistance
Other resources
Have you completed a CV that captures your key talents?
Why would investors/customers think you were qualified to help them?
Who will be your accountant?
Who will be your lawyer?
Who else might you need?
Who else do you know who you could involve on certain projects if
you needed it?
Key result area: finance
(See Chapter 7 for more information.)
Key result area: marketing
Key result area: business development
Key result area: organization structure
64 / Be a Successful Consultant
Research and
development
How do you plan to stay current in your field?
What are the best ways to stay abreast of business developments in
your market segment?
Plan Have you created a high-level three month plan?
A six-month outline?
Yearly targets?
Establishing Your Business Direction / 65
Key result area: professional development
Overall schedule
  Now share your business plan with some others for feedback. What changes would
they recommend?
  Now check your business plan using the following questions:
Yes No
&& Does your business plan succinctly explain your business?
&& Is your business plan comprehensible to others?
&& Does your business plan include all the relevant data to explain your overall
business direction?
Coaching point
Writing a business plan can seem time consuming and irrelevant. Many consultants want to
‘get out there and make it happen’ instead of ¢ddling around with this intangible activity.
However, time invested in this arena can help preventmistakes such as loss of focus, unclear
allocation of resources, and can actually improve the message when in front of clients.
Case study: Frank
Frank began the process of creating a structured business plan, but he wishes to invest more
time in this area to ensure that he is clear on his overall direction. So his top short-term
objective is:
  Ensure a cohesive strategy by finalizing a business plan by 31 December 200X that
will be eight pages in length, including finalized vision and unique selling proposition,
SWOT analysis and key result areas with critical objectives and tactics outlined.
Meanwhile, he has begun to create a simple marketing presentation on PowerPoint that
covers some of the information in his business plan to make sure that he is coherent and
consistent when positioning his business to prospective clients.
Making time to complete the business plan will ensure that you are taking the right steps
to build your consulting business and will not get side tracked in other areas.
Deciding your legal structure
This one step ^ choosing a goal and sticking to it ^ changes everything. Scott Reed
The most common legal structures for a consulting business are the sole proprietorship/
trader, the partnership and the limited company. The structure you choose will be related
to your overall business objectives.
Sole proprietorships/traders
Most consulting businesses are sole traders. Under this arrangement you and your
business are one and the same. Mostly, if you use your name as the business name, you do
not have to file under the assumed business name status. Your firm’s net income is taxable
as your personal income. You have an unlimited liability for the debts of your firm.
This type of business organization is simple yet effective as you are starting your consulting
business. Even if you want to work with another person, it is often better to begin the
cooperation as two sole traders. This gives you an opportunity to try out the working
relationship, before formalizing a partnership. Unfortunately, there are a lot more broken
partnerships than successful ones!
Partnerships
There are two types of partners, general and limited. General partners control the day-today
operations of the firm and usually have unlimited liability for the firm’s debts. Limited
partners, also known as silent partners, exercise no control over daily operations. They
typically invest money in return for a share of the firm’s profits.
66 / Be a Successful Consultant
Establishing Your Business Direction / 67
Foul!
Many individuals, who have worked together very successfully in a corporation, failwhen they
try towork together as partners.There are a varietyof reasons for this
1. When working in an organization, the payment is not dependent on the working
relationship. Often partners divide because there is not enough business for both
partners: one can generate business, but can’t do the work.The other can do thework,
but cannot generate business.This creates ill-feeling between them.
2. Working in a formal organization structure, there are de¢ned standards and procedures.
Working in a partnership, individuals have to de¢ne their own structure and theymay
approach this process di¡erently.
3. If the partners are not clear when de¢ning roles and responsibilities, it can result in
frustration and disappointment between partners because others are not ‘doing their
job’.
4. Working together,‘on top of each other’, is di¡erent from working in an organization
where there are other individuals present.
So think carefully before you make this large commitment. Lawyers may tend to make more
money from partnerships than individuals do!
Limited companies
These are generally legal entities separate and distinct from you as an individual. Most
larger businesses are limited companies. This brings several advantages including
permanence, continuing despite the death of individual shareholders, and your personal
liability is limited to the amount invested in stock. However, limited companies have
several disadvantages in that they are typically subject to higher taxes and fees, and the
procedures, reports and statements required by the government may become cumbersome.
See the later section for more information on the tax advantages and disadvantages of a
limited company.
Sole trader
Advantages Disadvantages
  You can claim direct expenses related to the
business such as telephone, heat, light, car,
meals, etc. Check with your financial adviser
for specific deductions allowed currently.
  You can use personal pension schemes to
reduce tax liability.
  Often, if you work from home, you reduce
travel time and expenses. When you do travel
for the client you get these costs reimbursed.
  This is the simplest structure when working
independently.
  Lower administrative overheads.
  Taxes can be self-assessed.
  Less taxes.
  If you are making losses initially you can
deduct these against any taxes you are paying
on full-time employment.
  You are responsible for tracking costs
and revenue and filing tax returns biannually.
  You pay National Insurance
Contribution but you are not eligible to
claim unemployment benefits.
  If you are sick, or have illness in the
family, your business may be exposed
and you may have inadequate financial
resources.
  Less credibility as a sole trader (may be
perceived that way).
  May have to guarantee personal loans
because of less ‘business presence’.
  As a business owner you may be liable
for losses and debts.
Partnership
Advantages Disadvantages
  You have someone else to ask difficult
questions.
  You have someone else who shares tax
liability.
  Apart from the complexity of deciding
separate tax bills there are no
disadvantages.
Limited company
Advantages Disadvantages
  There is a limit to corporation tax on profits
up to £200,000.
  Company pension schemes for ‘owner
directors’ are more generous in terms of tax
relief than for an individual.
  Advantage can be made of additional business
deductions such as company cars, although
these are less present now than previously.
  Greater credibility associated with being a
limited company (possibly).
  Banks may be willing to provide a loan
without a personal guarantee.
  Directors are not personally liable for
company losses.
  There are more stringent reporting
requirements than a sole trader.
  Higher taxes.
  Taxes cannot be self-assessed – need
accounting support.
Financial and tax implications for different structures
68 / Be a Successful Consultant
Establishing Your Business Direction / 69
Case study:Marie
Marie has decided to get started as quickly as possible. She has decided that she is going to
stay as a sole trader, in the same way as she did last time that she was independent. She
believes this will give her the flexibility in the short term, and then she can decide at a later
date if she wishes to become a limited company. She has written a simple business plan
following the outline in the materials for her own use only, as she does not want to use
external funding to start the business.
Exercise 4.2 Choosing your consulting business structure
  Take a moment and think about the different ways of structuring your business:
sole trader
partnership
limited company.
  Review the advantages and possible disadvantages of each structure.
  Think about your business, which structure will you select?
  What are the advantages of this structure and how will you make sure you benefit
from them?
  What could be the possible risks associated with that structure and how could you
overcome these?
Coaching point
If you are just getting started and are not surewhich structure youwant to use, beginwith sole
trader. It requires very little set-up time or administrative overhead, it is legal and you can
evaluate this decision later.
Case study: Julia
Even though Julia is just starting up, she has decided to set her business up as a limited
liability company because of the area she focuses on: human resources. She wants more
legal protection in case she provides advice which then results in a client suing her.
Particularly with the sensitivity and possible liability associated with sexual harassment, she
feels the increased costs involved will pay for themselves with the additional protection she
will possess as a limited liability company.
Setting objectives
If you cry ‘Forward,’ you must make plain in what direction to go.
Anton Chekhov
Once you have established your key result areas and written your business plan, it is critical
to write objectives for your business, and create a list of milestones to ensure you make
progress.
What is an objective?
Objectives are concrete, tangible, measurable results or outcomes from your efforts that
you can see, not just roles or activities.
T|me out!
Well-clari¢ed objectives, according to Alan Lakein in Your T|me is Your Life, need to meet
certain speci¢c SMARTcriteria.
S: speci¢c: so that you know when you have achieved it
M: measurable: by two or more of the following:
^ quantity
^ quality speci¢cations (e⁄cient? e¡ective? other?)
^ cost
A: aligned: with your overall vision and business direction
R: results-focused: is a tangible result expected of me to produce/accomplish?
T: time-based: has a speci¢c due date.
70 / Be a Successful Consultant
Establishing Your Business Direction / 71
Too often, we confuse tasks with objectives. A task is the action we must take in order to
reach the objective. To differentiate between tasks and objectives, we must ask ourselves:
  What are we trying to achieve by completing this task?
  What is the benefit of achieving this task?
Example:
Incorrect: to contact five prospects by 31 January 200X.
This is a task, and it does not answer what is the result, or why are we doing this?
Correct: to obtain one client for training services with revenue of . . .by 31 January 200X.
You can see that this is an effective objective because it is:
  Specific: one client.
  Measurable: size of revenue.
  Aligned: one would assume the vision of a consulting firm is to generate
revenue!
  Results-focused: to obtain the client (result), rather than just contact five prospects
(task).
  Time-based: by 31 January 200X.
It is critical to define and write down objectives for every aspect of our business within
each key result area.
Did you know that . . .
Research conducted at Harvard into graduates 20 years after they had graduated showed the
following:
5% were earning more money than the other 95% combined.
The only di¡erentiator was that the 5% had written down their objectives.There is something
about writing down objectives that a⁄rms our commitment to them, and keeps them‘in sight
and in mind’.
The characteristic that gets missed the most is the T: most people state vague terms such as
‘within three months’. This is not specific enough – an actual date needs to be set. If the
worst happens, and you do not succeed within the time frame, you can simply move the
date!
Key result areas and objectives
Overall goal: To operate a thriving consulting business.
Key result area Objective(s)
Finance To achieve £200,000 in sales with gross margin of 50% in
200X.
Clients To maintain an active client list of five clients in 200X with
no more than 50% income from one client. Client is
defined as over £10,000 a year. An active client uses services
at least once a quarter.
Business development To ensure five new clients in 200X with a pipeline of ten
prospects and 20 suspects as categorized on the database.
Current clients are . . . Oracle, etc.
Database management To establish and maintain a database of 500 contacts on
ACT, all personally known, by 31 December 200X.
To categorize the database by general, suspect and
prospect.
To maintain contact with the database by distributing
three eight-page newsletters and holiday greeting cards.
Product development To develop and roll out a mini ‘call centre assessment’ by 1
August 200X.
Operational effectiveness To maximize operational effectiveness by updating filing
system, and implementing new equipment (scanner) by 30
June 200X.
Team development To establish an ongoing team by December 200X. Team
comprises:
accountant
office manager
2 call centre auditors
Professional development To become certified in . . . methodology by attending three
workshops in 200X.
Below are examples of one objective for each key result area for a consulting
business. Remember, there may be multiple objectives within each key result area, and we
will be showing examples of these different objectives in later chapters.
72 / Be a Successful Consultant
My key result areas and objectives
Overall goal
Key result area Objective(s)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Establishing Your Business Direction / 73
Exercise 4.3 Writing your objectives
  Review the key result areas you identified for your business in Chapter 3. Put these
in the key result area form below.
  Now write a SMART objective for each key result area below.
Date:_
Are your objectives SMART: specific, measurable, aligned, results-focused, time-based?
  Now ask yourself the following questions:
– Are your objectives definitely outcomes and not tasks?
– Do they answer the questions: what ’s the result or what ’s the benefit?
– How specific is each objective? How will you know when you’ve achieved it?
– How will you measure your objective?
– Is the objective realistic?
– Is the objective challenging?
– Does the objective contain a specific due date?
  Make any changes required to make the objectives more SMART.
Coaching point
  Some key result areas are easier to measure (e.g. ¢nance) than others (marketing). In
these situations, you often have to use the tasks andmilestones to provide measurement
criteria.
  Writing e¡ective objectives is a very complex skill.
  Therewill often be multiple objectives within each key result area.
  You may choose to revisit this sectionwhen you have completed the more detailed work
in the rest of the book on marketing, sales, organizational and ¢nancial objectives.
Case study: Joe
Joe has defined some key short-term objectives for himself (short-term objectives are
usually less than three months in duration, and can often be part of another larger
objective):
Under client management
To achieve one client, for a product launch assessment of no less than £5,000, within three
months of today’s date by contacting 20 key prospects.
Under marketing
To decide on an appropriate fee rate by researching five other independent marketing
consultants to establish market rates by 1 January 200X.
Within office organization
To ensure a productive office by purchasing a new computer by 31 December, 200X, with
ACT and the Microsoft Office Suite.
74 / Be a Successful Consultant
Key result area Objective
Database management To establish and maintain a database of 500 contacts on
ACT, all personally known, by 31 December 200X.
To categorize the database by general, suspect and
prospect.
To maintain contact with the database by distributing
three eight-page newsletters and holiday greeting cards.
Number What Who When Completed
1 Brainstorm a list of contacts:
  friends
  family
  employers
  vendors
SN 30/4/0X
2 Research database sales tracking
system.
DN 14/5/0X
3 Select sales tracking system. DN 30/6/0X
4 Install sales tracking system. DN 14/7/0X
5 Input all names on new software. DN 31/8/0X
6 Categorize database into general,
suspect and prospect.
SN 30/9/0X
Establishing Your Business Direction / 75
Establishing milestones
Plans are only good intentions unless they immediately degenerate into hard work.
Peter F. Drucker
When you have established and prioritized your objectives, it is important to decide the
key tasks (the things you need to do) and milestones (delivery/completion dates) required
to achieve the objectives. Without these tasks and milestones, there is a gap between what
you want to do (the objective), and when you are going to do it (the plan). Lack of
establishing milestones is the key reason we fail to achieve our objectives. We have to
create a list of milestones for every objective that we have.
Tasks andmilestones necessary to complete the objective
Key result area Objective(s)
Number What Who When Completed
1
2
3
4
5
6
Key result area Objective(s)
Number What Who When Completed
1
2
3
4
5
6
Exercise 4.4 Writing your tasks and milestones
For two of your current key result areas and two objective(s), write down the critical tasks
and milestones.
76 / Be a Successful Consultant
Establishing Your Business Direction / 77
  How will you build up the complete list of tasks associated with each key result area
and objective?
  What system will you use to track these tasks and milestones?
Coaching point
It can be tempting to not write downall these tasks ^ ‘It takes longer towrite them downthan
to do them!’Bywriting themdown, however,we reduce the pressure on our brains andwe help
to ensure the ideas do not go out of sight and out ofmind!
Organizing systems
Consultants vary on the tools they use to track their activities. Some still use a paper-based
system such as Filofax or Time Manager. Others use software programs such as Microsoft
Project. Others will create a whiteboard and list all the projects and milestones so that they
are in sight and in mind. (It’s just a little heavy to carry to meetings that’s all!)
Coaching point
The system you use is not important: the thought process and the organization of the data is
key. If the milestones are not written down, ¢rst they are easier to forget, and second, you
underestimate howmany tasks there are at anyone time.
Case studies:Marie andJulia
Marie uses her Time Manager system to list her objectives and milestones. Because she
worked for this company for five years and is familiar with the system, she believes this is
the best way to get started. She has defined her critical milestones and is ready to get out
and market her business.
Julia, on the other hand, loves her Palm Pilot to keep her organized. She has put all her
phone numbers in the database and is entering her critical action items to track. She enjoys
being able to download the contact names and numbers from Outlook and the fact that this
can be linked with the Microsoft suite of Office products.
Checklist
1. Have you created your business plan?
2. Have you reviewed the different organization structures and decided which one you
will use?
3. Have you consulted with a tax adviser to ensure you understand the implications of
this structure?
4. Have you defined objectives for at least three of your key result areas?
5. Have you defined milestones for at least three of these objectives?
6. Have you chosen which system you will use to organize your projects and milestones?
Scorecard
Before leaving this chapter, ask yourself the following questions:
  What software or books do you intend to purchase in helping you towrite your business
plan? Howlong do you believe your plan needs to be in order to provide youwith enough
direction, and yet not be too complex? Who else could provide advice in drawing up this
plan?Will you use the plan as a tool to help you raise capital?
  In terms of your organization structure, what structurewill be the most suitable for your
needs in the short term? What other resources do you need to support you in this
endeavour? How will you ensure you are organizedwell enough to avoid tax penalties?
  When you review your objectives, how clear are they as to the result that they will
achieve? Who could look at them and provide youwith feedback to ensure they meet the
SMARTcriteria? Are there clear bene¢ts from the goals?
  What systemwill you use to track yourmilestones and tasks? Whenwill you set up this
system? How will you ensure that you keep this system current?
78 / Be a Successful Consultant
SECTION TWO:
Getting Clients
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
81
CHAPTER FIVE
MarketingYour Business
Game plan
One of the greatest challenges that consultants face is getting paying clients. You can
demonstrate all the skills in the world, have the best business cards and an articulate
business plan, but without clients you have no business! The purpose of this chapter is to
help you to:
  Begin the process of acquiring clients by creating and implementing a cohesive
marketing strategy.
  Establish marketing objectives.
  Segment the market for your services.
  Clearly articulate your range of service offerings and the benefits that they can
contribute to the customer.
  Decide appropriate promotional strategies.
  Build your network.
Creating your marketing plan
I don’t design clothes, I design dreams.
Ralph Lauren
Element Explanation
Market research Researching potential customers and suppliers to verify
that a market for your product exists.
Marketing objectives Deliverables and outputs that you expect from your
marketing activities: how you will know you have
succeeded.
Market segmentation Dividing the market into segments to more easily address
customers’ needs.
The four ‘P’s Product: Defining your product in terms of features and
benefits.
Promotion: Deciding strategies to raise market awareness.
Place: Deciding appropriate distribution channels.
Price: Determining fee structures.
Time line/schedule A tactical outline of actions and milestones.
T|me out!
The purposeof your marketing plan is to provide your consulting business with an organized
step-by-step approach for raising market awareness. It represents a high-level statement of
your business’s overall direction, including information on the four P’s: product, promotion,
place, and price.
The key elements of your marketing plan are as follows:
Foul!
Most people associate marketing with promotional activities. Promotion plays a part in
marketing as you can see from the components of the marketing plan above, but there are
also many more strategic positioning elements which are necessary to ensure the
promotional activities are targeted e¡ectively.
82 / Be a Successful Consultant
Marketing Your Business / 83
Conducting market research
Researching your audience is vital. A technique that impresses one client with our creativity
could be a mere gimmick to another.
T|na Brown, Outside the Box
It is important to conduct market research, not only into the type of consulting you wish
to do, but also into the other companies that exist in that marketplace. Market research
can be conducted before you leave your current position and provides an ideal way of
testing the water. However the extent to which quantitative market research is possible
depends on the focus of your consulting business. Much of the consulting market is
comprised of individual consultants and therefore it is relatively hard to quantify and
document.
T|me out!
Objectives formarket research are as follows:
  To identify whether there is a market for your product or service, and the possible size of
your target market.
  To assess the existence, size and location of other competitors in yourmarket.
  To discover the current pricing structure in your market.
  To identify corporate needs.
  To evaluate the best way to package your product or service for the market.
  To be used as a beginning for the business development process.Many consultants ¢nd
their ¢rst client this way!
Depending on the focus of your business, both formal and informal approaches can be
used in the market research process. Formal processes are designed to measure the size
and potential market penetration of your service. Informal approaches are designed to
obtain a subjective assessment of market potential. Techniques you can use are:
  Hire a consultant who specializes in market research to conduct the research for
you. You can pay him or her, or organize some type of barter system in exchange for
his or her services.
  Buy a mailing list for your potential market and distribute a questionnaire to the
names on the list about your product or service. Remember the return rate on such a
survey is very small – less than 2%. The questionnaire can also be followed up by a
phone call, and this will increase the response rate as well as the success of the
market assessment.
  Create a mailing list of people you know in the industry and send them a
questionnaire. You can either ask that the questionnaire be returned, or you can ask
to meet directly with them to obtain their feedback.
  Call contacts whose opinions you respect, and conduct a short phone interview with
them. In this telephone interview, you could ask such questions as: ‘If you were in
my shoes, what would you do?’ ‘Who do you think would be interested in the
services?’ ‘What else might they be interested in?’
  Research trade associations in your field and either attend meetings for networking
reasons or use their list of members to target for research.
  Attend cocktail parties and other social functions to network.
  Use the Internet and conduct a search looking for companies providing similar
services.
  Use the want ads in the newspaper and industry magazines: these are a great source
of information about small companies.
  Read current trade publications.
  A combination of the above.
Case study:Marie
Marie has spent some time in marketing in a previous job, and so has already completed
much of her marketing planning. Because her industry is highly dispersed, she has decided
to conduct informal market research by talking to people she knows who are both
consultants and possible clients. She has created a list of 30 people, who she plans to talk
to in the next three weeks. Her main purpose in these calls is to determine market interest
for her product and service, and to understand current market rates.
84 / Be a Successful Consultant
Number What Who When Completed
1
2
3
Marketing Your Business / 85
Exercise 5.1 Deciding yourmarket research approach
Thinking about the type of consulting you wish to undertake and the market for your
services, answer the following questions:
  How easy is it for you to measure the market for your service quantitatively?
  How much research do you think you could undertake on the Internet?
  How many people do you know who might be able to provide you with insight into
the market?
  What upcoming events do you know of that you could attend/participate in, in
order to find out more about the market for your service?
  Based on these questions, list below three specific market research activities you will
undertake with specific deadlines.
Tasks andmilestones necessary to conductmarket research:
Coaching point
While conducting market research could appear to be ‘avoiding asking for business’, the
increased knowledge and con¢dence that it can provide to you will be invaluable in getting
your business started on a sound footing.
Establishing marketing objectives
Based on your unique selling proposition and your vision, you need to create marketing
objectives for your business. More detail on the criteria for effective objectives are included
in Chapter 4. Remember these objectives need to meet SMART criteria outlined earlier.
They need to be:
S – specific
M – measurable
A – aligned
R – results oriented
T – time-based
There is normally a variety of marketing goals for a consulting business under several
categories:
  share of the market
  market penetration
  market visibility
  target market
  promotional activities
  pricing
  size of database
  number of newsletters.
Make sure you set specific objectives for your marketing plan – what is not measured does
not get done! If you don’t reach that objective, it is easier to change it than to have not
created it at all.
Case study: Julia
Julia has defined two short-term objectives for her marketing activities:
  To raise market visibility with start up organizations by distributing via e-mail a
human resources newsletter providing tips and techniques on common small company
issues to over 100 organizations (from a mailing list she purchased), to generate a
minimum of two follow-up enquiries by 31 August 200X.
86 / Be a Successful Consultant
Marketing key Objective(s)
result areas
Is it SMART?
Marketing Your Business / 87
  To create two strategic partnerships with venture capital firms in order to obtain at
least one referral by 30 September 200X.
Exercise 5.2 Deciding one marketing objective
Thinking about the type of consulting you wish to undertake and the market for your
services, define one specific marketing objective for your business below:
  Make sure the objective has a specific deadline and you are clear about the outcome
you are expecting.
Coaching point
Asyou continue towork through thismarketing chapter, make sure you set objectives forother
key activities.
Segmenting the market
Segmenting the market involves breaking down the market into smaller sub-sections. The
benefit of segmenting the market is that you can then target marketing efforts more
effectively. The segmentation can be made by:
  industry, such as retail, software, hardware, wholesale, telecommunications, nonpro
fit
  geographical area, such as England, UK, Europe, USA
  company size such as small (under 100 people), medium, large
  maturity of company: start-up, mature
  type of company culture
  functional category such as human resources, web page design, training, marketing
  functional speciality within functional category: e.g. within human resources there
are the functional specialities of payroll, compensation, benefits and recruiting.
Case study: Joe
Joe decided that he wanted to offer project management services in launching new
products to mid-sized high-tech companies along the M4 corridor.
Exercise 5.3 Deciding your market segment
Thinking about the type of consulting you wish to undertake and the market for your
services, answer the questions below to help you segment your market:
  To what extent do you wish to travel? Is there a natural geographic focus to the type
of consulting you will be undertaking?
  What specific market expertise do you possess, e.g. retail, software, etc? Is there a
specific market segment that you wish to focus on?
  What specific functional expertise do you possess? (e.g. product marketing, finance,
HR, etc).
  Is there a specific size of company that would benefit from your services?
  In what market segment (whether as an employee or a consultant) have you had
your greatest success?
  Now list your ideas for market segments you want to focus on below:
Coaching point
Don’t be worried that by trying to segment the market you might miss opportunities. These
segments are guidelines only. Initially there is a tendency to take any work that is o¡ered!
As your business matures, it is often more bene¢cial and less risky to segment your market
in more detail.
88 / Be a Successful Consultant
Marketing Your Business / 89
De¢ning your product or service: the ¢rst ‘p’
A sweet, brown, ¢zzy beverage . . . Coca Cola is one of the world’s truly non-essential products
brilliantly marketed.
Wall StreetJournal
This stage in the marketing process involves defining the services you offer in terms of:
  Features: The features of a product or service include facts, function information,
its characteristics, its design or its construction. Customers usually buy features
only when they relate to benefits.
  Benefits: A benefit is anything that contributes to an improvement in condition,
produces an advantage, or aids in accomplishing a task. It is the positive result or
bonus achieved as a result of using your product or service. It shows how a company
will gain from using these services as well as what the services can do. It answers the
questions ‘What ’s in it for me?’ or ‘What’s in it for the company?’
It is important to define your product or service in user-friendly terms through the use of
features and benefits, specifically in relation to how they meet business needs. Customers
are interested in benefits, but we are often most comfortable talking about features.
T|me out!
A bene¢t answers the questions:
  Who cares?
  Sowhat?
Atransition statement to link the feature to the bene¢t is:
  Which means that...
Benefits can also be tangible (the benefit can be measured objectively) or they can be
intangible. Benefits combined create the ultimate benefit: this represents the overall benefit
of the product or service to the user.
Feature Which means that
Who cares?
So what?
Benefit Ultimate benefit
Four legs Which means that The table is stable
(tangible)
Efficient working
space
Brown Which means that The table is aesthetically
pleasing
(intangible)
14-square feet of
surface area
Which means that It is spacious
and holds a lot of
material (tangible) }
Features and benefits of a table
Below are examples of the features and benefits of a table: a tangible product to illustrate
how this process works.
Features and benefits of services
It is harder to think about a service in terms of features and benefits because a service itself
is intangible, and varies from one moment to another and according to the customer’s
mood at any one time.
T|me out!
Describing a service such as consulting di¡ers considerably from describing a product like an
automobile. A car is manufactured in one location and then delivered for sale to the customer
in another. A service is often created and delivered simultaneously. As a result of conducting a
consulting project, you concurrently deliver it. Goods are produced, services are performed.
These di¡erences pose a special challenge to consultants.
How do you make relatively invisible services seem real and useful to prospective clients?
This is achieved by making sure the services are understood, and by somehow making
them more tangible, using features and benefits.
It is also harder to think about a service without a specific customer in mind
90 / Be a Successful Consultant
Feature Which means that
Who cares?
So what?
Benefit Ultimate benefit
One day programme Which means that Time effective
(tangible)
Successful
consulting
business
Learn marketing
strategies
Which means that Increase exposure
(intangible) and get
clients (tangible)
Participant materials
are supplied as a
reference tool
Interactive with exercises
and discussion
Which means that
Which means that
Greater retention
(intangible)
Greater learning
(tangible) }
Marketing Your Business / 91
because most services will be designed and delivered to meet a specific customer need.
However the mental exercise of differentiating between your consulting service’s features
and benefits will help you in the sales interaction and as you are creating marketing
collateral for yourself (as described later in this chapter).
Features and benefits: consulting andmakingmoney at it
Let’s look at one example of features and benefits for a service: an eight-hour training
programme on Consulting and Making Money At It.
Case study: Frank
Frank offers a range of services, but he is particularly focusing on the Support Centre
Review of Operational Processes he performs. As you can see from the list below, this one
service provides comprehensive tangible and intangible benefits to a potential customer and
can be linked easily to business results. Customer satisfaction normally links to greater
loyalty and customer retention.
Feature Which means that
Who cares?
So what?
Benefit Ultimate benefit
Call flow and
handling analysis
Which means that Improve
productivity in call
flow
Higher customer
satisfaction
Problem handling
and resolution
Which means that Quicker problem
resolution time
Internal and
external customer
service level
agreements
Which means that Increased
efficiency
Complete process
flow analysis
Which means that Improved process
flow
Complete
measurement and
reporting
Which ,means that Enables continuous
improvement and
proactive
service
People: staff skill
analysis and
recommendations
Which means that Greater employee
retention
Tools and
technologies
assessment and
improvement
recommendations
Which means that Reduced cost of
solving problems
Increased
contribution
margin }
Frank’s services: review of operational e¡ectiveness
Exercise 5.4 De¢ning your service, features and bene¢ts
Thinking about the type of consulting you wish to undertake and the market for your
services, answer the questions below to help you define your service offerings:
  What are the key services you have been planning to offer to your clients?
  What are the specific components of these service offerings (see Frank’s case study
for more examples)?
  What business results could these services contribute to?
92 / Be a Successful Consultant
Feature Which means that
Who cares?
So what?’
Benefit Ultimate benefit
Which means that
Which means that
Which means that
Which means that
Marketing Your Business / 93
  How did you measure success when you were offering these services within an
organization?
  Now try to complete the table below.
Features and benefits: your services
Coaching point
Writing features and bene¢ts is not easy for several reasons.
1. As you are getting started, you may not be clear about the speci¢c services that you are
o¡ering. Still, if you are not clear, probably the customer isn’t either!
2. Often it is easier to de¢ne features and bene¢ts whenwe have a speci¢c customer in
mind ^ this can help to crystallize how they will bene¢t from the services.
3. The process of di¡erentiating between features and bene¢ts itself is not easy.
Despite these challenges, try to do your best with the exercise: it will help you clarify
your thought processes and it will prevent you fromhaving your ¢rst piece ofmarketing
material focus onlyon features!
Foul!
One of the biggestmistakes you can make as a consultant is to deluge the client in information
about your service features without mentioning their bene¢ts. If you talk about features for
too long, you will be able to see their facial expression show ‘Who cares? Sowhat?’, but they
are probably too polite to say this out loud! Sometimes you need to talk only about bene¢ts.
Deciding your promotional plan: the second ‘P’
You are every bit as much of a brand as Nike, Coke, Pepsi andThe Body Shop.
Tom Peters
Once you have identified your potential clients and clarified your marketing plan, you need
to determine the most appropriate promotional strategies for building your brand and
acquiring clients. All too often, consultants randomly select marketing tools. They might
hand out brochures, give speeches and make personal calls. However these consultants
often can’t explain why they selected these tools over others. They have not targeted their
clients nor defined their message adequately.
T|me out!
Your promotional plan should include some or all of the following:
  advertising
  public relations
  marketing communications
  giving speeches
  trade shows and exhibitions
  web page
  newsletters andmailings.
The purpose of the promotional strategies is to create leads for, and awareness of, your
consulting business. As you can see in the funnel shown in Chapter 6, promotional activity
helps to raise awareness and create interest, but does not confirm a need. Only when your
business is established will promotional activities directly produce revenue. Remember not to
use undertaking promotional strategies as an excuse for not calling or meeting with clients!
Promotion is necessary therefore to:
  begin the process of obtaining new clients
  raise interest in your product or service
  increase awareness of your business
  establish or modify your image
94 / Be a Successful Consultant
Web
pages
Newsletters
and
mailings
Trade
shows
and
exhibitions
Advertising
Speeches
Public
relations
Marketing
c
ommunications
Promotional
Activities
Fig. 5.1 Promotional activities.
Marketing Your Business / 95
  educate the public through your efforts
  attract new employees
  provide a public service.
Once you identify your potential clients and clarify your marketing plan, you need to
determine the most appropriate promotional strategies for raising awareness and interest
from potential clients. Let’s review ideas and strategies within each of the key categories.
Advertising
Advertising is used to raise awareness and promote interest in a product or service.
Advertising results are hard to quantify, and the advertising needs to be repeated at set
intervals to obtain any benefits. When starting your consulting business, if advertising is
used at all, it needs to be extremely selective and focused on the particular market or
industry segment where your consulting provides value. Depending on your functional
expertise, you may want to consider the following possibilities:
  Yellow Pages
  local newspapers
  trade directory
  conference publications
  exhibition catalogues
  local association newsletters.
Advertising
Advantages Disadvantages
  begins to build a market awareness   can be expensive
  can often stimulate interest   for a service, is unlikely to create a need
to buy
Foul!
Remember, one advertisement in a publication is not going to succeed in raising awareness.
Instead consider placing multiple advertisements (for instance in a trade journal every month
for three months) or in a publication that has a long shelf life so that it may be referred to on
more than one occasion.
Public relations
Public relations are often viewed as unpaid advertising: it means that your business gains
exposure in trade publications without a monetary payment from you, and as a result
carries more credibility.
T|me out!
Public relations includes publishing articles and books, submitting articles, being quoted in
the business press, undertaking a formal public relations campaign such as issuing press
releases, targeting speci¢c journalists, and obtaining local radio orTVexposure.
Published articles and books can establish and enhance both your image and your
reputation, particularly if you have a specific story to tell within your area of expertise.
There are more than 7,000 trade publications in the USA, most of which actively seek
material. Again you should write for journals whose readers can use your services. Be aware
however that writing is very time-consuming and it is hard to guarantee or quantify results.
PR
Advantages Disadvantages
  ‘unpaid advertising’   writing is very time-consuming
  more credibility than ‘paid advertising’   no guaranteed results
  greater market awareness.   great strategy to avoid talking to ‘real people’
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Marketing Your Business / 97
Coaching point
If you choose to undertake a PR campaign, you may consider using a specialist PR agency to
support you. If you do, make sure you research their background and success, and be realistic
about what you expect them to achieve. So much of PR involves being in the right place at the
right time.
Marketing communications
Marketing communications encompasses brochures, business cards and cover letters.
Brochures
With the availability of desktop publishing, it has become easier to avoid the high costs of
producing brochures. In the early stages of consulting, a professionally produced summary
of qualifications in the form of a c.v. is adequate. Clients expect brochures but most often
as a back-up device.
Foul!
Remember, people buy people ^ notpaper! Make sure you don’t spend time creating a
brochure as an excuse for not talking to potential clients.
Coaching point
Make sure your brochure lists bene¢tsas well as features.
Initially you can use simple data sheets including:
  introductory text
  overview of service
  business results expected
  objectives
  biography.
Business cards
Business cards are an essential part of building your business’s corporate identity.
However they are a tool best used face-to-face, so do not use creating a business card as an
excuse for not talking to prospective customers. Use of business cards varies from culture
to culture, so make sure you familiarize yourself with local customs when you are
travelling to a new country.
Coaching point
There are resources on the web that provide a limited number of free business cards in
exchange for advertising their services on the back of the card: see the appendix for more
information. Consider including the following on your business card: your name, address,
phone number, mobile number, fax number, e-mail address, web site (if you have one), and if
possible some type of visual logo and statement that re£ects your business.
Cover letters
Cover letters support your brochure and/or proposal when marketing your services. They
need to be personally written for each client, addressing specific issues regarding that
client’s needs and the way you can meet those needs. (Proposals will be discussed in detail
in the next chapter.)
Marketing communications
Advantages Disadvantages
  necessary for client contact   difficult to create providing a ‘one size fits
  an important tool in creating and all ’ description of services
communicating your image   time-consuming to create
Giving free speeches
Speeches are frequently used to familiarize clients with consultants’ capabilities. Of course
your topic must be timely and your presentation professional.
98 / Be a Successful Consultant
Marketing Your Business / 99
Free speeches
Advantages Disadvantages
  gives you credibility within a specific   time-consuming – remember, for one
subject area hour’s presentation, it takes
  allows you to personally demonstrate eight hours of preparation
your verbal capability   free speeches may generate many
more free speeches!
  giving free speeches places your product
in the ‘free’ category.
Coaching point
If you decide to conduct free speeches, make sure you research these opportunities to ensure
your target audience will be attending. There’s nothing worse then presenting the right
content to the wrong people!
In addition, be clear about the outcome you are expecting from the speech. Do you want to
generate leads or is this speech a way of establishing credibility within a speci¢c ¢eld?
Either is possible, but being clear about results can reduce disappointments.
Foul!
Often consultants think they would like to do keynote speeches ^ very little time and lots of
money! However, providing these types of speeches is very competitive (normally requiring a
successful book) and you may have to invest in developing professional video tapes of previous
speeches to supply to prospective clients. Not quite the easy money that it looks!
Trade shows and exhibitions
In the early stages of your business, trade shows can appear to be an expensive investment.
However it is always possible to attend trade shows:
  as a delegate in a professional development activity
  to build a network
  to conduct market research
  to identify possible strategic alliances
  to raise awareness by advertising in trade show guides
  to get information on competition.
Coaching point
Attending trade shows can be a very cost e¡ectivewayof killing several birdswith one stone!
Web pages
As Internet use continues to grow, web-based marketing activities will become more
critical to new business development. According to Microsoft, approximately 60% of the
small businesses that have access to email currently have their own web site. Some
organizations have eliminated conventional marketing channels to replace them with webbased
sales and distribution. Other organizations use web-based marketing to supplement
their marketing efforts.
Web sites
Advantages Disadvantages
  inexpensive promotional channel   no personal recommendation – you
  a wide range of audiences have will have to meet with any prospective
access to it organization
  geographic boundaries are eliminated   the web has millions of sites so your
  easy and quick to put together and product/service could get lost
change   many unqualified leads could get
  requires minimal technical expertise time-consuming
  a way of quickly and easily providing   it is better used as a support to existing
information to people who inquire customers and prospects than to generate
business
Coaching point
  Wait to set up your web site until you are somewhat clear on the products and services
youwill be o¡ering ^ if you are not clear, theweb site certainly will not be either!
  Setting up aweb site does not require an extensive capital outlay ^ there are many
independent consultants out there who can help to create a site.
100 / Be a Successful Consultant
Marketing Your Business / 101
  Try to make sure thewebsite is updated at least once a year to keep it fresh and current.
  Spend some time‘sur¢ng theweb’and make notes on what you like about sites andwhat
annoys you.
Newsletters andmailings
If you have unique information to share, or wish to keep in contact with those on your
database when you are busy, newsletters are an effective communication tool. In addition,
if you index your database you can then mail articles you read on specific topics to specific
people. For instance, if some of your customers are interested in customer service, you
could mail them an interesting customer service article you have read with a brief note
attached to it.
Newsletters and mailings
Advantages Disadvantages
  cost-effective way of keeping   they take time to create
contact with your database   there is no ‘real reason’ to do,
  excellent ‘soft’ sales tool – therefore this activity often
reminds customers of you drops off the bottom of the ‘radar’
without asking for anything
  great way of keeping the
database current – you will know
if people have moved because
mailshots are returned
Coaching point
Newsletters andmailing can include such items as Christmas cards, articles, sending current
business updates and upcoming events. Increasingly these newsletters are being sent
electronically, resulting in cost savings and speedier access. Remember the disadvantage of
this medium ^ many people do not download attachments and if the update is in the email, it’s
hard to make the content look attractive.
Case study: Joe initiates his promotional activities
Using the web, Joe has conducted market research into other consultants who provide
services, and into the market size. Based on the projected growth of his market and the
increasing pressure to reduce time to market, he believes his business will be viable. He
uses email to initiate contacts with the people he finds on the web and is planning to
establish strategic partnerships with local marketing companies as an additional resource if
they are overloaded or do not have his specific expertise. He has created his own web page
to demonstrate his capabilities. Joe has linked his web page to other product marketing
web sites to facilitate prospects ‘finding him’. He is investigating costs for advertising in
local and national magazines, although he thinks that this could prove to be too expensive.
He is going to attend a product marketing conference and is considering placing an
advertisement in the conference publication. In addition, he has bought an email distribution
list and he plans to email an attachment describing his services. Joe has created an email
list of friends and colleagues and plans to send them the attachment describing his services.
Exercise 5.5 Deciding your promotional activities
Thinking about the type of consulting you wish to undertake and the market for your
services, answer the questions opposite to help you prioritize your promotional activities.
Coaching point
It can be tempting to undertake lots of promotional activities in quick succession. Bear in
mind that many of these techniques are time-consuming, so in order to be able to evaluate
the success of each, you may want to introduce each in a more structuredway.
Selecting distribution channels: the third ‘P’
As a consultant there are more limited distribution channels: building your network,
performing sub-contract work and establishing strategic partnerships.
102 / Be a Successful Consultant
Promotional
activities
Questions Actions
Advertising What specific trade publications do you read? Refer
to?
How long is the ‘shelf life’ of each advertisement?
What figures can the publications provide on their
readership? Response rates?
Press relations What journalists do you know?
What contacts might you be able to leverage in the
press?
What is a unique story that you could tell?
What subject material would help you in establishing
your credibility?
Marketing
communications
What is the minimum written documentation you
require?
What resources could you use to help you in graphic
layout?
What is the key message that you wish to include on
all documents?
Free speeches What target audiences would it be worth presenting
to?
What would you want to achieve from giving
speeches?
Is there another way you could achieve the same
goal?
What would be a worthwhile subject to present?
Trade shows and
exhibitions
What are the major exhibitions for your market
segment?
What speakers are presenting at each? What are the
themes?
What would you want to achieve from each show?
What planning can you do to ensure you capitalize
on the time there?
Web site What is the key information that you would like to
include on your web site?
Who do you know who could help you create your
web site?
Are there any other ways you can use your web site:
questionnaires, quizzes, interactive exercises,
checklists, etc which would increase the functionality
of your web site?
What do you want to achieve from establishing a web
site?
Newsletters and
mailings
What types of news, information, and articles could
you communicate to your database?
What would be the best medium for your newsletter –
paper? Electronic? Both?
How can you increase the possibility of a response?
(Reply button on email; tear off slip in hard copy,
etc)
How can you gather other information to distribute
to your database?
Marketing Your Business / 103
The key to any personal branding is word-of-mouth marketing . . . so the big trick to building your
brand is to ¢nd ways to nurture your network of colleagues.
Tom Peters
Your network is your prime distribution strategy. Referrals by past or present clients are
the most commonly used means of obtaining new business. A survey made by the Institute
of Management Consultants suggests that repeat business constitutes 70% of all business
while referrals make up 15%. Networking is very important for marketing yourself,
particularly in the early stages. Here are a few guidelines for establishing and formalizing
your network:
  build the network
  consolidate the network onto a database.
Build the Network
T|me out!
Your network should number between 200 and 400 people. It will be a dynamic, constantly
changing promotional tool that you can expect to turn over approximately 25% (and up to
50%) per annum.
Although this sounds like a large number of people, you create a network by identifying all
the people you know (your primary contacts) as well as your secondary contacts, (those
people you have been referred to).
Your network comes from:
  friends
  family
  colleagues, past and present
  university, alumni associations
  trade organizations
  neighbours
  the pub
  sports clubs
104 / Be a Successful Consultant
Marketing Your Business / 105
  people you meet when travelling
  prospects from presentations
  contacts from exhibitions and conferences
  vendors/suppliers from previous jobs.
Coaching point
The best criteria to consider are:
  you personally know the person
  you respect the person
  the people on the list would probably like to hear fromyou
  you ensure that there is a mutual exchange of bene¢ts/information
  the person on your network would remember you i.e. that you probably have met them
more than once.
Foul!
Make sure you are not acting like the ‘networking barracuda’ who appears to always have
something to sell and whom people avoid like the plague!
It is impossible to talk to 200 people often, so you might want to use one or more of the
following to stay in touch:
  newsletter
  email
  Christmas card/letter.
Consolidate the network onto an electronic database
The database ideally should have an individual’s name, company name, job title, phone
number, fax number, email address, and some sort of contact information. It is better to
record your network on some type of database/sales management tool such as ACT,
Outlook, etc, not on a Rolodex or business cards because:
  this provides easy access for mailing and newsletters
  it is centrally available
  it is convenient to update
  it is possible to sort the database by category.
T|me out!
Try classifying your network into the following categories:
General Contacts: the world at large.
Suspects: suspects are pre-quali¢ed in someway.They probably won’t give you business, but
know someone who might. They are in£uencers and should compose about 25% of your
network.
Prospects: these are peoplewith a current de¢ned need.
Clients: these are people for whom you have done work during the past year. There should be
about ten to 20 names on this list.
Key clients: the two to ¢ve people you are currently doing work for. This makes up the largest
part of your current revenue.
Interest in a speci¢c area: you may also want to sort your database by your contact ’s
prospective interests in your service, for instance teams and consulting.
In the next chapter we will review how this database can be used proactively in your
business development process.
Case study:Marie
One of Marie’s marketing goals is to establish a database of over 200 names on Outlook.
She has already established over 100 names on her database through internal clients she
worked with as Director of Training, a few people from the training association she is a
member of, vendors who supplied her when she was Director of Training, contacts from her
previous consulting experience, other trainers and friends who are active working
professionals.
Exercise 5.6 Building your network
Think about people you would like to include in your network:
106 / Be a Successful Consultant
Marketing Your Business / 107
  Whose opinion do you respect?
  Who do you think would have good ideas for you?
  Look at the different categories outlined earlier: friends, family, etc. List all the
people you would like to maintain contact with in each group.
  Who are ‘influencers/thought leaders’ in their field?
  Look at your Christmas card list – who should be in your database also?
Take a break and then return to the list and see if you can add more names.
What automated system will you use to track your database and why?
Coaching point
  Most people initially believe that they do not knowenough people to populate a database
and yet when they take the time to stop and think about the people they know, they have
no trouble building the database to 200 people.
Pricing your product: the fourth ‘P’
This will be discussed in detail in Chapter 7.
Creating a marketing schedule
As a consultant, it is important to plan your marketing strategy. Often time taken in this
area directly detracts from time spent in the most critical part of the consulting process:
actually talking to and influencing clients. There are many prospective consultants who
have great brochures and no customers!
Marketing Week one Week two Week three Week four
Market
research
Setting market
objectives
Deciding market
segments
Defining your
product
Deciding
promotional
activities
Building your
network
Exercise 5.7 Creating your monthly marketing plan
  When you integrate all the marketing activities onto one plan, make sure you are
realistic about time commitments in each area.
Coaching point
If you know who, why, what and how you plan tomarket, then you must only decidewhen.
Your timing should consider three factors:
  When the client is most receptive.
  When the client is least likely to receive competitors’messages.
  When your resources will permit you to both market and to meet the demand created by
marketing.
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Marketing Your Business / 109
Checklist
Have you:
1. Conducted initial market research into your area of expertise?
2. Established three clear marketing goals?
3. Defined clearly the business needs your product and service address?
4. Identified three competitors and defined how you differ from them?
5. Analysed market segments and defined three markets for your business service?
6. Prioritized your promotional activity and established a promotional plan for the next
three months?
7. Created a list of 200 people?
8. Bought a database program to track your database activities?
Scorecard
Before leaving this chapter, ask yourself the following questions:
  In terms of yourmarketing plan,what do you consider to be the market for your product or
service? Howcomfortable are you establishingmarketing goals and what segments do
youwish to concentrate on initially?
  What promotional strategies are best for your business? What are the personal
challenges you face in de¢ning and deciding to use these strategies? What time
commitment will you allocate to your promotional e¡orts?
  What size network will you need to be able to facilitate your business growth? What are
your personal reservations about contacting people you know for advice and how will you
address these concerns? How will you categorize your database and ensure you are
focusing on those peoplewhowill help to grow your business, not just those you like?
CHAPTER SIX
Selling your Service
Game plan
The most challenging part of consulting is finding clients! Marketing looks at the big
picture of informing the public of your services. Selling is a specific marketing activity that
results in a consulting assignment. The difference between successful and unsuccessful
consultants is usually their ability to sell.
The purpose of this chapter is to help you to:
  Overcome your resistance to selling.
  Understand the sales process to maximize activity at each stage.
  Establish sales objectives to guide your activity.
  Improve your sales effectiveness using email, on the telephone and face-to-face.
  Structure your assignments using proposals and contracts to ensure client
satisfaction.
Overcoming your fear of selling
Nothing happens until someone sells something.
Source Unknown
Foul!
Whenwe hear the word SELL, often the ¢rst thing that comes tomind is:
  used car salesmen!
  pushy tactics!
110
Selling your Service / 111
  telephone marketing calls in the evening over dinner!
  unsolicited products or services.
T|me out!
SELL = HELP
Instead of thinking about sellingto yourcustomers, change twoletters S and L and think about
helpingthem instead.When you provide a service to clients, you will be helping them meet a
business need, solve a problem or achieve a business goal. If you cannot help them, then don’t
sell to them!
Selling at its best is a mutually satisfying interaction in which both sides win. On the one
hand, the client’s needs are met. On the other hand, the consultant generates income,
engages in his or her profession, and reaps personal rewards for helping the client. In
addition, selling ourselves can be simpler than selling a product – we know what we can do.
But it can also be more difficult because a refusal can be viewed as a personal rejection.
Exercise 6.1 What are your fears about selling?
Thinking about your consulting business, answer the following questions:
  How do you feel about the need to sell?
  What are your biggest challenges you face in selling to clients?
  How could you overcome these challenges?
  What are your biggest strengths in selling to clients?
  How could you capitalize on these strengths?
Number
of people
200–400
40–50
5–10
2–3
5–10
Form of
contact
Mailings and
newsletters
Phone calls
and meetings
Meetings, phone
calls/mail
Meetings/phone
calls/mail
3 months
to 10 years
Network
Suspects
Prospects
Proposals
Clients
Work
Fig. 6.1 The sales process. The steps in this process are outlined on the next page.
Coaching point
To overcome a fear of selling, follow three steps:
1. Realize why selling is in your best interest.
2. Understand the emotional response behind your fears.
3. Learn the skills that enable you to sell successfully.
Case study:Marie
Marie learnt when she was working at the training company that selling, for the most part,
did not involve the ‘dreaded cold calling ’! Instead, she knew that if she maintained her
database of contacts and used a gentler networking approach, over time she would have as
much business as she needed.
Understanding the sales process
In the modern world of business, it is useless to be a creative original thinker unless you can also
sell what you create. Management cannot be expected to recognize a good idea unless it is
presented to them by a good salesman.
DavidM. Ogilvy
In order to be able to sell successfully, it is important to understand the stages in the sales
process as listed below:
112 / Be a Successful Consultant
Category Definition Maintaining contact
Your
network
As we discussed in Chapter 5, your network is the
key building block for your business. From this base
of 200–400 people, you will probably generate 95%
of your new business opportunities. However if you
tried to contact this network personally, you would
become submerged in email, returning phone calls
and meeting people, and would be unable to focus
on the key individuals who can help you grow your
business.
To ensure your database is
kept current and you don’t
lose touch with people, the
following can be used:
  newsletter
  mailing
  cards
  bulk emails.
Suspects These individuals do not have a defined need as yet,
but they are the contacts from whom future business
is likely to arise. Suspects normally number about
20-25% of your database of approximately 40–50
people. Suspects can fit into the following categories:
  they are pre-qualified in some way
  they may be influencers in the industry
  they may be other consultants who you might use
for work and might also require your services
  they are decision-makers in their area
  they are brokers in the industry you are in
  they are leading edge thinkers
  they possess some type of unique content
knowledge.
With suspects you wish to
develop the relationship in
a more personal way
using:
  phone
  personal emails
  limited face-to-face
meetings.
Prospects Prospective leads have the ability to buy, the right to
buy and the need to buy, often within a short time
period. Your sales funnel at any one time will have
between five and ten prospects depending on the size
and maturity of your business. Your prospects come
from two sources: your marketing efforts and your
personal contact system (suspects and network).
As people tend to buy
people, most of the
interaction with prospects
is conducted in:
  phone calls
  face-to-face meetings,
There may be two to three
meetings as the prospect’s
needs are refined and the
sales process continues.
Proposals Proposals are normally the final part of the sales
process where you document the information and
approach you have discussed with the prospect. At
any one time, you will probably have two to three
proposals outstanding.
Proposals are sent by:
  email
  fax
  hard copy.
Clients If you are successful in clearly defining the client
requirements, often the prospect will become a
client. At any one time, a consulting business
probably needs between five to ten clients. If the
business only has one client, then it may be exposed
if there is a sudden change in client’s strategy.
Regular contact is
inherent in conducting the
project.
Selling your Service / 113
Case study: Frank’s funnel in action
Frank has established and prioritized his database, and has sent a general email flyer to his
entire network providing a brief overview of his new venture and contact information. He
identified ten key decision-makers for his suspect list. He believes that for his sort of
services, long-term contract work, he needed only two to three prospects at any point in
time. He was concerned that because each assignment could last several months, if he
overloaded his sales funnel he might not be able to cope with the demand. He sent each of
these people an email note outlining what he was planning to do, and then followed up a
week later with the phone calls. From these ten contacts, he was able to talk to five people,
after two or three call-backs, which resulted in a meeting with a server company. This lead
came from the current Vice-President who used to be his boss at a previous organization. He
is planning to meet them next week, and while they seemed to want only a short-term needs
assessment project, he feels fairly confident that he will be able to take on this short-term
project and build more work from it. In addition he has called several people with whom he
used to work directly. He has also scheduled two meetings with other consultants in the
industry, to start to build a collaborative network and to find out more about how they
market and sell their services.
Exercise 6.2 Understanding your sales process
Thinking about your consulting business, draw a funnel and then fill in your funnel using
the table opposite.
Coaching point
  If this process isworking e¡ectively the time taken to close business, i.e. move down the
funnel, may be as little as three months. It could also take years!
  If you talk to someone just as they identify a need it could be even quicker. And today the
sales cycle is de¢nitely shortening as the rate of change in theworld increases.
  However, there is normally a time delay between when you originally make contact and
when you begin to ¢nd solid prospects.
  Don’t get discouraged if you are making all the right e¡orts but haven’t found a client yet.
That is all part of themystery that is sales!
114 / Be a Successful Consultant
Category Questions to answer Maintaining contact
Your network How large a network do you think you have?
How large a network do you think you need?
How could you build this network further?
How will you initially contact
your network?
What will you say?
How often do you plan to
contact them in your first
year?
Suspects How many suspects do you need for your type
of business?
How could you build your list of suspects?
How will you contact your list
of suspects?
Prospects How many prospects do you need for your type
of business?
How could you build your list of prospects?
How will you contact your
prospects?
Proposals How many proposals do you need for your type
of business?
How could you cover a project if you became
overloaded?
How will you follow up and
track your proposals?
Clients How many clients do you need for your type of
business?
How could you ensure you generate more
business from existing clients?
How will you maintain
contact with your clients?
T|me out!
Remember:
  It can take ¢ve calls and numerous emails to secure a meeting.
  It can take two to three meetings before you submit a proposal.
  It can take days/weeks and months for clients tomake a decision.
  Even if they decide to use you and you do thework, it could be 60 days after that before you
receive any income!
Establishing sales objectives
Flaming enthusiasm, backed up by horse sense and persistence, is the quality that most
frequently makes for success.
Dale Carnegie
Selling your Service / 115
Category Objectives and things to consider.
Your network Size of network and frequency of contact.
Suspects Number of suspects and targets for frequency of contact.
Prospects Number of prospects and targets for frequency of contact.
Proposals Number of proposals per month.
Clients Number of clients per year, average reorder value, number of
new clients per year.
Other Number of meetings per week.
Without a selling orientation you can easily overlook activities necessary for the
continuation of your consulting practice. By establishing realistic yet challenging
objectives for each part of the sales process, you can prevent the nightmare of running
out of consulting projects and avoid the ‘feast or famine’ syndrome.
Remember! These goals need to meet ‘SMART’ criteria as outlined in Chapter 4.
S – specific
M – measurable
A – aligned
R – results oriented
T – time-based.
Exercise 6.3 Establishing sales objectives
Thinking about your consulting business, create objectives using the table below:
116 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Coaching point
The more speci¢c you are the greater are the chances of success.
Evaluating sales communication channels
Establishing positive sales communication with your clients represents a complex
combination of means and method.
  Means includes evaluating and using communication channels effectively.
  Method includes understanding differences and applying a range of simple and
complex interpersonal skills to adapt to differing client needs.
Let’s look at communication channels first.
T|me out!
There are numerous communication channels available to use through which to interact with
clients including:
  email
  voicemail
  telephone
  informal co¡ee/lunch meetings
  formal meetings
  presentations.
Increasingly, more and more of our communication takes place via email. While email is a
great communication channel, it is always important to use the right medium for the
message.
Foul!
Remember the concept of a‘quick email’ is an oxymoron!
Most emails will take approximately ¢veminutes towrite, spell-check and send. And for
anyone who disputes this fact, think about the number ofemails you have received, which have
obviously only taken one minute to write, that you have no idea what the person is talking
about!
Take a look at the list below:
Email is great for. . . Email is not so good for. . .
  Multiple distribution of the same   Initiating relationships
information   Communicating about feelings
  Giving instructions   An issue that needs real-time interaction
  Creating a paper trail in commitments   Urgent issues
  Communicating specific facts and data   Obtaining a buying decision
  Summarizing follow-up commitments
  Communicating with lots of people
at the same time
  Confirming a buying decision
Real time interaction is great for. . . Real time interaction is not so good for. . .
  Initiating relationships   Dissemination of facts and data
  Communicating about feelings (with no discussion)
  Building trust   Giving instructions
  Identifying needs   Tracking specific facts and data
  Presenting solutions
  Dealing with issues that need
person-to-person interaction
  Urgent issues
  Closing a sale
Exercise 6.4 Which communication channel do you prefer to use?
Thinking about the way you tend to interact with clients and others, answer the following
questions:
  How much of your communication is via email?
118 / Be a Successful Consultant
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  How do you feel about using the phone?
  How much of your interaction is face to face?
  To what extent are you using your real-time interaction (phone and meetings) on
suspects, prospects and clients?
  How can you make sure you are using the right medium for the message?
Case study: Joe
Joe really enjoys person-to-person interaction. In fact, he would prefer to be talking to
someone than working alone, writing or planning. When Joe analysed his use of
communication channels using the exercise above, he discovered that he was spending too
much time interacting with his network, which although fun, was not allowing him sufficient
time for planning and research. He started to use email a little more, sending interesting
articles and information to his network, and concentrated his face-to-face time on new
suspects and potential prospects with whom he wanted to build rapport.
Preparing your 30-second commercial
It is important, whether you will be meeting people in person or on the phone, to prepare
your 30-second commercial so that when someone asks you, ‘What do you do?’ you don’t
say ‘Well, duh, I am just getting started, and uh. . . !’
A simple model for preparing your 30-second commercial is to briefly review four
specific sections. Any longer than that time and people will not listen.
T|me out!
In your commercial include:
1. Your personal background and/or your connection to the person.
2. Your educational background, particularly if this will enhance your credibility.
3. Your business background: a fewsummary statements providing your key areas of
expertise and unique selling proposition.
4. The bridge connecting what you are doing as a consultant and what help or advice you are
looking for from them.
Case study:Marie
Personal: Hi. My name is . . . and we met at the . . . meeting last week where you asked me to
follow up with you this week.
Educational background: I have a Masters in Organizational Development from . . .
Business background: As you know, I am a training consultant with over 20 years of
experience in the training and organizational development industry. For the past four years I
have been running my own business, and my expertise includes assessing training needs,
developing and delivering training solutions, and training internal trainers. My uniqueness
is that I am a businessperson first and a trainer second, which means that any training
solutions I offer are practical and business-results focused.
Bridge: And the reason I am calling today is. . .
Exercise 6.5 Preparing your 30-second commercial
  Take a moment now and create your 30-second commercial. For this exercise, think
about a specific upcoming meeting/call so that you can customize the introduction
to this specific audience.
Personal: _
Educational background: _
Business background :_
_ _
Bridge:_
Outcome from this meeting/discussion: _
  Now find someone with whom you can try out your 30-second commercial. Ask
them particularly to refine the information you have included in education and
business background.
120 / Be a Successful Consultant
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  Make any further changes below.
Personal: _
Educational background: _
Business background: _
_ _
Bridge:_
Outcome from this meeting/discussion_
_
Coaching point
Initially, it can be very di⁄cult to condense the essence of your services into 30 seconds.The
bene¢t of this process is that it helps you to more clearly articulate what it is you do so that
anyone can understand it.The more people who understand it, the more can help you sell it! A
great mistake that many consultants make is to ‘blind their prospects with science!’so they
have no ideawhat you do or more importantly how you could aid them in their business!
Using the telephone in selling
He conquers who endures.
Persius
Selling, developing and delivering a service such as consulting differs considerably from
selling a product like an automobile. These differences pose a special challenge to
consultants. How do you make relatively invisible services seem real and useful to
prospective clients? This is achieved by making sure the services are understood, and by
somehow making them more tangible by talking to and meeting with suspects and
prospects.
General guidelines for selling on the telephone
Foul!
Remember, selling by telephone is not the same as‘cold calling’. It involves calling people from
your network, suspect and prospect list to obtain ideas and information. If you are e¡ective
with contacting people you know, youwill never need to make a‘cold call’.
Telephone marketing
Advantages Disadvantages
  Saves time: you can cover many people   No face-to-face contact: you are not able
in a short time. It is an incredibly time- to see body language cues and therefore
effective tool, particularly in the early it can be harder to build rapport.
stages of business development.   Difficulty in contact: it is becoming
  Saves money: costs less than travelling increasingly difficult to talk to ‘live’
to face-to-face meetings. people, instead of message machines.
Telephone marketing requires a concentrated, focused environment, plus rapid evaluation
and decision-making. But the benefits can be considerable in terms of increased business.
T|me out!
General guidelines on telephone marketing
  ‘Chunk’ your time: plan for at least two hours of telephone calls three times aweek in the
set-up stages of your business and at least two one-hour sessions per week when your
business is established.
  Make sure you utilize your body clock e¡ectively.Telephone marketing is hard work, so
make sure if you are a‘lark’ (best in the morning) that you make your phone calls then. If
you are an ‘owl’ (best in the afternoon and evening), make your phone calls then.
  If you are organized, you can make 30-45 calls in a two-to-three hour time frame.
  Most of the time (approximately 80%) youwill be leaving messages on voicemails for the
other person.Make sure you leave a speci¢c message including your name and number,
the reason you called and a good time to call back.
  If you are leaving a message on a voicemail, state your name and number at the beginning
of the call, and then repeat it again at the end.
  Don’t rushwhen you repeat your phone number!
122 / Be a Successful Consultant
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  Even if you have known the person for a long time, always leave your number.You never
knowif they have lost their organizer, or if their system has crashed!
  Make at least three to¢ve phone callswithout giving up. Researchwas conductedwith a
sales force.Womenwere more successful than the men in this study because they made
more calls than the men, and manyof the decisions to buy took place on the ¢fth call.
Oftenwe take it personally when people do not call us back. Realistically, they are busy,
not ignoring us!
  If the person still does not return your call, you could send them an emailwith some
information and wait for them to contact you.
  Call back every three to ¢ve days. On average people return the call, if they are going to,within two to three days.
  The ideal use of the telephone in marketing your business would be to make the initial
call, send information, and then call again after the information has been received and
enough time has passed for the recipient to have read it.
Preparing for a telephone call
As with most work, time spent in preparing and planning can save time when we are
actually making calls. Following is a pre-call planning exercise to help you prepare for
making contact on the phone.
Exercise 6.6 Preparing for a telephone call
  Create a mental picture of the person you are contacting and what you both want to
accomplish as a result of this phone call.
  What do you know about this contact, his/her company and background?
  What is your objective in calling?
  What questions are you going to ask?
  How did you obtain the name of this contact?
  Do you understand every conceivable aspect of your background that might be
relevant?
  What specific questions may this contact ask you, based on your knowledge of him/
her?
  How can you make sure your voice is pleasant and upbeat?
  What were your insights from thinking about the call in this way?
  As a result, how will you approach the call differently?
Coaching point
The more you plan, the more prepared and professional you will appear, and the greater the
chance of building your business.
Case study: Julia
Julia created her 30-second commercial and tried it out by calling friends and leaving
messages with them to obtain feedback on her voice tone, how sincere she sounded and
how clear her message was. She initially sent out an email targeted towards start-up
companies and then she followed this up by making her first 40 telephone calls. She has
been allocating two mornings a week for her telephone marketing efforts. She is using her
Palm Pilot to track whom she calls and the responses she is obtaining. She managed to
speak to five people directly from those calls, the rest she left a comprehensive message
with. Of those five people she managed to talk to directly, every call had a positive outcome.
She received four more names of people who might be interested in her services, and she
scheduled two meetings. One meeting was with a venture capitalist, who might be able to
sub-contract work to her. The other was with a small start-up that might require an HR
assessment. Even with the messages she left, she received call-backs from over 40% of the
individuals she had called. She sent the two people who gave her names a thank you email.
124 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Managing the telephone interaction
Let’s look at the steps in the telephone interaction in a variety of situations for the people
from our case studies: when the person is there and it is a good time, when it is not a good
time and when there is a voicemail.
Foul!
It can be tempting when you get the person you actuallywant to talk to on the phone, tojump in
immediately with your pitch. Don’t!
Always ask ‘Is this a good time?’ You buy yourself ‘Brownie points’and create credibility by so
doing.There is nothing worse than picking up a phone and being on the receiving end of a data
dump!
As you can see, the first step involves being clear about your expectation for the call, plus
being prepared will help you sound confident and organized, which in turn will help to
make your contacts feel comfortable helping you.
Person is there and it is a good time: Frank
Step in the call Person is there: good time
1. Identify purpose for call: To generate a meeting
2. Short introduction Hello: This is . . .We met at the recent Help Desk
Institute meeting and you suggested I call you about
process reengineering (personal information).
3. Ask for permission Is this a good time?
4. Introduce purpose and story I have a Masters Degree in Quality Engineering
(30 seconds, two minutes (Educational).
maximum!) I have spent the last 20 years both in the field and at
corporate headquarters managing and directing
technical support operations, working for such
organizations as Amdahl, Oracle and IBM. The specific
expertise that I bring is that I combine both strategy and
process improvement experience, with a practical
implementation focus (business background).
The reason I am calling today is because we discussed the
process-reengineering project you are undertaking and
thought I might be able to help (bridge/transition).
5. Transition into questions What was the driving force behind your process
engineering?
How far are you into the
process?
What are the results so far?
What is working? Etc.
6. Listen to answers Make notes as required to act as the basis for more
questions. When there is a two-way discussion lasting
approximately three to four minutes, transition.
7. Transition It seems like we might have a fit, in terms of your needs
and the services I could provide.
8. Date for a meeting I will be in your area on . . . . Is there any time that day
that would work for you?
If Frank were calling to try to build his network and/or find advice his bridge would be:
‘If you were in my situation, who would you talk to? What would you do? Who else might
have ideas?’
Person is there and it is not a good time: Joe
Step in the call Person is there: not a good time
1. Identify purpose for call: To ask for advice/information
2. Short introduction with Hello. This is . . . We worked together at Sun, when you
purpose were the VP Marketing and I was the Product Manager
for . . . product. I was calling to see if you could give me
any advice as I am setting up my consulting business
(personal information).
3. Ask for permission Is this a good time?
4. Not a good time When would you like me to try again?
5. Confirm time So I will call you back at. . .
6. Finish call Thank you and I will look forward to catching up
personally then.
7. Call back when promised If there: continue with purpose, story, questions and
summary.
If the person is not there, they now have an informal
obligation to call you back because you made an
appointment and they broke it.
8. Call back three days later if
don’t hear and start again.
126 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Person is not there and you get voicemail: Marie
Step in the call Person is not there: voicemail
1. Identify purpose for call: to obtain names
2. Short introduction Hello. This is . . . Linda suggested I call you regarding
sales training for your organization.
3. Introduce purpose and story I have a Masters Degree in Organizational
(30 seconds – two minutes Development (educational).
maximum!) I recently left . . . organization where I was responsible
for rolling out sales training to over 5,000 associates in a
three month period resulting in a 17% increase in
comparative store sales (business background).
The reason I am calling today is because Linda suggested
that you might need help in training associates at your
stores (bridge/transition).
4. Transition into call back I would be very interested in talking to you about your
current sales training process, to discover in what areas I
might be able to help you.
5. Give availability I will be available tomorrow and Friday.
6. Restate contact information Again, my name is . . . And my phone number is . . . I look
forward to talking personally to you soon.
Coaching point
Be sure to send athank you note if the person has given you good, useful advice or if he/she has
given you a lead.Youwant to be comfortable calling again if necessary.
Exercise 6.7 Evaluating your telephone e¡ectiveness
Complete ten to 20 calls to your network and then answer the following questions to assess
your effectiveness on the phone.
Yes No
& & Were you talking less than 50% of the time in any discussions?
& & Were you 100% focused on the other person during the conversations?
& & Were you trying to put yourself in the customer’s shoes?
& & Did you ask questions? Both open and closed?
& & Did you let the customer finish what they were saying without interrupting?
& & Did you react to the ideas they provided? By repeating or verifying?
& & Did you take notes?
& & Did you review the notes after the discussion?
& & Did you send any follow-up notes/emails?
& & Did you make sure the exchange was two-way?
  If you answered ‘yes’ to more than six questions, you are well on the way to building
your business by using the telephone effectively. If you answered more than six
questions with ‘no’ you may want to brainstorm ideas to improve the flow of
conversation.
  What can you do to improve your telephone effectiveness?
Coaching point
The average pause on the phone is between twoand ten seconds.Managing the silence on the
phone is often the greatest challenge.We may tend to talk and ¢ll the gap when we would
gather more information and build better rapport if we were to allow pausing. So, if in doubt,
be quiet!
As you can see, managing the telephone interaction is critical to optimizing your business
success. However many people feel uncomfortable about contacting others for information
or for ideas. By being clear about your purpose and examining reasons for your
reluctance, you can overcome this obstacle.
Just do it!!
Courtesy of Nike
128 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Managing the sales meeting
Now that we have looked at real-time interaction on the phone, let ’s review some
techniques used to manage the face-to-face sales meeting.
T|me out!
Managing the sales meeting:
S: start the interaction positively
E: engage the client: ask open-ended questions, listen, and paraphrase
L: list features and bene¢ts that relate to the client’s needs
L: leavewith the next step planned.
S: start the interaction positively
Let’s look at these steps in a little more detail.
T|me out!
Remember, when you meet prospects for the ¢rst time, the factors that in£uence your
communication are:
  body language (55%) (includes eye contact, gestures, facial expression, etc)
  theway you say thewords (38%) (includes tone, delivery, enunciation, pausing, ¢ller
words, etc)
  the word choice (7%) (includes vocabulary and word choice),
Step Guidelines
S: Start the interaction   Positively provide a professional greeting: handshake
and eye contact.
  Build rapport by small-talk and mirroring body
language and delivery.
  Establish credibility by talking about the company/
current events.
  Exchange business cards.
  Can last any time from one minute to ten depending on
the client.
  The client will let you know when they are ready to move
on by providing some type of body language cue e.g. they
will pick up a pen, sit forward, or move somehow.
  The need for this stage is larger at the beginning of the
relationship because it takes time to build trust.
Foul!
If you miss the body language clue that the client is ready to move on to the next stage of the
interaction, the prospective clientmay then ask you to describe your services and youwill not
know the speci¢c needs that the client wishes to be addressed.
E: engage the client
The critical point in selling a service is to identify client needs and objectives before you
begin to describe your products or services. Clients will only commit to purchasing services
when they are convinced that the consultant’s support will help them meet their business
objectives. The chances for closing a sale are greater if you actively search out the
customer’s needs. But more importantly, clients will feel more valued if the consultant
takes an active interest in their business.
T|me out!
There are twoways of uncovering client needs: making assumptions, and asking questions.
Making assumptions: can be risky ^ makes an ASS out of UandME.
Asking questions: should be primarily open-ended questions. Open-ended questions cannot
be answered ‘yes’or ‘no’.
E: engage the client Guidelines
Asking open-ended   This part of the sales interaction can last over 20
questions minutes, with many open-ended questions being asked.
  Use phrases such as ‘tell me about, describe and explain’
to act as excellent topic-opener statements to begin a
subject area.
  Use ‘who, what, when, where, why and how’ as openended
questions to probe and gather more information.
  Use closed questions to gather specific data or move to
130 / Be a Successful Consultant
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the next stage of the interaction.
  Think about the client’s current business situation,
overall business goals and specific challenges in the area
where you can provide help.
  Begin with general questions, in terms of business
challenges, and become more specific, focusing on the
areas in which you can provide a service.
  Ask as many questions as you can, until you have
gathered enough information or until the client is ready
to move on to finding out about you and your services.
  At the end of this chapter is a general list of questions
that can be used to gather information about the
business.
Listen actively   Take notes to help you listen.
  Concentrate on the other person and pay attention to
what they are saying and what else might be going on.
  Be patient with the silence of if they do not talk as
quickly as you do!
  Remember the influence in a sales interaction goes to the
listener not the speaker.
  Make sure you listen by observing body language clues –
that blank look is a good indicator that the client has no
idea what you are talking about.
  Don’t rehearse what you will say as the other person is
talking. Make sure you stay focused on the other person.
  Don’t prematurely jump to conclusions – let the person
finish talking and keep listening.
Paraphrasing   Paraphrasing involves repeating back to the client in
your own words, what they have just told you.
  Don’t repeat word for word – that’s parroting and can
be viewed as patronizing.
  Don’t provide your judgment or opinion, just a neutral
restatement of what they said to you.
  Paraphrasing has many benefits, which include:
– validating the client
– checking for understanding between what you heard
and they said
– gives you time to think about the next questions.
When the prospective client’s posture changes, this is the time to begin to describe the
products and services that you can offer that will meet their needs.
Case study: engaging the client ^ questioning is key
Marie was meeting with a client and at the beginning of the meeting the client asked, ‘Do
you do cultural diversity training?’ Marie did not, but she said, ‘That’s an interesting
question, why is this subject important?’ To her surprise, the client began to describe the
environment and the training needs, which encompassed entry level management training
for a supervisory group who mainly originated from Vietnam. By understanding the broader
business context by asking questions, listening and paraphrasing, Marie was able to define
a service that she offered, management training with some emphasis on dealing with
different cultures. The client did not want intense cultural training.
L: list features and benefits that relate to the client’s needs
Step: L Guidelines
List features relating to   Position the services you offer in terms of the features
client needs and benefits you determined in Chapter 5. The benefits
will relate directly to the needs you have identified in the
sales meeting.
Ask for status   If you are not sure where you are in the process and you
observe a change in posture, the best thing you can do is
to ask the client one of the following four questions:
how does that sound?
how does this information look?
what do you think?
how do you feel about this information?
Foul!
This is the step in the sales interaction when the business can be sold or lost. Many
consultants fail to watch the body language clues from the client as they describe their
service’s features and bene¢ts. As a result they continue to talk and walk straight into and
out of the sale. If we miss that critical moment when the client wishes to buy, then we may
not be able to close the sale. Over half of sales are lost because the critical cues from the
customer are missed.
132 / Be a Successful Consultant
Selling your Service / 133
L: leavewith the next step
Often the end of the interaction does not mean the closing of the sale. When selling
services, on average, it takes two to three appointments to close the sale. However, it is
necessary to ensure that when you leave you have the critical next steps identified so that
you do not have to revisit the voicemail endless cycle! The next steps could include:
  a further meeting with other decision makers and influencers
  sending a proposal
  a formal presentation to senior management.
Exercise 6.8 Evaluating your person-to-person e¡ectiveness
  Complete a visit with a prospective client with a colleague. Brief him/her on the
steps you will be trying to adhere to in the sales cycle.
  Make sure you position the additional person in the meeting with the client as a
colleague from your consulting team.
  After the meeting, discuss the following questionnaire with him/her to identify what
went well and what else could have increased the success of the meeting.
Step in the sales meeting Questions
S: start the interaction   How long did this step in the interaction take?
  How well did the consultant greet the client?
  How did the consultant build rapport?
  To what extent did the consultant talk about the client’s
business in the introduction?
  To what extent did the consultant pay attention to the
client’s body language and transition into gathering
information about needs?
E: engage the client   How long did this stage of the interaction last?
  How many open-ended questions did the consultant ask?
  How many closed questions?
  How well did the consultant listen to the client’s needs?
  How did you know that he/she was listening?
  How well, if at all, did the consultant paraphrase the
information gathered?
  What other information could the consultant have
obtained which would have aided in the sales process?
L: list features and benefits   How long did this stage in the interaction last?
  How clear was the consultant about the benefits of his/
her services?
  To what extent were these services linked to client needs?
  How alert was the consultant to changes in posture?
  Did the consultant ask for status: How does that sound?
Look? Feel? What do you think?
  How effectively did the consultant manage any concerns
expressed?
L: leave with the next step   How long did this stage of the interaction last?
planned   To what extent did the consultant confirm next steps?
  What else could the consultant have done to increase the
chances of a sale?
  Based on this discussion, what can you do to improve your sales effectiveness in a
meeting?
Coaching point
The more you can adhere to these steps and get feedback, the greater the chance of building a
successful consulting business. Don’t be afraid to use a coach to guide you in this process.
Adjusting your style to maximize sales
We don’t see things as they are, we see things as we are.
Anais Nin
As we discussed in Chapter 2, each of us may view the world slightly differently based on
our temperament. This becomes increasingly important in the sales process, where clients
134 / Be a Successful Consultant
Area Artisan Guardian Rational Idealist
Subjects Concrete data:
practical and
tangible around
action
Concrete data:
practical and
tangible around
process and results
Abstract data:
around theories
and systems
Abstract data:
around people
and their needs
Structure Tactical and to the
point:
1,2,3 . . . net it out
Linear and
sequential:
1, 1.1, 1.2, 2, 2.1,
2.2, 2.2a, 2.2b
Strategic:
categorized
under headings
Interconnected
around a central
theme
Words Colloquial
language: jargon,
slang, short and to
the point
Similes and stories
Traditional
language: respectful
and considered
Examples from
experience
Precise language:
sophisticated and
elaborate words
Analogies and
metaphors
Global language:
over-exaggeration
of data
Analogies and
metaphors
Delivery Fast-paced Structured Deliberate Flowing and
dramatic
Body
language/
gestures
Clawing with
hands
Finger pointing and
chopping
Pull ideas from
the air
Circles with
hands and open
gestures
Body
language
May appear casual
and unprofessional
May appear
deliberate and
formal
May appear
distant and
preoccupied
May appear
warm and
gushing
Humour Outrageous or
physical
Dry: tongue in
cheek, sarcastic
Cerebral: double
meanings, words
and puns
Use personal
examples and
self-deprecating
jokes
Questioning
style
Filter
information
based on
Questioning on
motive
Questioning to
identify relevant
experience
Questioning to
identify relevant
experience
What is this
person’s experience
and skill set?
Questioning of
theories and
competence
Is person
competent and
knowledgeable?
Questioning to
find what ’s
important to the
person
How does this
person approach
others?
Selling your Service / 135
from differing temperaments will communicate differently and look for different benefits.
Below is a table highlighting the different communication style associated with
each temperament.
The four languages of temperament
Based on these differing styles, here are a few ideas for improving the sales interaction with
each temperament.
Communicating with Artisans
  Use short and more direct communication.
  Remember – less is more.
  Talk about concrete realities.
  Get to the point quickly and keep moving.
  Expect cynicism and stories.
  Adapt to their colloquial language.
  Use tools and hands-on experiences when explaining approaches.
  Talk about impact, end results and variety.
  Remember, they read body language very accurately so watch your body language
cues.
Communicating with Guardians
  Talk about what was done in the past and your prior experience.
  Explain concrete, practical implementation approach.
  Be specific about who is responsible for what in terms of roles and responsibilities.
  Explain steps sequentially, starting at the beginning and using numbering 1,2,3,4,5.
  Be specific about the expected results.
  Expect questions about ‘rules’, ‘what can be done’ and ‘what cannot be done’.
  Focus on efficiencies and process improvements.
  Provide lots of data and background information.
  Give practical examples.
Communicating with Rationals
  Start with the big picture.
  Use precise language when explaining concepts and ideas.
  Make sure of your facts and present theoretical information where possible. Don’t
bluff!
  Expect critical questioning to clarify a point of view.
  Recognize their intellectual competence.
  Talk about your expertise in a specific field.
136 / Be a Successful Consultant
Selling your Service / 137
  Use analogies to make points.
  Attend to the conditional language ‘if this . . . then . . .’.
  Always explain what and why.
Communicating with Idealists
  Talk about the purpose of an approach.
  Be authentic when communicating – they will pick up ‘fake’ conversation.
  Focus on the big picture and conceptual ideas.
  Use metaphors and analogies.
  Talk about the benefits to people of actions: ability to develop potential and the
‘greater good’.
  Don’t provide too much practical detail.
  Listen to their insights on people, which is usually accurate.
  Build an empathetic relationship.
Writing successful proposals
Defeat is not theworst of failures. Not to have tried is the true failure.
George E.Woodberry
Many appointments result in a client’s request for a proposal.
T|me out!
A proposal is usually a document you write for the client that:
  Describes your understanding of the client’s need.
  Paraphrases the key information gathered in the meeting(s) with the client and restates
what the client requested.
  States what you intend to do for the client.
  Indicates what anticipated results and potential bene¢ts the client will gain as a
consequence of the engagement.
  Outlines your approach and quali¢cations.
  Tries to persuade the client to accept your proposal.
Foul!
Don’t get caught by clients who say, without having met you,‘Send me a proposal and thenwe
can discuss it’. This is classic avoidance behaviour fromthe client.
1. You don’t know their needs so how can you send a proposal?
2. Youwill only spend time creating something generic and they will reply ‘This is not what
we are looking for!’
The complexity of the proposal will depend on the size of the project and type of
consulting that you do. Remember that the proposal needs to include critical information,
but should not be over cumbersome.
Below are listed some sample areas:
Item Explanation
Table of contents Only for long, complex proposals
Background information Include a summary of the background information that you
have gathered in the meetings. Will normally include detail
about the company, the current business environment,
current challenges and key people involved.
Purpose Purpose of the proposed engagement.
Objectives A description of the key outcomes that you expect from the
consulting assignment. It may also include details on critical
deliverables.
Approach A description of the critical steps and methodologies that
will be used in the consulting assignment, the scope of the
project and a plan.
Content Key areas in which service will be provided.
Pricing summary Compensation amount expected for the critical steps: see
Chapter 7 for more information about rates. This will also
include payment terms and cancellation rates.
Progress checks For longer-term projects, this will include information
about interim progress reports, deliverables and critical
milestones in the project.
Qualifications If this is the first time you have worked with the client you
may need to include a summary of qualifications, client list
and possible references.
Resources Again, if this is a large contract, include a definition of other
consultants to be used.
Responsibilities A listing of your responsibilities and the clients’.
138 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Coaching points
  Be sure to not give away too much information in your proposal. Give only enough to make
the prospective clientwant to come back and ask for more. If you provide too much advice
and/or data, the client may decide to do the work themselves.
  It is not generallya good ideato send a generic proposal.You need to meet and spend time
with the prospective client in order to understand as much as possiblewhat his/her
needs are, then the proposal can be speci¢cally tuned to those needs. (Since it is
sometimes impossible to actually meet, this stepmay be done on the telephone, but a
face-to-face meeting is always preferable.)
  A proposal should not take more than twoto four hours to prepare. One to twois optimal.
  When facing competition for a project, remember this rule: someone always has the
inside track. Consultants refer to this as being ‘wired’.The ¢rst question you need to ask
yourself then is if you have the inside track. Is there someonewithin the organizationwho
will push for you and keep you in the running? Try to keep these key people on your side.
Competitors also have sponsors who are usually di¡erent from yours.You can estimate
your chances of getting the assignment by comparing the power of your sponsor vs. the
power of competitors’sponsors. Under certain circumstances youwill not have the inside
track but you should bid anyway because this may provide a chance for person-to-person
exposure to the client.More importantly, the client may also have future projects, and if
impressedwith you, he or shemay engage you for them.
Exercise 6.9 Deciding your proposal approach
  Review the table above and decide, for your area of consulting, which categories you
would select.
  Talk to three other consultants in a similar field to you and ask them (or get a copy
if possible) what they include in their proposals. What type of information? What
format? What ideas could you include in your proposals?
  Now spend some time creating a standard template for a proposal so that it is easier
to build in the specific client information.
Presenting the proposal
It is normally preferable to ask to present your proposal in person. This serves two
purposes.
  It indicates how serious you are about the client and their project.
  A presentation in person increases your chances of clinching the sale.
After presenting the proposal, you will want some indication the client has selected you as
a consultant. You must take the initiative to finalize the sale. You close the sale by simply
asking or by estimating when you are going to start. Once the client chooses you as a
consultant, send him or her a letter of understanding to confirm your arrangement.
Using cover letters
If you do not personally present your proposal, or if you are unable to contact the
prospective client by phone, it is often a good idea to send a cover letter with the proposal
or with the information about your services. Cover letters are used to:
  build rapport with the client
  introduce your objective for contacting them
  reaffirm information you know about the client
  outline your qualifications
  ask for a close.
T|me out!
A cover letter should include the following information:
Reason for writing: article, referral, advertisement, research, previous meeting.
Summaryof services: brief overview of range of services and experience.
Summary of perceived need: the need they may have based on your previous information, and
how you could help them meet that need.
Close: ask for the next steps, whether it is an appointment, a phone conversation or a
con¢rmation.
140 / Be a Successful Consultant
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What if the client says no?
Success consists of going from failure to failurewithout loss of enthusiasm.
SirWinston Churchill
The most difficult part of sales involves when the client says no.
T|me out!
Here are a few guidelines to help you manage the inevitable emotion that these negative
answersmight generate:
  The more clients who say ‘no’, the greater the chances that onewill say ‘yes’.
  If the service is not the right ¢t, it is better not to get the work than to do it and
fail.
  Use this as an opportunity to evaluate your sales e¡ectiveness. Is there something that
you missed? What else could you have done?
  They are not rejecting you personally, they are saying ‘no’ to your services currently.Who
knows what future opportunities theremight bewith this client?
  Make sure you handle the negative response in a professional manner ^ this increases
the chance that the client will come back to you again if they have further needs.
What if the client says yes?
Success is howhigh you bounce when you hit bottom.
General George S. Patton
Congratulations, your first major milestone has been achieved. Now you have to make sure
the client pays you and you complete the work successfully. Keep reading for more tips!
Sample questions to ask
Foul!
Don’t ask all the questions! Select the ones that are most relevant for your particular client!
Coaching point
Obviously the more information you can have at your ¢nger tips before the client meeting the
better.You can then use questioning to deepen your knowledgewithin speci¢c areas.
General business
  What is the revenue of the company?
  How many years has the company been in business?
  Who founded the company?
  Is either the founder or starter team still active in the business?
  What has been the sales growth in the past year? Two years? Etc?
  What are the company’s top five corporate goals? (Increase market share, enhance
quality, improve client satisfaction, control costs, increase profitability, etc.)
  What needs to be enhanced or accomplished by the company to achieve these goals?
  What are the greatest business challenges/problems that are a priority to address in
the next six to 12 months?
  Who does the company consider to be their most serious competitors? How would
any competitor compare or contrast your company or approach to theirs?
  What will the company look like two to three years from now?
  What external influences are of greatest consequence to the corporation?
  What is the financial structure of the company?
  What is the outstanding debt of the company?
  Is the company public?
  In the history of the company, what were the biggest advance and the biggest setback?
  What does the client see as the strengths and weaknesses of this company?
Marketing and customers
  What significant market opportunities or threats will the company face over the
142 / Be a Successful Consultant
Selling your Service / 143
next 3-5 years?
  What primary and secondary markets is the company currently targeting?
  How many different customers does the company have?
  Who are the organization’s customers? Local, regional, national or international?
  What is the profile of the ideal customer?
  What restructuring or expansions are planned over the next year or two?
  What is the most profitable line of business and what are the development plans for
this line?
  What market segment is the organization part of?
  How is the industry structured?
  What is the organization’s role in the way the industry is structured?
  What is unique about the way the company competes?
  What is the company’s specific market niche?
  What promotional strategies are used within this market niche?
  How is the industry outlook?
  What are the plans to expand to new market areas?
Organization
  Who does what in the organization?
  What are the main functions in the organization?
  What is the highest priority in the next six months and how could you help?
  How is the budgeting process managed?
  In addition to revenue, what else is monitored on a regular basis?
  What companies, departments, divisions or sites make up the corporate structure?
How are they related?
  How are the products/services organized within that structure?
  How centralized or decentralized are operational and profit/loss responsibilities?
  What is the reporting structure for the client’s function?
Culture questions
  What key values does the firm consider important? How are these communicated
throughout the organization?
  What does the company have written about its culture? In terms of annual reports,
quarterly statement, brochures?
  Can all individuals state the company’s mission or reason for being? Do individuals
have a clear picture of its values?
  What are the slogans in the organization?
  How do beliefs affect the day-to-day business of the organization?
  What are the stories in the organization?
  How is the physical environment?
  What are the rites and rituals present in the organization? How are high performers
recognised? What are the opportunities for team recognition? What are the team
activities supported by the company?
  How are meetings managed? (If possible, try to attend a meeting.) How often are
meetings held? For the team? For individuals? How do employees get involved in
meetings? Where do people sit?
  What is the company’s compensation philosophy?
  What is the company’s training philosophy?
  How are new employees hired and introduced to the company?
  What awards are given in the organization? What values do these awards reinforce?
  Are there language rituals, such as the extensive use of jargon? How are individuals
addressed?
  What are the unwritten rules of behaviour in the organization? E.g. Nepotism?
Sexist jokes? Dress code?
  Are there predefined standards for presentation of materials?
  How and when are memos used in the organization?
  Who are the heroes of the organization? Why are they recognised as such? What
does this demonstrate about the culture?
  What are people like who work at the organization? How long have they been there?
What is the staff turnover rate?
  How do you feel about the president or CEO? What do you recognise about his or
her temperament?
  How are strangers greeted in the organization?
  What is the format of the average day?
  What is the company’s strategic planning process?
  What are the main communication channels? Formal or informal?
  How do these communication channels work?
  How are decisions made in the company? Is there a formal chain of command for
decisions? How far does the president delegate decision-making?
144 / Be a Successful Consultant
Selling your Service / 145
Current environment questions
  What current challenges are facing the business?
  What is being done to address the challenges?
  What changes have taken place in the past few months?
Checklist
Have you:
  Written down the benefits to you of selling?
  Highlighted in your database your 40–50 suspects?
  Picked out any interesting prospects?
  Created your introductory commercial?
  Decided who will be the first 20 people you will contact?
  Identified the outcome you require from these 20 calls?
  Fixed three meetings with influencers, decision-makers and prospects?
  Created a list of questions to ask prospects?
  Practised paraphrasing and probing for specifics?
  Created a template for proposals?
Scorecard
Before moving on to Chapter 7, think about the following questions:
  In terms of the Sales Process, what tools and techniques will you use to ensure that you
are conducting activities in all of the critical stages in business development: network,
suspects, prospects, proposals and clients. Howlong do you believe the sales process is
for your type of business? Howmany people do you think you need in each category to be
successful?
  Howmany telephone calls do you think would be appropriate for your type of business?
How will you ensure that you are practising the key skills when making telephone calls?
What is the target youwill set yourself and how will you measure your success?
  What meetingswill you schedule? How will you ensure that you are using these meetings
to gather information and not just talk? How can you practise asking open-ended
questions and listening? What type of proposal is required for your business?
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SECTION THREE:
Getting Money
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149
CHAPTER SEVEN
FinancingYour Business
Game plan
The area of funding your consulting business, establishing fee rates and collecting your
outstanding accounts receivable is often one of the most misunderstood, and
underestimated, areas of your consulting business.
The purpose of this chapter is to help you to:
  Create a realistic estimate of start-up costs.
  Evaluate and obtain funding to begin your consulting business.
  Establish financial objectives to guide your efforts.
  Build a revenue and cash flow statement for your business to ensure financial
liquidity.
  Decide your fee structure and rates to maximize potential revenue.
  Manage your accounts receivable so that you limit bad debts and protect cash flow.
  Understand the financial infrastructure inherent in sub-contracting.
  Provide the basis and infrastructure for achieving a profitable consulting business.
Estimating your start-up and ongoing costs
Money is like manure.You have to spread it around or it smells!
J. Paul Getty
Every business faces one-time start-up costs, which are dependent on the type of
consulting you are doing, your location and your plans. Often it is easy to overlook these
start-up costs, particularly if you have been working at a large company where they are
Car/insurance Rent Office preparation Computer hardware
& Cable connections/
internet access fees
& Telephone/mobile
phone/fax
& Other office
equipment and
furniture
& Computer
software
& Utilities & Postage & Stationery and
business cards
& Insurance
& Printing and
supplies
& Answering service & Typing services & Accounting and
legal services
& Business licenses
and permits
& Advertising and
promotion
& Dues and
subscriptions
& Books and
reference materials
& Travel & Conventions & Continuing
education
& Entertainment
& Gifts & Salaries & Unemployment
insurance
& Eating out
part of the infrastructure. It is important also to plan systematically for all monthly
expenses. The following is a checklist of possible areas of cost:
T|me out!
As you are starting your business, the two areas of cost that tend to be immediately higher
than the others are phone bill and your eating out expenses.When you ¢rst begin marketing
your business, as we discussed in Chapters 5 and 6, the telephone becomes a time-e¡ective
business development tool.You might expect, depending on your speed and pro¢ciencyon the
phone, for your phone bill to at least double in the early months. In addition, much of the time
you spendwith networking contactswill be over food of some kind ^ breakfast, co¡ee, lunch,
dinner, etc!
Foul!
Consultants are often tempted to pick up the bill when eating out, because now it is a
deductible expense. However, as any accountant would say, ‘Don’t spend money to save
money!’ Try to minimize eating out ^ meetings are often more productive when held
separately from meals.
150 / Be a Successful Consultant
Category Start-up costs Monthly expenses
Office space and furniture
Computer hardware and software
Telephones/mobile phones/fax
Travel and expenses
Meals
Advertising
Marketing/collateral
Stationery and postage
Conferences/continuing education
Insurances
Car
Vendors/services
Owners’ draw/salary
Financing Your Business / 151
Exercise 7.1 What are your start-up costs and estimated monthly expenses?
Thinking about your consulting business, look at the list opposite and fill in the table
below with your estimates of start-up costs and possible monthly expenses.
  Looking at the amount above, what costs are essential? How could you save costs in
the start-up phase?
Coaching point
It can be too easy for start-up costs to get out of control. By creating a realistic estimate of
these costs and your approximate monthly outgoings, you will be in a better position to
manage your business.More information on setting up youro⁄ce is included in Section Four.
Case study:Marie
Marie already has a computer at home, but she knows her main start-up cost will be eating
out and phone calls. The first time she was a consultant her telephone bill trebled and
eating out doubled. This time, she has decided to try to have meetings separately from
meals, but is prepared for the rise in the phone calls, as she believes this is a critical startup
cost for her.
Funding your business in the start-up phase
Money may kindle, but it cannot by itself, and for a very long, burn.
Igor Stravinski
It is important to have a certain amount of money in reserve to live on while your business
gets started for a variety of reasons.
  To cover the start-up costs and early monthly expense requirements.
  In case you get sick and can’t work for any amount of time, or if someone close to
you becomes ill and you need to care for them.
  Most importantly so that you do not appear desperate when selling. You will sell
more effectively if you’re not too hungry. If you are too eager, the customer may
pick up on it and wonder if you’re good enough.
Let’s look at how we can fund our business in this start-up phase.
152 / Be a Successful Consultant
Financing Your Business / 153
T|me out!
  You need aminimum of sixmonths’ living money, but it is optimumto have one year.Why?
It takes time to close your ¢rst contract: minimally six weeks, can be as much as six
months.
  Often it is necessary to complete some consulting work for a period of time before you
can invoice, particularly as you are getting started and have less credibility.
  Finally, most companies pay invoices four to eight weeks after they are received: the
average time is six weeks.
Identifying sources of capital
Once you have calculated your profit and loss and cash flow statement (see page 158), and
estimated your start-up costs, you should be able to calculate how much income you need
in order to resource your business. There are various options for funding your business.
Type Comments
A bank loan When dealing with a bank you should provide the
business plan, look the part, and be prepared to shop
around for a bank to back you. Many established banks
are still reluctant to fund new business ventures.
Friends/venture capital More often than you might suspect, you can find friends
who believe in your undertaking more than your banker.
Also, there is a range of venture capital firms that will
often finance new businesses. People with venture capital
often want a greater portion of the company ownership.
In addition, there are some entrepreneurs who will fund
start-ups.
Your savings More often than not, your personal savings are adequate
to finance your start-up as a consultant. You will need
approximately a year’s worth of income as a back-up
resource.
Selling shares You may consider selling some shares of stock to finance
your start.
Redundancy packages You may use funds received from your previous
company when laid off.
Credit cards Many people with service businesses have financed
themselves with credit cards since this has been the only
credit available to them. Bear in mind that this is the
most expensive way to finance since most credit card
companies charge very high interest rates. However
many credit cards offer low introductory rates and will
help consolidate your previous debt. For example, the
founder of a consulting organization who was 36, had
three children under 12, and was the main breadwinner,
funded his start-up business with credit cards. The
business ultimately grossed 20 million pounds, with 25%
net profit – he definitely covered his credit card bills!
Equity line of credit Many banks and financial institutions will offer equity
lines of credit on a primary property, which can be used
to fund business growth. It is important to obtain this
line of credit before you begin your business. It is more
difficult after you start your business and/or lose your
full-time income.
The moonlighting plan Keep your full-time job and develop your business as a
sideline., When it takes off you can go full-time. But be
sure to work at least eight hours a week on the sideline
business. Obviously the challenges inherent in this
approach are the overall hours you will need to work,
combined with the limited hours you will be able to
invest in your business.
The part-time plan Work at a part-time job to provide a base income while
you are building up the business. When your business
equals the base income, drop the part-time job. Again,
you may face similar challenges to those listed above, but
it can help to at least cover base expense requirements.
The spin-off plan Turn your previous employer into your first major client,
or, when ethically possible, take a major client with you
from your previous job. Be aware though that some
organizations will place limitations on the extent to
which this is possible. For instance IBM now will not
take back previous employees as sub-contractors within
the first year. Many organizations therefore have arisen
who then act as a broker between the client and the prior
employee to avoid this limitation.
The piggyback plan If you have a working spouse or partner, cut back on
your expenses and live on one salary until the business
gets going.
154 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Borrow from retirement funds It is possible to borrow against retirement funds. The
challenge with this is that there are often penalties for
early withdrawal, but on the other side, if you can invest
the money in your consulting business, you will probably
be able to get a larger return in the long run and pay for
future funds.
Case studies: ¢nding funds
Joe talked with his company about his need for new challenge, and this coincided with their
need to reduce costs. However they did not want to lose Joe’s expertise completely, so they
were able to structure a contract where he worked on one major project, on a consulting
basis, with them for the next three months. It proved to be a win–win: Joe obtained a
stream of revenue for three months, and a client, while his company saved costs yet
retained the talent for the project that they required.
Frank has extended the equity line of credit on his house, and has six months in savings
behind him.
Julia had the easiest decision to make: she owned shares in a company where she had
worked that went public. She sold enough to cover a year with no revenue.
Exercise 7.2 How will you fund your business?
Thinking about your consulting business, answer the questions below to help you to
evaluate funding options for your business.
  In Exercise 7.1 what did you calculate your costs and expenses needs to be?
  Looking at the sources of funds above, what is your best way of covering these costs?
  What will you do, by when, to obtain this funding?
Action What Who When Completed
1
2
3
Coaching point
Byspending time sourcing funds in an organizedway, youwill not only reduce your stress level,
but will also ensure you have the resources necessary to support you while you are building
your business.
Establishing ¢nancial objectives
You need to establish financial goals for your business within the finance key result area.
Again, these goals need to meet SMART criteria as outlined by Allen Lakein. They need
to be:
S – specific
M – measurable
A – aligned
R – results oriented
T – time-based.
Exercise 7.3 Establishing ¢nancial objectives
Thinking about your consulting business, create objectives on a separate sheet of paper
using the information below:
Category Objectives and things to consider
Overall sales revenue Total gross revenue figure you would like to generate.
Remember this is not the same as profit – see next section
for more information.
156 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Profit Figure left after expenses are paid.
Fee structure Target fee amount and/or number of projects. This may
overlap with the sales objectives described in Chapter 6.
Aging percentage Targets for 30 days, 45 days and 60 days.
Cash flow Target cash balance below which you will not allow your
account to go.
Case study: Joe
Joe listed the following two financial objectives:
To achieve revenue of £. . . . in financial year ending 31 December 200X.
This was the same amount as the salary he had received for full time employment. He knew
that he would have to pay expenses out of this amount but he thought this would provide
enough income to cover costs and a lower living standard.
To have 100% of revenue collected from clients within 60 days with 0% bad debts.
He knew this would require focus, but he thought this was essential for maintaining his cash
flow.
Setting clear objectives for the financial side of your business will help to ensure that you
make your business successful and viable.
Creating revenue statements
In managing business performance, there are two critical financial reports: the revenue
statement and cash flow statement. Let’s look at the details in the revenue statement first. It
shows the monthly invoice amount and costs.
Revenue
When you are getting started, based on your business plan, calculate your estimated
revenue for the first year that will include all income from your business. If your business is
already operating, the revenue figure will comprise the total of your invoices.
Example
For instance: if youwish to invoice »600 a day, and you budget onworking10 days amonth, your
revenue ¢gurewill be »6,000 each month.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Consulting
income
6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000
Mat 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500
Rev 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500
Costs Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Car 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250
Rent 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500
Mat 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250
Phone 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250
Costs 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250
In addition you may have other income from materials and sales of products. Each will be
budgeted in the month the sale takes place, not necessarily when the income comes in.
Costs
Your costs will include sales, marketing, salaries, rent, equipment, utilities and so on as
listed in the earlier section.
T|me out!
Costs are broken downinto ¢xed costs, which are costs whichwill occur whether or not there
are sales e.g. utilities, cost of your car ando⁄ce rental, and variable costs which are costs you
would not have incurred if you had not made a sale e.g. printing of materials, shipping and
phone calls.
Profit/loss
After you add up all your costs and subtract them from your sales, you have your profit/
loss. Profits are usually stated as a percentage of your total sales revenue.
158 / Be a Successful Consultant
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Rev 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500
Costs 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250
Profit 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250
%age 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80%
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Cash 6,500 6,500 6,500 6500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500 6,500
Costs 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250
Profit
-
1,250
-
1,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250
%age 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80%
Financing Your Business / 159
Many small companies now use computer-based software to help them manage the
financial side of the business. Quick Books is currently the market leader in this area.
Creating cash £ow statements
The cash flow analysis explains the amount and timing of expected cash in flows and out
flows.
T|me out!
The cash £owstatement is usually divided into the sources of the funds and the uses towhich
the funds are put. Sources of funds normally include sales revenue, owner investment, loans
and outside equity investment. Use of funds is typically expenditures for rent, salaries,
equipment, taxes, and interests on loans and other costs.
The purpose of the cash flow analysis is to determine if you will have enough in-coming
sources of funds to meet required out-going uses. In the previous example, if all else
remains constant, yet we use cash flow statements to manage the financial side of the
business, you can see the difference in the example below.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Cash
Costs
Profit
In this example, we are assuming that the consulting work performed in January is
invoiced in January, but that payment does not take place until 60 days later. We are also
assuming that the costs to be paid in March can wait until the revenue is received. More
likely, many of the March costs would have to be paid before that income is received. As
you can see, with steady income and a 60-day payment term, you will not only have to pay
the monthly costs for two months, but you will also not have any cash coming in to pay
any other home or living expenses.
Foul!
More businesses fail due to lack of cash than lack of business so most consultants use the
cash-in/cash-out approach to managing their business.
Case study: Susan
Susan had too much work for her to manage, and when she reviewed her workload she
decided that she could afford to pay a sub-contractor full-time for three months. However,
when she began the work she discovered that she had to pay her sub-contractor
immediately, but that she would not receive the income until three months later, and as a
result had to use money from her savings to absorb the cost.
Exercise 7.4 Creating your cash £owstatement
  Fill in your estimated revenue projections in the revenue row.
  Fill in your estimated expenses in the costs column.
  What shortfall did you notice?Were the funds you raised in Exercise 7.2 sufficient to
cover your cash flow for the first six months?
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  How else could you generate funds?
Coaching point
While these exercises might appear tedious, they are essential to establishing your business
on a sound footing. Persevere!
Setting your billing rate
Money is the most egalitarian force in society. It confers power on whoever holds it.
Roger Starr
When people who are not consultants hear a billing rate, they often see the figure as
astronomically high because they compare it to the salary they are earning, if it was paid
on an hourly basis. Unfortunately, this is not a fair comparison as the consultant’s rate
includes many factors that are included above and beyond the employee’s salary.
Considerations
The consulting fees charged are your revenue and it is important when setting a billing rate
to take into consideration the following nine items.
Factors Considerations
Salary This is your worth as a labour commodity on the open
market performing the same services you provide as a
consultant.
Research and development This is an important overhead expense in time and
money, which is often forgotten. This includes
purchasing books, finding answers to questions, taking
classes, purchasing new software, etc. As you continue to
improve your skills or streamline your operations, this
cost needs to be covered in your consulting fee.
Employee benefits Benefits are the extras you receive from an employer,
above and beyond your salary, which are often tax-free.
For most employees, benefits amount to 25–60% of their
salary and include such items as insurance, training,
holiday, sick leave, pension, unemployment insurance
and payroll taxes. In addition, employers often match
employees’ contributions in factors such as retirement
plans, medical coverage, etc. The consulting rate has to
cover all the benefit costs.
Overhead expenses Overhead represents the expenses incurred in operating a
business and includes both direct and indirect costs as
described earlier. Expenses can include, but not be
limited to, typing, telephone, automotive, travel, postage
and delivery, lights, electricity, duplicating, and securing
projects, i.e. writing of proposals, insurance. When you
are employed by a company, it is easy to forget that
paper and pencils cost money that you must now spend
yourself.
Profit Profit is your reward for business risks and ownership,
and ranges from 10–50% of your salary, plus benefits
plus overheads. Most business owners confuse revenue
with profit.
Competition When establishing your billing rate you must be aware of
the customs of your community and of the industry.
Many trade associations will publish current rates, and
it is always worth talking to others in the industry to
evaluate current market levels.
Economic conditions Your billing rate must take into account the economic
conditions that affect you. Is there inflation and/or a
recession? At what rate are your costs rising or falling?
When the market is doing well, this often produces a
growth in the amount of consultants required. However,
conversely, a poor economic market may not indicate the
opposite. Often, when the market is going down and
companies are reducing their work force, it may create
more work for consultants to meet short-term needs.
Bad debts A bad debt occurs when you are not paid for services you
provide. Professional firms experience bad debt rates
from 5–40%. Most try to maintain a 5–10% bad debt
ratio. For ideas on how to ensure you collect the money
162 / Be a Successful Consultant
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owed to you, look at the section in this chapter: Limit
Your Exposure to Bad Debts.
Fairness to clients After considering all the above items, you must make an
ethical judgment on what you think is fair to your clients
and to yourself.
Calculating your billing rate
In this section we will be showing you how to calculate your base hourly billing rate. Many
times you will not be charging clients on an hourly basis; you may use a fixed fee, but this
step is important to provide the starting point in calculating other approaches.
Before the billing rate can be calculated, there are two important items that need
to be defined:
  Billable hours. These are the number of working hours you actually bill to clients.
You may work more hours for the client but you may not charge for all of them.
The number of working hours in a year is estimated, simplistically, by taking the
number of working weeks in a year, 48, and multiplying these by the approximate
number of working hours in a week (41.66). The total of billable hours in a year
therefore is 2,000.
  Your utilization rate. This tells you what percent of your total working hours each
week/year that you bill to clients.
– The target is to try to bill 50–60% of your available hours to a variety of clients.
– The rest of your time (40–50%) is spent on looking for work, administration for
your business, training, holiday, etc.
Foul!
If you bill consistently more than 60% of your time, other parts of your business will su¡er,
often the marketing side, resulting in the‘feast or famine’syndrome.
Therefore, if you estimate:
  a total number of possible billable hours at 2,000 hours
  a 60% utilization rate
youwill only be able to bill 1,200 hours.
Setting your base rate
Setting your base hourly consulting rate utilizes your salary requirements as a first step.
T|me out! The Rule ofTwo
  Your salary requirement is ». . .
  Estimated overheads, bene¢ts, costs and pro¢ts = the same as your salary requirement.
  Therefore salary X 2 is your target revenue amount.
  To calculate your target hourly billing take your total yearly revenue and divide it by your
yearly billable hours.
The rule of two is a simple and quick method to calculate your base-billing rate. You only
need to know your annual salary requirements and the number of hours you can bill to
clients each year.
Example
If you require »40,000 ayear salary:
  Multiply by two in order to cover pro¢t, overhead and bene¢ts = »80,000.
  Youwish towork at 60% utilization rate (1,200 hours per year).
  The base billing rate would be »80,000 divided by 1,200.
  This equals a base rate of »66.66 per hour or approximately »550 per day.
In most industries there is an ‘accepted’ hourly rate, so the extent to which you can obtain
the rate you wish depends on these industry standards. For instance, technical writing has
a market place rate of £40, software programming can range from £60 to £80 per hour,
and training consultants range from £1,000 to £1,500 per day.
Foul!
If you cannot achieve aminimum hourly rate of »40 per hour, youwill be forced intoworking too
many hours resulting in critical aspects of managing your business being missed.
164 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Exercise 7.5 Calculating your target hourly rate
Work through the process below to help you calculate a base hourly rate:
Step one: what was/is your salary level in a full time position?
Step two: multiply this number by two and write it on the line below.
Step three: how many hours a month do you want to work out of a possible 160? How
many days per month? What percentage is that of the total? Therefore, what utilization
rate do you want to achieve? 50%? 60%? Write this number on the line below.
Step four: using that as a percentage of the total possible 2,000 hours in a year, calculate
the number of billable hours you would like to achieve on an annual basis and write the
number below (for instance 50% of 2,000 is 1,000 billable hours).
Step five: divide the figure in step two (the total revenue figure) with the percentage in step
four. Write that figure below.
Step six: based on your knowledge of your type of consulting, how does this figure sound?
Too high? Too low? How will you test out the validity of this target fee rate?
T|me out!
Three factors determine your competitive position:
  What are your successful competitors charging?
  What will your clients pay?
  Whatminimum and maximumlevels will you accept?
If your rate is perceived as too low prospective customers will assume you are not adding as
much value. If your rate is perceived to be too high you may put off prospective customers:
‘No wonder he can afford to drive a Mercedes!’.
Coaching point
Sometimes the ¢gure can look too high when you ¢rst calculate it ^ remember, there are
di¡erent ways of structuring fees so that you do not have to quote this as a daily rate, but
which ensures you cover yourminimum ¢nancial requirements (see the next section formore
speci¢cs).
Case study: Frank
Frank has sold some of his shares in one of his previous organizations to provide his back-up
capital. He has built a clear cash flow statement based on the assumption that he will
receive his first client within three months, and that they will pay their first invoice three
months later. He wants to charge 50% deposit up front and then collect payment on the rest
of the work later but he realizes that, as this is his first contract, he will probably have to
hold off on invoicing up front this time. Frank realizes that most of his assignments will be
long-term with a fixed number of days, so he has calculated that a daily rate of £650 for
contracts over ten days in length is fair to the client.
Using di¡erent fee arrangements
There are certain common fee arrangements. Many consultants use different fee
arrangements depending on the nature of the project.
Hourly or time charges
Hourly or time charges involve multiplying your billing rate by the number of hours you
work for the client. This is the most basic and the most common fee arrangement.
All you need is your standard billing rate and a method to keep track of how you
spend your time. The benefit to you is that you are paid for all the hours you work and
there is minimum risk to you. The disadvantage to the client with this structure is that they
do not know how much the project will cost, and have less control of the cost outcome. It
can feel like a bottomless pit to them.
Case study
A client used a consultant on an hourly rate to develop three procedure manuals. All the
money allocated to it was gone by the time the first manual was completed!
166 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Fixed or project fees
Fixed fees occur when a particular service is performed for a fixed amount. The advantage
to you of this fee structure is that it can hide your daily rate. The disadvantage is that you
as the consultant run the risk of budget overruns, but you gain the bonus of budget
underruns. Generally, if you quote a certain fee and it requires more time than expected
you absorb the difference. Therefore you might be taking a risk and might not get paid for
all the hours you work. Watch for the following:
  the project can change
  the client can try to add additional steps
  the client can change their minds
  the client cannot provide the information that you require.
To lessen your risk, you must have a very clear outline with the specifics of the project. In
that way if the client asks you to do something extra, you can say that you would be happy
to help, but since the terms of the contract have changed, you will need to negotiate for
more money.
Coaching point
The rule of thumb for deciding how much to charge for a ¢xed fee contract is to take the
numbers of hours you think the work will take, and multiply by two (minimum) or three
(maximum).
Case study
A consultant was working on a fixed fee bid to upgrade their existing applications and install
several new applications, but because he had an incomplete understanding of the system
requirements the installation went over four times the hours he had budgeted for the project.
That type of project can kill the hourly rate!
Often customers enjoy this fee structure because they know ahead exactly how much the
project will cost, which is normally of benefit to them in the budgeting process. This
structure is also better for the tax authorities because they can see the project milestones,
with a beginning, middle and an end.
Bracket fees
Bracket fees combine fixed fees and time charges. Essentially the consultant works on an
hourly basis but his or her fee cannot exceed a specific amount. This fee structure favours
the client and protects them from budget overruns.
Retainer fees
Retainer fees have several meanings among consultants.
  Retainer fees may describe an advanced payment to retain your services for a
particular project. In this respect it is a sign of faith on the client’s part to use your
services and to ensure payment.
  In a slightly different sense, retainers are used to guarantee your availability during
a certain time period. Clients pay you a fixed fee for a certain number of months to
cover specific services. Clients use retainer fees to ensure continuity of services.
Consultants like retainer fees because they provide a steady income. There are also some
challenges associated with a retainer. Clients may confuse a retainer with a salary, and
overload your time. Conversely the client may become absorbed in their internal
responsibilities and not give you the work that you have budgeted. While this looks
positive in the short term for the consultant (being paid for not working!) in the long term
this will cause the client to be dissatisfied and go elsewhere.
Coaching point
To try to ensure the success of this fee structure, make sure you specify in detail what is
included and what isn’t such as phone calls (how many), time at their site (how much),
written communication required, etc.
This type of payment is common for such consultants as psychologists, legal counsel, etc.
Other less common fee arrangements
Fee type Description
Percentage fees Merger and acquisition consultants may charge a
percentage of the entire transaction known as a
percentage fee.
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Assignment fees As a consultant, you may perform projects that have
intrinsic value beyond the number of days or hours
consumed. Assignment fees are additional payments for
such projects and can be either fixed amounts or
percentages.
Equity fees Occasionally consultants receive payment in the form of
business ownership in the client’s company. This may be
an option if the client does not want to pay your
published rate, however it is a high-risk option and you
want to make sure you balance these types of high-risk
compensation with firm cash payment.
Deferred fees A deferred fee is not really a method of determining your
fee. Instead it is a collection method that spreads the
consulting fee through instalments over an extended time
period. Deferred fees are used most often when the client
does not have the money to pay you. The client may also
request deferred fees so that the savings from the project
can offset your consulting fee as it comes due.
Coaching point
If you are accepting deferred fees, you are extending credit to your clients.To o¡set these risks,
you should consider the following tactics employed bymany professionals:
  charge interest on the total amount
  charge higher fees
  request a sizable retainer fee before you start the project
  request collateral if your total fees are substantial
  request payment via banker’s check or credit card to ensure payment
  be sure the company is solvent before you reach any agreement about deferred fees.
Exercise 7.6 Choosing your pricing structure
Now that you have calculated your target hourly rate, let ’s think about what type of
pricing structure would be best for you and the type of services that you offer.
  Based on the type of services that you offer, which type of pricing structure would
you like to use?
  What are the advantages to you of this pricing structure? What could be the
disadvantages to the client of the pricing structure? How can you position this to the
client in the most positive way?
  How will you ensure you manage any disadvantages associated with this structure?
Case study:Marie’s pricing structure
Marie has calculated her base-billing rate at £1,000 per day for large training and
development projects. She will use this rate for quoting the sales training project she has
proposed, as this will be a large customized programme. She believes this will cover some
development and marketing time.
From this base assumption, for her other standard training programmes, she is going to
charge per person per day, as this is a common practice in the industry. So she will charge a
graduated scale based on numbers of people ranging from £100 per person per day to £150
per person per day.
She has contacted a training broker for whom she wishes to perform sub-contracting
work. Although the training broker has over 40 large high-tech clients, she believes the
exposure to these clients as she is getting started will prove to be extremely beneficial. She
accepts that she will be paid only £400 pounds per day for this work, but feels that the
corresponding benefits of gaining contacts and building client testimonials outweigh the
revenue shortfall.
Quoting for extras
There should be no surprises on the invoice!
Make sure if you are going to charge for extras such as travel time, learning time,
meals, etc that they are discussed and agreed upon up front. Many organizations will not
pay for travel or mileage if you are travelling within the area that employees at the company
come from. In addition, if you have to travel out of the country, consider charging a lower
daily rate for that travel day. While you are not able to work the entire day, you may be able
to complete some preparation work on the journey, so the entire day is not lost.
170 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Guidelines in communicating fees to the client
Now you have established your fee rates and structure, how do you communicate these to
the client and ensure that they agree to them?
T|me out!
Asking for your rate
  The key in£uence on the rate that consultants can receive for their services is often their
con¢dence in asking. If the client suspects from your body language that you are
uncomfortablewith the rate, they will try to negotiate to reduce it. If they hear
con¢dence in your approach they are less likely to try to reduce the rate.
  Remember you can always reduce the rate: it is much harder to ask for more!
  Sometimes consultants arewilling to ask for less money if the contract is in an area of
interest where they receive the bene¢t of learning more.Make sure this is a conscious
choice and the potential disadvantages areweighed against the potential bene¢ts.
  Often consultants on long-term assignments give a price break on their daily rate.
Remember if you do this that youwill still have to build up your business again after you
have ¢nished the assignment, and youwill need the money from that daily rate to do so.
  When you work half a day, you need to assesswhether you can actually use the other halfday.
Often consultants charge 75%-100% for a half-day for this reason.
Another factor to consider is consistency in pricing. Within certain market segments, e.g.
high-tech, it is important to have a consistent fee structure. For different market segments,
you may have a different pricing structure, e.g. charge less to non-profit organizations than
to high-tech companies. Also, you may have reasons to take on a project that you know
will cost you more than the amount the company has budgeted. If this is the case, you still
need to do your best work, and not put in fewer hours because you are getting less than
your regular rate.
Coaching point
Many consultants fail because they under-price their services in the interests of building a
client base and establishing credibility. If you have done your market research into current
market rates, stick to your guns and ask.What you don’t ask for, you don’t get!
Collecting fees
Many new consultants assume that an invoice is the same as payment – it ’s not!
It is possible to avoid many fee collection problems through good front-end
communication.
T|me out!
Collecting fees
  As early as possible, obtain a mutual understanding with your client concerning the fee.
As a general practice, discuss your fees during the ¢rst meeting.
  Also, indicate howand when billing occurs.Many consultants ¢nd it di⁄cult to discuss
fees with perspective clients. Some fear losing the consulting project if their fees seem
too high. Other consultants are reluctant to discuss money, and other consultants are so
involvedwith discussing the project they forget to discuss the fees.
Limit your exposure to bad debts
Though you need to make an allowance for bad debts, there are certain things you can do
to avoid not getting paid.
  Obtain progress payments by billing frequently. A business can budget a £1,000 per
month more easily than it can absorb a £12,000 bill at year’s end.
  Bill on time: the value of your service diminishes in the client’s mind over time.
  Establish a billing and collecting practice.
  Make sure you obtain purchase orders (PO) wherever possible.
  Don’t work without a PO.
  Make sure you have a clear contract with clear payment terms.
  Once the contract is signed, ask up front about the company’s procedures for
paying vendors. ‘What do I need to do to get paid? What is your process?’ ‘Who has
to sign off on bills?’
  Work in milestones throughout the duration of the contract.
  Ask if you can bill weekly/bi-weekly/monthly/bi-monthly.
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  Communicate clearly your normal payment terms.
  Some consultants charge late fees. However, large organizations such as Sun and
Oracle will not pay these.
  You may ask for a deposit up front.
  Check out the financial status of the company beforehand. Read trade publications,
ask other vendors.
  Decide when to stop working if you are not getting paid. Many consultants have
horror stories of being owed tens of thousands of pounds. Either set yourself a time
period or quantity beyond which you will withhold services such as £10,000, or over
90 days. It is surprising how quickly a cheque can be written when you say you will
stop working!
Your greatest friends in a company are those in accounts payable. Do not alienate them,
but engage their help to solve your problem, if you are not getting paid on time.
Case study: Julia
Julia’s first contract is with a small biotech start-up for 30 days’ work, in two stages, with
concrete measurable steps and deliverables for each step. Each step will be invoiced
separately: the first step will be invoiced after five days’ work, the second after ten days’
work and the third at the end of the work. She has talked with accounts payable and built an
understanding of their payment process. She knows she has to have a signed purchase order
from the President, issue an invoice to the Director and at the same time issue an invoice to
accounts payable (AP). AP then asks the Director to approve the signature and the invoice
will be paid at 45 days. She believes that her knowledge of this system will prevent any
exposure to bad debts.
Charging for sub-contracting
The man who says he is willing to meet you halfway is usually a poor judge of distance.
LaurenceJ. Peter
As we discussed in Chapter 5, one of the distribution channels for consultants is subcontracting.
T|me out!
Subcontracting de¢ned. Sub-contractingworks bothways.
  You can sub-contract work to other consultants when you need help: this means that you
are the main contractor and the other consultants are your sub-contractors.
  In addition, you can dowork for anotherconsultant, who has the main client contact.This
means that you are the sub-contractor.
While this process is very beneficial both ways, it can also lead to misunderstandings if the
working parameters are not set out clearly up front.
Sub-contractingwork to others
When you have too much work, a viable option is to sub-contract the work to other
consultants. Bear in mind the following guidelines:
  Make sure that you have worked with the consultants previously so that you know
their competencies and their liabilities.
  Keep in mind that when you hire sub-contractors you are responsible for them and
the work they produce.
  Be clear about the work they will be doing, the standards that you expect and the
measurements that will be put in place.
  Be clear about the financial remuneration: see later notes, not only in terms of the
amount to be paid, but the payment terms to which you will adhere.
  Make sure the sub-contractor realizes that all invoicing will be done through you.
  Make sure the sub-contractor realizes that this is your client. Any further work
from the client, even if they sell it themselves, must come through you.
Foul!
Who owns the client?
Whoever sold the work, and got the foot in the door, owns the client. This is often the biggest
bone of contention when working with sub-contractors. Most consultants do not realize the
complexityof getting the initial entry contract and thenwant to own the remainderof thework.
Some consultants use contracts to try to enforce this structure, but it is better to have a clear
mutual understanding when you begin the assignment.
174 / Be a Successful Consultant
Financing Your Business / 175
Case study: Peter
Peter sub-contracted a technical writing project through a business brokerage. He had to
sign a contract stating that he could not work for that client directly for the next year. For
this organization, there was only one purchaser of technical writing. It was appropriate in
this case that he was unable to do business directly with the organization.
Case study:Marie
Marie began work for a large organization conducting training programmes. An organization
for which she sub-contracted also did work in that organization, but with several different
contacts. The brokerage tried to prevent the consultant from working with that organization,
but that was inappropriate because the consultant had several direct contacts there, and
there were multiple points of entry into the company.
Coaching point
The main di¡erentiator on whether a client is yours or the other consultant’s normally comes
fromthe point of entry into the organization: did you have the ¢rst contact or did they? And that
point of contact should be initiated by you, not as a result of doing work for someone else at the
time.
Doing sub-contractwork for others
This can be a good way to get work when you have time available and also when you are
getting started. Sub-contracting is like the cake without icing. It enables you to obtain
exposure, clients on your reference list and some stable income. However it is not as
financially lucrative as working with clients directly.
T|me out!
Following are a fewguidelines about working as a sub-contractor:
  Make sure that you have worked with the consultants previously so that you know their
competencies and their liabilities.
  Be clear about the work youwill be doing, the standards that the contractor expects and
the measurements that will be put in place.
  Be clear about the ¢nancial remuneration. (see below), not only in terms of the
amount to be paid, but the payment terms that youwill accept.
Financial compensation for sub-contracting
The general standard in the industry is that the consultant or consulting organization
which gets the work keeps approximately 50% of the revenue. The ability to market the
service and collect the revenue is worth half of the total. Remember most consultants can
do the work, but many cannot find it.
Exercise 7.7 Evaluating sub-contracting for you
Think about how sub-contracting might fit into your service offerings.
  If you were overloaded, who could you use to support you? How would you
structure the relationship? What written documentation might you need to confirm
the working relationship?
  Who could you sub-contract for? What are the advantages to you of subcontracting?
What are the disadvantages of sub-contracting?
  What percentage of your time would you like to spend sub-contracting for others?
What percentage of your revenue should be spent sub-contracting? What is the
minimum rate you will accept?
176 / Be a Successful Consultant
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Coaching point
Sub-contracting, when e¡ectively managed, provides advantages as a relatively risk-free
revenue source.Make sure you are clear about boundaries before any work starts.
Checklist
Have you:
  Estimated your start-up costs?
  Decided how you will fund yourself for six months to a year?
  Established financial objectives for your business?
  Created a cash flow statement?
  Calculated your base-billing rate?
  Decided whether you wish to price your service by project?
  Decided how to limit your exposure to bad debts?
  Researched sub-contracting options as a base source of income?
Scorecard
Before moving on to the next chapter, think about the following questions:
  As you set your ¢nancial goals for your business,what is a realistic target revenue ¢gure
and how will you protect your cash £owas you are getting started? Think about what
other ¢nancial safeguards you could put in place to fund your start-up.
  As you look at the industry, what do you believe is a the market rate for the type of
services you are o¡ering? Are your contract opportunities short-term or long-term, and
how will this a¡ect the pricing structure? What is theminimum compensation you
will accept? What types of fee structures would be appropriate for your business?
  Towhat extent is acting as a sub-contractor to others a viable option for you? Who do you
knowin your industry whomight have opportunities to provide youwith work? If you do
sub-contract to others what will be the lowest rate youwill accept? Who do you knowin
your network whom you think you could use if you had too much work? What contractual
arrangement will you havewith these sub-contractors?
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SECTION FOUR:
Getting Organized
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181
CHAPTER EIGHT
OrganizingYour Business
Game plan
Unlike when you work for an organization, there is no automatic structuring system when
you are running your consulting business. The ability to organize activities and structure
your environment is fundamental to being successful as a consultant.
The purpose of this chapter is to help you to:
  Set up your office space.
  Select the correct equipment.
  Identify any necessary outside administrative resources.
  Prioritize more effectively between multiple projects.
  Plan your weekly activity.
  Manage your paper flow.
Setting up your o⁄ce space
There are two options open to consultants:
1. Work from home.
2. Set up a separate office.
Below are listed some advantages and disadvantages of both options.
Working at Home
Advantages Disadvantages
  Saves costs.   Interruptions from family.
  Time effective – you don’t waste time   No place to receive visitors.
going from the office to home and   Lack of professional image.
back.   People think you’re not really working.
  Avoids commuting: the two-second   Separate phone lines are essential.
commute!   Difficulty in distancing yourself
  Most work can be performed from from the business.
home.   Self-discipline is essential to avoid
  Fewer ‘work’ clothes. temptations such as nice weather, soap
  You can look like Edward Scissor operas and nibbling from the refrigerator!
Hands when talking to clients   Work may ‘spill out’ through other
and they would not know! areas of the house.
  Flexibility in that you can work your   Office space can act as a ‘red flag’ to
own hours. the tax man if you claim deductions
  It allows you to try out consulting for a home office.
without making any long-term   There can be complications when
commitments in terms of leases you sell the house, because you are
and rents. now selling a house and an office.
Case study:Marie works at home
Marie has decided to work at home, and has created a dedicated office space in what used
to be the dining room. This is separated from the rest of the house, so she has the
advantage of being able to close off the office when she is not working. It is a light area
with easy access to phone lines. She learned from the first time as a consultant that her
family tended to forget that she was working when she was at home, so she made sure this
time that she established ground rules around office hours and break times.
Working from an office
Advantages Disadvantages
  Separate from home.   Cost.
  Prestige.   Distance from home – commute.
  Proximity to clients.   Less convenient when you want to refer
  Referral potential. to paperwork.
182 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 183
Exercise 8.1 Will you work from home or rent an o⁄ce?
Thinking about your consulting business, look at the advantages and disadvantages listed
above.
  What would be the advantages to you of a home office? What could be the
challenges? How would you overcome these challenges?
  What would be the advantages to you of an office out of the home? What could be
the challenges? How would you overcome these challenges?
  As you are getting started, which option will you select?
T|me out!
There are many ways to establish an o⁄ce out of the home:
  Rent a smallo⁄ce.
  Share an o⁄cewith other professionals; you may even be able to barter services for
space.
  Use an executive suite.
  Sublet an o⁄ce.
Coaching point
The key factor to remember when making the decision on o⁄ce space is to ensure you have a
dedicated space and you can separate/close o¡ the o⁄ce area fromyour home.Trying to share
a children’s bedroom is not conducive to productive work. Often when consultants are
beginning their consulting practice, working at home is the simplest, most expedient option,
and to this end it is worthworking out ways to overcome the disadvantages.
Furniture
Consultants normally require minimal office furniture although the quality of the chair is
key:
  desk
  chair
  filing cabinets
  bookshelf.
Just remember additional factors such as light and noise. The more aesthetically pleasing
your office the more productive you will be.
Selecting equipment and support tools
Today’s consultants require an increasing array of technology in order to be productive:
  telephone
  mobile phone
  answering services
  email
  fax machine
  computer
  printer/scanner
  software programs
  stationery.
Telephone
It is essential to have both a dedicated telephone line and a line dedicated to the fax and
email when working from home. Often consultants use three dedicated lines: one for a
business line, one as a fax line and one for email. Sharing a home line can cause
inconvenience to other family members and might appear unprofessional. ISDN and cable
lines are also an option.
184 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 185
Mobile phone
Mobile phones provide additional flexibility when travelling, however the roaming charges
can mount up. So when you are looking at options, consider the extent to which you travel,
and the degree of international travel before making decisions.
T|me out!
There are decreasing costs and increasing competition in the telecommunications industryso
make sure you shop around and read the small print in fee structures!
Answering services
Some type of answering service for your telephone is necessary to ensure you do not miss
important business calls. The following are some of the options available to you.
  Answering machine with remote dial-in capabilities: while this is cheaper, the
quality of the voice message is often not high.
  Answering service: high cost and hard to guarantee the quality.
  Voicemail: this provides the highest quality reception and most flexibility in terms of
remote checking and saving of messages.
Email
75% of Britain’s self-employed use email for work ^ compared to 16% of the public as awhole.
Alodis/MORI poll, 2000
As the World Wide Web expands, some type of email system is critical. It can be used for
researching companies, for marketing, for maintaining contact with individuals when you
are busy and following up on proposals. The email provider does not need to be the same
provider as the Web site provider. The most popular email programs are AOL (America
On Line) and Microsoft Outlook.
Fax machine
Having access to a fax machine is essential in today’s business market. Options include
either a stand-alone machine or a computer-based version.
Stand alone fax
Advantage Disadvantage
  The stand alone fax works whether   Material is received, but not in soft copy
the computer is on-line or not. format.
Computer fax
Advantages Disadvantages
  Documents are sent directly from   Slightly more inconvenient to use.
computer to computer.   If the computer is not on, documents
  You will have the soft c,opy of faxed cannot be sent or received.
documents.
As with other business decisions it is important to analyse the business requirements and
then decide the best tool for the needs.
Personal computer
It is essential for a consultant to own a personal computer. The choice between an IBM (or
IBM clone) or a Macintosh depends on the nature of the work you perform, your degree
of computer literacy and the equipment your prospective clients use.
PC advantages Mac advantages
  Wide choice.   More user friendly.
  Clones can be cheap.   Greater range of graphics programs.
  More complete range of software   Higher quality product.
programs.
  More companies use PCs.
T|me Out!
Have you considered a laptop rather than a desktop computer?
  Prices of laptops have reduced drastically.
  Portability provides greater £exibility.
  Ideal if youwant towork in multiple locations and/or client sites.
  You can buy a docking station so that, when you are in youro⁄ce, you can have a screen
and full sized keyboard.
  Laptops canweigh as little as 1.5kg so are lighter to carry than they used to be.
186 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 187
Foul!
Capacity does matter! When selecting a computer, more is normally better. More megahertz
(speed), more random access memory (RAM ^ more £exibility in the moment) and more
gigabytes (permanent storage).
Printer/scanner
A laser printer is an ideal investment depending on the number of written documents you
need to produce. Many of the printers available now have colour printing options, built in
scanners and can serve multiple purposes as a copying machine. Your choice of printer is
related to the type of business that you operate.
Software programs
Below are some of the programs you will need and find useful.
Purpose Type and Comments
Word processing The most popular version on the market is Microsoft
Word, which has largely taken over the market from
Word Perfect.
Spreadsheet Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel are the most widely used.
Database ACT is an excellent sales tracking system. Access is also
available in the Microsoft office suite, which is therefore
compatible with Microsoft Outlook (for email). You can
also use a more elementary Labels program. The
purpose is to ensure you have a computer record of all
prospects and clients. Read more about the requirements
for a database in Chapter 5.
Presentations Dependent on the nature of the graphics you need to
produce; popular packages are Harvard Graphics, Page
Maker and Power Point.
Cash management Software, such as Quick Books, help to track finances,
including revenue and costs.
Virus prevention With the increasing volume of email comes an increasing
number of viruses, programs specifically designed to
harm your files. The two leading market providers for
virus protection are Mac Afee and Norton Anti Virus,
both of which can be downloaded from the Web.
Case study: Frank
Frank has purchased a laptop computer because this will provide him with additional
flexibility when he is working on long-term projects. Most of this time is spent on the
client ’s site. In addition, he has purchased a portable printer to supplement his laserjet
printer in the office. He has then purchased a separate keyboard, screen and mouse for
when he is working in his home office. He prefers an electronic fax machine, because many
of the documents he faxes need to come directly from his machine, plus he likes to
incorporate information from his client ’s tracking system into his report, and this means he
does not have to double enter data. He has purchased an international cell phone, and set
up two lines in his office, one for the landline and one for dial-up purposes. He has
postponed signing up for Broadband until he is a little more settled. His laptop computer
came complete with Microsoft Office and he finds this has been sufficient for most of his
software needs.
Stationery and image
Stationery is the primary means of establishing a professional image and identity. It is
often a good idea to keep it flexible to allow you to adapt the content as the business
develops. The types of stationery and guidelines for using it include:
Business cards   Use quality paper.
  Err on the side of being conservative (based on profession).
  Include name, company name, telephone number, fax number,
email address and type of consulting.
Letterhead   Same quality, paper and layout as business card.
Envelopes   Keep the same quality, paper and layout as the letterhead. You
can also provide labels that can be used on any type of envelope.
Clothes and image   Your clothes and accessories need to match who you are, the
image you wish to portray based on your area of consulting and
your prospective client base.
Coaching point
Remember people buy people! Don’t become too absorbed in design and layout. More
importantly, many written communications are sent by fax and email, and therefore the
qualityof the written materials has become less important.
188 / Be a Successful Consultant
Category Questions Actions
Telephone Will you need a land line and a mobile phone?
To what extent do you travel? How important is it to
have international calling capabilities?
Answering
services
What answering services do other consultants use?
Will you use an answerphone and message service or
some type of voice messaging service?
Email What are your critical requirements for email?
How can you ensure your email works when you are
remote from your office?
What email provider are you going to use?
Fax machine What are the benefits to you of a stand alone fax
machine? What about a computer based fax system?
Computer Do you prefer a PC or a Macintosh?
Do you need the flexibility that a laptop computer
could provide?
What capacity do you require? Speed?
What type of computer do your prospective clients
use?
Printer/scanner What type of documents do you expect to be
printing?
How important is colour in your printing
requirements?
How important is speed?
Software
programs
To what extent do you need to use word processing?
Graphics? Spreadsheets?
Stationery To what extent do you think you will need stationery?
How much of your communication do you expect do
be conducted via email?
Organizing Your Business / 189
Example: image
A marketing consultant in theMidlands dressed in clothes such as a purple jacket and yellow
trousers ^ no one doubted that hewas in the design business!
Exercise 8.2 Selecting youro⁄ce equipment
Take a moment to complete the table below to help you select what equipment you need in
order to be productive.
Coaching point
Make sure you are economical when you get started. Better to be more cautious and add
equipment later, than to burn through your cash reserves buying elaborate ‘bells and whistles’.
Identifying administrative resources
One of the greatest challenges for the new consultant is the inordinate amount of time
consumed by detailed administrative tasks.
T|me out!
Remember Pareto’s Principle:
  20% of time produces 80% of results.
  80% of time produces 20% of results.
Administrative tasks certainly ¢t in the latter category!
Often we cannot cope with all our administrative requirements ourselves or we choose to
outsource them so that we increase our overall productivity and revenue. Options include:
Do it yourself This is okay if you are computer literate and it also depends on the
kind of work you do.
Temporary agency Most areas offer administrative support services. Try to ensure the
software used by the agency is compatible with your software so
that business information is interchangeable. Some agencies will
not supply resources if you work from home because of liability
concerns.
Executive suite Often the services of a typist are available at extra cost at an
executive suite.
Contractual Many consultants will invoice clients for the administrative
administrative support they need, at the cost they pay, or with a minimal mark-up.
support This ensures a win–win solution. The client pays a lower rate than
if the consultant does the work. The consultant does not take on
any additional expenses.
190 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 191
Company-provided Many organizations will supply internal editing and
administrative support administrative support in projects if this reduces the overall cost of
the assignment.
Employed staff This may prove to be too expensive and there may be not enough
work, at least at the beginning, to justify a salary. In the early
stages of your practice, you probably will have no need for
employed staff. The general rule applies that you only need
personnel if you are billing over 80%of your time, or if you can bill
over 70% of that person’s time.
Case study: Julia
Julia did not think her time was best used fulfilling administrative functions and, as she built
her client base, she applied two different alternatives to the issue.
  One client had an internal junior HR person, so Julia negotiated that she would only
charge for the strategic advice and the detailed implementation would be performed
by the internal person.
  Julia’s administrative assistant from a previous company had left at the same time
as she had and was not working full-time. For one client, she included her in the
project proposal.
Exercise 8.3 Identifying Administrative Support
Thinking about your consulting business, answer the questions below:
  What type of administrative functions are associated with your consulting business?
For instance, ordering? Packing? Creating memos?
  Which of these is it essential that you complete? Which could be delegated to
others? What would be the benefits of delegating to others? What would be the
benefits of doing this work yourself?
  Which tasks therefore, if any, will you attempt to delegate? What alternative
resources could you use for each type of task or activity?
Coaching point
If you are not sure howmuch time you spend on administrative tasks, or what these tasks are,
you could complete a time log for a few days. Simply write down each task you complete and
howlong each task takes.
Prioritizing between multiple projects
We say wewaste time, but that’s impossible.Wewaste ourselves.
Alice Bloch
One of the greatest challenges consultants face is prioritizing between the multitude of
tasks and projects to be completed. Because you tend to have to do everything, it can
sometimes feel you end up doing nothing! A technique that can help in prioritizing is the
important/urgent methodology.
Foul!
Most of us live our lives with the ‘urgency habit’ rushing from one activity to the next, with no
time for pause or re£ection. As we do this, we believewe are being e⁄cient and getting a lot
done. However, being e⁄cient is not the same as being e¡ective.
T|me out!
  Being e⁄cient means crossing tasks o¡ the list by completing them correctly, quickly
andwithminimal e¡ort. Butmanyof the taskswe address should not be completed at all,
as they were not even important in the ¢rst place.
  Being e¡ective is what matters in improving consultant productivity. E¡ectiveness
means that you are doing the right things, those things that will produce results, build
your business and increase your revenue. In other words, focusing on the tasks and
milestones that make a critical contribution to your consulting objectives and vision.
192 / Be a Successful Consultant
3 1
4 2
+ Urgent
– Not urgent
+ Important – Not important
Urgent/important quadrants
Figure 8.1. Urgent/important quadrants.
Organizing Your Business / 193
Whenever we have to prioritize between tasks and objectives, we need to ask ourselves two
critical questions:
1. Is it urgent?
2. Is it important?
From these two questions we can create four quadrants:
Quadrant one: important and urgent ^ quadrant of necessity
Many of your tasks fall into the urgent/important quadrant. These tasks represent your top
priorities. Examples of tasks in this category can include critical reports, meetings to
gather data, key deliverables, creating proposals and responding to client requests. Few
would argue that tasks in this quadrant should be, and normally are, rated as number one.
Quadrant two: important and not urgent ^ proactive quadrant
Tasks that fit into the important/not urgent quadrant include such things as long-range
planning, product development, assessing new distribution channels, and professional
development activities. These tasks are part of the 20% of work that produces 80% of
results. Neglecting these activities for more urgent, less important tasks drastically affects
your productivity. These tasks should be rated as number two, to be completed after the
important/urgent items.
T|me out!
What di¡erentiates successful, pro¢table consultants is their ability to complete tasks in the
proactive quadrant.
Quadrant three: urgent but not important reactive quadrant
Examples of tasks and milestones that might be in the urgent/not important quadrant are
some telephone calls and emails, solving last-minute problems, fires, interruptions and
small short-term tasks. Often these types of tasks are reactive in nature. These activities
distract you from completing more important proactive tasks and milestones.
Foul!
The challenge comes when trying to di¡erentiate between the urgent/not important quadrant
and the important/not urgent quadrant. Normally there is a tendency to do the tasks in the
urgent/not important quadrant (urgency habit) before those in the important/not urgent
quadrant. In our hectic lives, there is not always time to think about theweight of a particular
task. Instead most of us respondwithout thinking aswe dash fromone project to another. As a
result, we tend to be always reacting and the more important long-term projects either do not
get done or end up being rushed at the lastminute.
Urgent/not important tasks can consume 80% of our time, but only produce about 20%
of our results. Tasks in this quadrant should really be prioritized three and completed
after tasks in the important/not urgent quadrant.
Quadrant four: not urgent but not important - quadrant ofwaste
Tasks in this quadrant should be completed last, if at all.
T|me out!
One of the key time management principles is ‘you can’t do everything!’Choosing what to not
do is as important as deciding what to do.
194 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 195
Exercise 8.4 Prioritizing your tasks
Thinking about your consulting activities, fill in your answers in the quadrants below.
  What two activities this month would you put in quadrant one – the urgent/
important quadrant?
  What two activities this month would you put in quadrant two – the not urgent/
important quadrant?
  What two activities this month would you put in quadrant three – the urgent/not
important quadrant?
  What two activities this month would you put in quadrant four – the not urgent/not
important quadrant?
  What changes could you make to your activities to obtain a greater return on your
investment of time? What tasks could you decide not to do? What tend to be your
‘urgency habit’ tasks in quadrant three? How could you reduce your reactive tasks
and increase your proactive workload?
Case study: Joe
Joe conducted his analysis using the exercise above and discovered the following:
  He was pretty effective at completing his priority one tasks – he was quick and
seemed to enjoy multiplexing.
  His greatest challenge lay in quadrant three. He loved to be busy and would often
jump in to whatever was in front of him without weighing the priorities. He
particularly responded to the phone and sent over 50 text messages a day to many of
his network of contacts. Plus, he loved jokes on email – he discovered that he was
receiving about 20 emails a week containing just jokes! As a result, he has been too
busy to work in quadrant two: contacting marketing companies to investigate
opportunities for strategic partnerships.
  As a result of this understanding, he reduced his text messaging, removed himself
from some email distribution lists and prioritized phone calls to only suspects and
prospects. With the time he saved, he was able to surface one strategic partnership
which brought him in his first client with a revenue of £10,000.
What to do?
Vision
Unique selling proposition
Key result
Objectives
What? Tasks/milestone
Plan
When? Month
Week
Day
Figure 8.2. Linking what to when.
Coaching point
To improve individual productivity, make sure you prioritize yourworkload e¡ectively to ensure
timeis spent in the important/not urgent quadrant, on those long-term Important/not urgent
tasks andmilestones that drastically impact on your business results.
Planning your activities
Until you value yourself, you won’t value your time. Until you value your time, you will not do
anything with it.
Scott Peck
Planning is the process by which we link what we want to achieve as a consultant (see
Chapter 4 for business objectives) with when we are going to complete the critical tasks.
Without linking our overall business direction to our daily and weekly activities, we will
not optimize our productivity.
196 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 197
T|me out!
We plan for di¡erent periods of time:
  year
  quarter
  month
  week
  day
The further away the time, the less detail there is. For instancewe need very little detail on an
annual plan but considerable information on a daily plan.
Weekly planning
Steven Covey, in his book First Things First, highlighted the importance of weekly planning
as an integral tool linking objectives and direction with weekly activities.
Activities planned and prioritised weekly could include:
  contact with customers
  essential milestones from key result areas
  meeting activities
  financial targets
  networking contacts
  marketing strategies
  new projects
  percentage of time in the office/on the road
  small ‘don’t forget’ items
  paperwork/administration.
Coaching point
Theweekly plan is like an organized, categorized, weekly to-do list.
  Plan the next week as you are moving though the current week.When action items for
next week arise, put them on theweekly plan.
  Finalize your plan on Friday: this provides closure for theweek and allowsyou to mentally
prepare for the following week.
Date Schedule Key result areas WeeklyTasks/Milestones
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
8:00 Intel Design Review
10:00
1:00
3:00
8.00
10.00 SGA Joe Smith
1.00
3.00
8.00
10.00
1.00 Writing Team
Building Programme
3.00
8.00 NEC Bill Smart
10.00 North Face Mtg.
1.00
3.00
8.00 Team Mtg.
10.00
1.00
3.00
1. Clients
* Intel
* Oracle
* North Face
* NEC
2. Prospects
* Macys
* SGA
* Frito
* Xicor
3. Database
4. Finance
5. Marketing
6. Administration
7. Product development
Complete LG to Design
Design Team Building Programme
Meeting, finalize proposal
Meeting
Call
Meeting
List of references
Proposal Team – Building Programme
Follow up call
Add 10 new clients
Invoice The North Face
Monthly profit and loss
Draft newsletter
New contracts
Office filing system review
Prepare first draft for ‘Making Communication
Work’
  Review your key result areas and pick out the critical tasks that need accomplishing that
week. Full details on these projectmilestones will be in your objectives and key result
areas. Don’t write too much detail on your weekly plan.
  Write thesemilestones gathered under key result area in the two right-hand columns.
These tasks are not, as yet, allocated per day. (e.g. Xicor ProposalTeam Building
Programme is a task but it has no speci¢c time allocated to it).
  Write in speci¢c appointments (e.g. North Face meeting).
  Review the best times to complete critical tasks and book time for them on your weekly
plan (e.g.WritingTeam Building Programme is booked onWednesday).
A sample weekly plan is given below in the case study. It is important to select your critical
milestones to be accomplished before you set appointments and meetings, otherwise you
are again working in quadrant three (not important/urgent) before quadrant two
(important/not urgent).
Take a moment and review the sample from Marie’s week.
Case study:Marie
Task of the week: Complete Intel Leader’s Guide (L.G.) Week of:
198 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 199
Exercise 8.5 Planning next week
Let’s begin planning next week’s activities.
  What critical tasks would you like to achieve next week? Think about networking,
marketing, sales, business planning, telephone calls, proposals, projects, meetings,
finance, operations, and administration. Write these tasks below.
  Now fill in your weekly plan below. Fill in fixed appointments. Allocate time for
specific activities where possible.
  How realistic is your weekly plan? Do you have elements from quadrants one to
three on your weekly plan?
  What else do you need to do to plan your week?
Coaching point
Remember, the thought process is key, the tool you use can be of your own choice. By planning
your week in this manner youwill increase your control of your discretionary time.
Daily planning
T|me out!
Research has shown that if we have a clear picture of the next 24^48 hours, we will avoid
stress and achieve more.Therefore having a clear plan of the next 24 hours can be important.
If youwish to plan your day, the best time to do so is the end of the previous workday.This gives
you an opportunity to recognize the projects and activities completed and allows the brain to
work on the next day while you are asleep!
Date Schedule Key result areas Weekly tasks/milestones
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
8.00
10.00
1.00
3.00
8.00
10.00
1.00
3.00
8.00
10.00
1.00
3.00
8.00
10.00
1.00
3.00
8.00
10.00
1.00
3.00
Task of the week Week of
200 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 201
Many consultants, due to the nature of their work, do not plan every day. Some only plan
‘office days’ because when working on a client site there can be minimal time that is
discretionary. Many of us use ‘to-do’ lists, but have a problem making them work because
the list tends to be a random collection of activities. Buying groceries may be in the same
list as achieving a major work objective! Make sure you use your weekly plan as the source
of the critical tasks for your daily plan.
Coaching point
A suggested approach to daily planning is as follows:
  Each day list all the activitiesto be completed.
  Next, assess whether any activities could be delegated, postponed or not done at all.
  With the remaining activities, assign priorities.
  Estimate time needed for each activity.
  Estimate time needed for unplanned activities such as interruptions, ¢re ¢ghting, and
people demands.
  Judgewhether youwill need large uninterrupted blocks of time for the activities or if
smaller blocks will be adequate.
  On a daily plan, assign a starting time to each item of work.Make sure you start on
priority-one actions ¢rst.
  Match your work schedule to your body schedule.
  Don’t over plan!
  Remember to build in regular breaks: the body can only concentrate for short periods of
time.
On page 202 is a form that could be used for daily planning. Again, the thought process is
more important than the tool.
Organizing your o⁄ce work space
Organizing your office and paper flow is important in ensuring your productivity. There is
nothing more frustrating than not being able to find a piece of paper! Often filing systems
tend to develop in demand to paper, when they should help manage paperwork to achieve
objectives.
Schedule To do
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Calls_
_
_
_
Daily plan practice
Task of the day Date
202 / Be a Successful Consultant
Organizing Your Business / 203
T|me out!
A category-focused ¢ling system consists of four main sections:
1. Current ¢les relating to achieving short-term milestones.
2. Bring-forward ¢les to track future actions related to objectives.
3. Current hanging ¢les for paperwork related to current objectives: within key result
areas.
4. Historical ¢les for objectives: within key result areas.
Below are some guidelines for using each section.
1. Current files: paper for today. These can be sorted by objective, customer, etc and are
usually stored on the desk, in stacking trays or folders.
2. Bring-forward files. Bring-forward files (sometimes called ‘tickler files’) can be located
in hanging files or on the computer. Bring-forward files consist of numbered folders,
one for each day of the month (31), and one for each month of the next six months (6).
Requests for action are placed in the folder under the day the action must start. At
the end of each day, you must check the folder to see what ’s coming up for the next
day. Once each week, look at the folder for the coming month and move forward any
items, which need to be in the 31-day files.
3. Current project files: per key result area. It is important to distinguish between current
information, which needs to be readily available for possible action, and historical
information which is complete.
Current project files are normally located in your desk drawer and contain all
current paperwork, divided by key result area, if at all possible. The files can be colour
coded to indicate different activities, e.g. prospecting could be red, existing clients
green.
4. Historical data files: per key result area. These files contain information which is
complete and may be needed for future reference. There is a legal obligation to keep
certain types of paperwork. The risk with historical files is that far too much
information is kept, most of which is unlikely to be needed in the future. Historical
files are also categorized by key result area and need to be cleared out at least once
every three months.
204 / Be a Successful Consultant
Case study: Frank gets organized
Frank has begun organizing his office and has found that separating the historic from the
current data has made it much easier to access paperwork. He has colour coded his filing
system to correspond to his key result areas. He has converted the second bedroom at his
house into an office, because he has the space and this is a cost-effective solution. When
planning, he refers to his contact manager from the database to remind him of key people to
call and follow up with, and then he creates a weekly to-do list for the additional critical
tasks he needs to complete each week.
Exercise 8.6 Getting organized
Spend some time reviewing your paperwork and answer the following questions:
  How are you going to manage your current paperwork? On your desk? In a file
drawer?
  To what extent will you use tickler files? Will this follow-up be stimulated by the
computer? Or will you create a paperwork trail?
  How will you organize your current filing system? How will you cross-reference your
filing system to your current planning tool?
  How will you separate current from historical files? How will you ensure that you
continue to divide current and historical files?
  What else will you do to keep your paperwork organized?
Key result area Objective (s)
Organization
Organizing Your Business / 205
Coaching point
Organi zing your paperwork will not only reduce your stress level, but increase your
productivity. Remember you probably need to thoroughly clean out your ¢les at least once
every six months!
Establishing organization/administration objectives
You need to establish organizational objectives for your business within the
administration/organization key result area. Again, these objectives need to meet
SMART criteria.
T|me out!
There is normallya varietyof organizational objectives for a consulting business under several
categories:
  o⁄ce organization
  o⁄ce equipment
  o⁄ce location
  resources
  planning.
Exercise 8.7 Establishing organizational objectives
Thinking about your consulting business, create one organizational objective using the
table below:
206 / Be a Successful Consultant
Checklist
Have you:
  Chosen office space?
  Set up your office?
  Got the right equipment?
  Got the right software?
  Prioritized your monthly tasks?
  Completed a sample weekly plan?
  Identified a planning tool to help you in weekly planning?
  Organized your paperwork filing system by key result area?
  Established current files and ‘tickler files’?
  Separated historic from current data?
Scorecard
Before leaving this chapter, ask yourself the following questions:
  As you set up youro⁄ce, furniture and equipment, think about whether a home o⁄ce or
separate o⁄cewould ¢t bestwith your lifestyle. If you are thinking of a home o⁄ce, how
will you ensure the e¡ective division between youro⁄ce and work? What othero⁄ce
options could you consider? What equipmentwill be the most useful to you in running
your business?
  Towhat extent did you recognize the ‘urgency habit’ in theway you behaved? How can
you ensure that you stop and think before jumping in to the task at hand?
  As you plan your weekly tasks and priorities, how will you ensure that you are
concentrating time and energyon your key result areas? How will you link the overall
direction of the business to yourweekly tasks? What system can you use to facilitate this
process? Howelsewill you ensure that you are focusing energy into all aspects of
running your business: sales,marketing, networking, product development, ¢nance and
administration?
  As you organize youro⁄ce, what are the biggest challenges you face in ensuring your
paperwork is easy to ¢nd and use? How will you overcome these challenges? Do you
knowanyone who can help you in this o⁄ce organization phase?
CHAPTER NINE
RunningYour Business: Doing theWork!
Gameplan
When you have successfully completed the key steps in setting up your consulting business
described in Chapters 2 to 8, you will be ready to ‘do the work’: the area in which you have
the most expertise. ‘Doing the work’ involves providing the functional expertise that you
possess within the structure of a consulting assignment.
The purpose of this chapter is to help you to:
  Set up your contract with the client to ensure a win–win outcome.
  Understand the different types of contracts.
  Structure each stage of the consulting solution to ensure client satisfaction.
Formalizing contracts
Consultants, like everyone else, are turning to written contracts to protect their interests.
Contracts do have a useful purpose other than self-protection. As has been stressed, the
consultant–client relationship is ambiguous and a clear contract provides a guide for both
parties. A legal contract is an agreement enforceable by law. Contracts can be written,
spoken or implied. You may wish to send a letter outlining the responsibilities of each
party in the contract. In addition, a verbal agreement is just as binding but more difficult
to prove.
T|me out!
When creating a contract you should consider including the following items:
  Responsibilities of each party.
207
  T|me agreements.
  Financial arrangements.
  Products or services to be delivered.
  Cooperation of client.
  Independent contractor’s status.This establishes that you are not an employee.
  Advisory capacity. This indicates that youwill notmake decisions for the client, butwill
provide best opinions only.
  Client responsibility for review, implementation and result.
  Your potentialwork with competitors.
  Authorityof client to contract for your services.
  Attorney’s fee clause.
  Limitations.
Coaching point
Using a legal contract is a personal decision. The majority of consultants do not use them.
However if you have had problems with clients, or you are taking a substantial risk, then a
contract is appropriate. Proper groundwork, continual communication and a thorough
proposal may be an adequate substitute for a contract.
Exercise 9.1 Will you use a formal contract or not?
Thinking about your consulting business, answer the questions below to identify whether
you will use a contract with your client.
Questions to ask Tips
Thinking about your client, to what If they have tended to be trustworthy in
extent have you worked with them the past and done what they said they
in the past? How reliable have they would do, this is a good indicator
been? that there may not be the need for a contract.
How large is the contract? The larger the contract, the more need for a
contract to protect liability on both sides.
208 / Be a Successful Consultant
Running Your Business: Doing the Work! / 209
How large is the company? Often the larger the company, the more need
there is for a contract. Most large companies
have their formal contracts which they use
when working with sub-contractors. As a
consultant it can be easier to modify these
contracts rather than insisting on using your
own.
Thinking about the work, to what extent The greater the direct link between
are they making business decisions that your recommendations and business
directly impact on their bottom line costs/liabilities, the greater the need for a
based on your recommendations/input? contract.
  As you consider the factors above, do you think you need a contract for your
business?
  What do you need to include in a contract?
  Who can help you write the contract?
Case study: Julia
Because Julia provides advice about HR issues, with potential risks (eliminating certain
positions and/or job roles, sexual harassment, etc) she has decided to always use a contract
with her clients. With start-up companies, she worked with a solicitor to create a standard
template to which she could simply add client details. This saves her the cost of having to
consult with her solicitor for every contract. She has also found one lead in a large company
where they have an existing contract. She asked her solicitor to review that contract to
ensure that her interests were protected.
Structure of consulting assignments
There are broadly three types of consulting assignments:
  one-off projects
  short-term contracts
  long-term contracts.
The type of consulting you provide will often influence the type of contracts you receive.
Marketing projects will probably be a mixture of short and long-term projects, where
training could be a series of one-off projects.
One-off contracts
These contracts take the least planning: a simple proposal normally acts as the project
plan. They normally take place in a very short time frame: one to two days. Examples
could be running one training programme for a team, reviewing a service level agreement
and making recommendations, editing one document, etc.
Advantages Disadvantages
  Give you variety of activities with   Can take as much time to sell as a
different clients – greater client long-term contract.
exposure.   Working with many such contracts
  Provide you with the opportunity can feel like a new job every day.
to try out working with the client.   Can be hard to keep all the balls up
  May act as a marketing possibility in the air.
to obtain other work with the client.   Necessitates keeping contact with more
  More clients for your client list. people.
  Simple to deliver and meet   May not allow you to work in depth with
expectations. the client and demonstrate the range of
your competence.
Short-term contracts
Short-term contracts normally have a defined beginning, middle and an end, normally
ranging from three to ten days. These short-term contracts require slightly more planning
(some of this planning can normally be charged to the client) yet still remain fairly flexible
in nature.
Advantages Disadvantages
  Give you variety of activities with   If there are too many projects at one time,
different clients – greater client exposure. they can be difficult to manage.
  Easier to balance workload: two or   There is still an element of balancing
three projects at one time. multiple activities.
210 / Be a Successful Consultant
Running Your Business: Doing the Work! / 211
  One client does not dominate your   If all clients want more work at one time
time: keep other options open. you may be unable to meet the demand.
  Build reasonable client relationships   Harder to sub-contract to others.
over a period of time.
Long-termcontracts
Long-term contracts normally have a defined beginning, middle and an end, normally
ranging over 10 days with a series of specific milestones and deliverables. These long- term
contracts require more extensive planning (some of this planning can normally be charged
to the client) and often need to be regularly monitored.
Advantages Disadvantages
  Give you focused effort with one client   If the project absorbs more than three
– can feel more like a ‘normal job’. to four days per week, marketing to other
  Able to build a strong relationship clients can suffer. A ‘famine’ may
with many contacts within one client. occur at the end of the ‘feast’.
  Can learn more about the company   There may be tax implications associated
and therefore ensure that the consulting with being an employee.
is linked to business objectives.   If the company experiences financial
  Ideally situated to continue to develop difficulties, then your entire source
more business. of revenue can be affected.
  When you have established the payment   You may miss other opportunities
cycle, you will normally receive regular because of the lack of flexibility in your
financial payments. schedule.
Case study:Marie
Marie has decided the best mix for her business is a mix of one-off standard training
programmes, and short-term projects. For one-off training programmes she will work through
the training broker, as this will reduce her sales and marketing time, yet still provide her with
a diversity of projects. She decides to focus on time management and presentation skills
standard programmes in the beginning, because she has existing materials developed, plus
she knows two people who could help meet client needs, if she is busy when they need help.
For the sales training project, she has quoted it as a short-term project with critical
stages defined in the planning stage as:
  initial design
  pilot programme
  revision to class
  train trainers through the programme
  write leader’s guides
  present a train the trainer programme for facilitators
  measure training effectiveness.
She believes that this will amount to approximately 15 days of training, but will be
concentrated into a month. She thinks that there may be an opportunity to link the sales
training programme with increases in sales. With this balance of business, she thinks that
she will have some solid income, but will also be able to open up doors for further training
when she conducts the standard training programmes.
Exercise 9.2 What type of consulting projects are the best ¢t with your business?
Thinking about your consulting business, identify what type of consulting projects, or mix
of consulting projects, might be the best for you.
  To what extent would you have the opportunity to do one-off projects? What are the
benefits that this would provide to you? What about the potential downside? How
could you manage these challenges?
  To what extent would you have the opportunity to do short-term projects? What are
the benefits that this would provide to you? What about the potential downside?
How could you manage these challenges?
  To what extent would you have the opportunity to do long-term projects? What
would you enjoy about such projects? What would be your main concern?
  What would be your ideal balance in percentages between one-off, short-term and
long-term projects?
212 / Be a Successful Consultant
Running Your Business: Doing the Work! / 213
Coaching point
The more speci¢c you are in what youwant, the more likely it is that thiswill happen. Probably
the best solution is to have a combination of all types of projects, to minimize risk and
maximize the bene¢ts of each.
Consulting project stages
Within each consulting assignment there may be a mixture of the following phases:
  planning
  needs assessment
  recommending options
  implementing recommendations
  monitoring progress
  evaluating success.
Depending on the type of consulting that you are providing, you may use some or all of the
stages described in more detail below.
Planning the assignment
The time taken to plan the assignment will be directly linked to the time spent delivering
the project.
Foul!
Planning is not awaste of time! Often time spent planning will increase the productivity and
reduce execution time ^ away tomake your consulting business more pro¢table!
For one-off and short-term projects, the assignment is often planned in the proposal stage:
basically you want to know who is going to do what, when, where and how.
T|me out!
With long-term projects, you will need to be more speci¢c, particularly in the early stages
while credibility is being built on deliverables and milestones.Make sure you:
  Build in smaller, short-term deadlines: for instance in the design of a training project,
copying the client in on the initial draft of training materials.
  Design an initial break-through project that has a high probabilityof success, such as a
needs assessment in the development of a training programme.
  Break a project into smaller do-able tasks.
Needs assessment
In most consulting assignments you need to gather all the pertinent facts or data relating to
the situation. You begin the data gathering and normally determine the primary problem
in the initial interview. During data gathering you must also gather information about
problems which the client has not shared with you.
T|me out!
There are six basic data gathering tools:
Literature search: reading any published information on the company.
Document review: reviewing all internal documentation such as operating plans and
procedures, along with external documents such as ¢nancial reports from auditors, banks
etc.
Interviews: gathering information from a variety of personnel within the company, by using a
structured plan, and probing on speci¢c issues. The dynamics are very similar to the sales
interview process where you must relax the interviewee, build trust and obtain the
necessary information.
Questionnaires: questionnaires can be distributed both internally and externally.They can be
open-ended, requiring the respondent to write in answers, or objective, where the
respondents have to rate given answers.
Direct observation: nothing can replace your own observation.
Basic research: some projects require controlled scienti¢c research to collect the necessary
data.
214 / Be a Successful Consultant
Running Your Business: Doing the Work! / 215
Recommending options
For specific types of client engagements, the information you have gathered from a variety
of sources now needs to be analysed and synthesized to produce an accurate picture of the
client situation.
T|me out!
The steps are as follows:
1. Often, the data is analysed by reviewing any statistical data (the quantitative analysis),
and by using a more subjective analysis from interviews and questionnaires.
2. When synthesizing the data you are attempting to produce a coherent picture providing
the areas most in need of your and your client’s attention.
3. Then the elements of the data are compared, prioritized and sequenced to be combined
into ameaningfulwhole and often may be presented in a comprehensive report.
The options are normally presented to the client for prioritization and implementation
planning.
Coaching point
Remember, when developing recommendations, options can be evaluated into one or more of
the following four categories:
  client must do
  client wants to do
  client can do
  client should do.
Despite our personal opinions, normally the client has the ultimate decision-making
authority!
Case study: Frank
Frank has received a go-ahead for the Support Centre reengineering project. He has outlined
two main steps for the project. The first step involves conducting research into the current
Support Centre operations, analysing current challenges and then recommending possible
solutions. This step he estimated at four weeks – 20 days at the conclusion of which he
would prepare a report and present key findings to the management team. The second step
involves the implementation of the critical recommendations. Phase One, he believes, will go
smoothly because he will be meeting with key contributors and analysing Support Centre
operations. This is pretty much in his direct control. He is somewhat concerned about Phase
Two, because internal personnel are extremely busy and may not have time to invest in
working on the implementation ideas. He wanted to try to ensure that changes were made
as a result of his analysis. He considered providing support in this implementation phase but
decided not to because he was worried about possible conflict of interest for future work.
For instance, if this Support Centre assessment is undertaken on an annual basis, it would
not be ethically fair for him to make the recommendations and then do the work – how
could the client be sure the recommendations were not just to guarantee future work for
him! As a great hands-on implementer, this was his first major experience of the difference
between consulting (making recommendations) and working full time (making decisions and
dong) for his type of work.
Implementing recommendations
Implementing recommendations is where the plan decided in the previous stage is
delivered. Sometimes implementing the recommendations is the responsibility of the client
and sometimes a consultant is used for implementation.
T|me out!
If the client is implementing the plan, you can do several things to smooth the implementation
process.
1. Determine who is responsible for implementation.
2. Understand the organizational structure.
3. Train client personnel.
4. Monitor the newsystem.
If you are implementing the plan, it is critical to manage the client’s expectations and keep
them abreast of any major changes to the deliverables. Often, in the implementation
stages, clients are unable to dedicate enough time and resources to the project, and as a
result deadlines might slip.
Case study: Joe
In Joe’s consulting work, he found his role was not dissimilar to the role he played when
216 / Be a Successful Consultant
Running Your Business: Doing the Work! / 217
employed by the company; he conducted the planning for his project, assessed options,
recommended design and marketing strategies and took responsibility fo,r implementing the
plan up to and including the product launch. Because of this focus, his accountant was
concerned about the tax authorities thinking that he was really an employee, not a
consultant. To overcome this concern, he actively looked for other one-off projects, for
instance conducting market research into possible market viability for products, to ensure
that he had a mixed client list. Plus he enjoyed the variety that this strategy presented.
Monitoring progress
Reports form an essential part of your communication with your clients. They may be the sole
means of communicating with the client, and must contain all pertinent information relative
to the progress of the project. Reports also facilitate clients’ commitment to your work and
give control of the project over to the consultant. There are two main types of reports:
  The progress report: Documents major events, problems and solutions.
  The final report: Documents the entire project, including background, methodology,
findings, recommendations and conclusions. Often the final report is the only
tangible result from the project.
T|me out!
Major sections of the ¢nal report can include:
  table of contents
  executive summary
  project background
  objectives and scope
  methodology
  results
  ¢ndings and conclusion
  recommendations.
Evaluating project success
When you evaluate your performance both you and your client benefit. Evaluation acts as
both a quality control mechanism and a learning device.
T|me out!
Stages in evaluation are:
1. Deciding what to evaluate ^ for example:
  client satisfaction
  reduced turnover
  project outcome
  employee morale
  productivity.
2. Howdo you evaluate?
  collect pre-project data
  conduct evaluation immediately after project completion
  evaluate several months after project completion
  select appropriate measurement tools based on the project: interviews, questionnaires,
observations, etc
  include the evaluation in the original proposal.
3. Documenting results
  present the entire picture
  document all results fully
  publish to other groups.
By evaluating success you can integrate learning into new consulting assignments while at
the same time using them as a marketing tool to obtain more business.
Exercise 9.3 Outlining the stages in your consulting assignment
Thinking about the type of consulting that you plan to do, fill in the table opposite to
provide the structure for your consulting projects.
Coaching point
Using this thought process with newand existing clients will help to ensure you do notmiss a
critical step thereby negatively a¡ecting the outcome.
218 / Be a Successful Consultant
Step Questions Actions for you
Planning How much planning is required
for your consulting projects?
How can you ensure you gain
the maximum return from
planning?
Needs
assessment
To what extent does your
consulting work require that
you conduct a needs
assessment?
Which combination of the tools
outlined (literature search,
document review, interviews,
questionnaires, direct
observation and other research)
will be most suited to your
client and your work?
Recommending
options
To what extent is your role to
make recommendations, and
not necessarily implement
activities?
How comfortable do you feel
with recommending options
without the power to
implement?
Implementing
recommendations
To what extent will you be
implementing the
recommendations that you
make? How can you ensure
that you protect yourself
legally and financially in this
process?
Monitoring
progress
Will you be using a progress
report and a final report?
What would need to be the
essential elements of your final
report?
Evaluating success How will you evaluate the
success of your consulting
assignments?
How can you make time for
evaluation before jumping into
the next assignment?
Running Your Business: Doing the Work! / 219
Key result area Objective (s)
Client projects
Establishing project objectives
As with the other activities which you undertake as a consultant, it is helpful to define
objectives for each project, as a way of quantifying the result you wish to achieve.
Setting clear objectives for the project side of your business will help to ensure that you
provide the services your clients require, and that will continue to develop your business.
T|me out!
There could be a varietyof project objectives under several categories:
  customer satisfaction
  productivity increase
  number of recommendations implemented
  criticalmilestones
  objectives related directly to the client needs.
The extent to which you can quantify objectives can vary from one type of consulting to
another.
Case studies:
Frank’sand Joe’s consulting assignments are easy to set objectives for: an increase in client
satisfaction and a successful product launch. For Julia’s and Marie’s business it is more
difficult to quantify direct tangible results from a training programme or implementing an
HR infrastructure because many other factors can come into play and affect the outcome.
Exercise 9.4 Writing your project objectives
  Take a moment and review the types of objectives you could write for a client
project.
  Now write a SMART objective for one such client project below.
220 / Be a Successful Consultant
Running Your Business: Doing the Work! / 221
Checklist
Have you:
  Decided whether you will use a contract or not?
  Decided whether one-off, short-term or long-term projects are the best for you and
your business?
  Gathered samples of projects you completed at jobs as samples for clients?
  Decided how you would like your work evaluated?
  Met with other consultants who do similar work to see how they manage projects?
Scorecard
Before leaving this chapter, ask yourself the following questions:
  As you consider your consulting business, towhat extentwill your business comprise
one-o¡, short-term and long-term projects? How will you ensure that you capitalize on
the advantages of each type of consulting work and how will you avoid any potential
disadvantages?
  As you look at each speci¢c project, how will you ensure that you put the correct process
in place to ensure the e¡ectiveness of each contract? How will you ensure your planning
is e¡ective? What will you do to keep the client informed on progress? How will you
measure the success of the project?
  When you review your objectives for consulting projects, howclear are they as to the
result that they will achieve? Who could look at them and provide youwith feedback to
ensure they meet the SMARTcriteria? Are there clear bene¢ts to the client from the
goals? Howeasy is it to quantify your objectives?
CHAPTER TEN
Moving IntoAction
So what will you do now?
By this point you may be thinking ‘What a lot of work?!’ Yes it is and No it isn’t!
  ‘Yes it is’: consulting is not a ‘magic pill ’. Like many work opportunities it has
inherent advantages and challenges. By understanding more about consulting and
yourself, it is possible to make a successful alternative life style as a consultant.
  ‘No it isn’t’: many of these activities take place automatically when you are
working.We don’t necessarily think about them, we just do them. Think about your
normal working day and how you do your job. If you tried to document that, it
could look pretty scary!
For every person who says that they will never take a ‘real job’ ever again because they
enjoy consulting so much, there are an equal number who, having tried consulting, return
with enthusiasm to full-time work. There is no right or wrong decision: it is dependent on
your needs and preferences.
Coaching point
The most common reason that people choose to go back to a job is that they struggle with
selling their services. No matter how great you are at doing something, you have to get in
front of a prospect and sell the bene¢ts to them.
In this book we have tried to share with you the critical steps necessary to establish your
own consulting business, combined with exercises that you could complete to bring the
ideas to life and make your business a reality.
In this book:
222
Moving Into Action / 223
Section One covered Getting Started: to make sure you begin on the right foot.
  In Chapter One you were introduced to the dynamic business environment and
understood why consulting is a viable and growing option for many individuals. It
defined consulting, and gave parameters for the consulting industry as a whole.
It included the following exercises:
Exercise 1.1: What does consulting mean to you?
Exercise 1.2: Would you benefit from working for a consulting firm?
  Chapter Two described the strengths and weaknesses of consulting as a profession,
and showed the critical characteristics of successful consultants. Knowing the
strengths that you bring to the role of a consultant and understanding potential
challenges, can help you succeed as a consultant.
It included the following exercises:
Exercise 2.1: Consulting advantages and disadvantages
Exercise 2.2: Consulting advantages and disadvantages to you
Exercise 2.3: Assessing your ability as a consultant
Exercise 2.4: Animal characteristics
Exercise 2.5: Choosing a mascot
Exercise 2.6: Exploring temperaments
Exercise 2.7: Is consulting for you?
  Chapter Three helped you to get started by defining your vision and unique selling
proposition. In addition, by conducting SWOT analysis on your potential business,
you were able to establish key result areas for your business that exploited
opportunities and minimized threats.
It included the following exercises:
Exercise 3.1: Defining your vision statement
Exercise 3.2: Looking at your strengths and weaknesses
Exercise 3.3: Defining your unique selling position
Exercise 3.4: Conducting a SWOT analysis for your business
Exercise 3.5: Deciding your key result areas
  Chapter Four provided you with more detailed skills and techniques to establish
your business direction by writing a clear business plan, deciding the best business
structure and being specific about expectations for your business by setting
objectives and milestones. It included the following exercises:
Exercise 4.1: Writing your business plan
Exercise 4.2: Choosing your consulting business structure
Exercise 4.3: Writing your objectives
Exercise 4.4: Writing tasks and milestones
  In Section Two we covered Getting Clients: the fundamental difference between
being an employee and being a consultant:
  Chapter Five moved you from planning your strategy into business development
mode, by introducing the key elements that you need to market your business and
the promotional strategies that will raise awareness of your services. You were
encouraged to formalize your network to ensure that you have the key building
block for your business. It included the following exercises:
Exercise 5.1: Deciding your market research approach
Exercise 5.2: Deciding one marketing objective
Exercise 5.3: Deciding your market segment
Exercise 5.4: Defining your service; features and benefits
Exercise 5.5: Deciding your promotional activities
Exercise 5.6: Building your network
Exercise 5.7: Building your monthly marketing plan
  Chapter Six gave you skills and techniques in the most critical areas of success for a
new consultant, selling your services. Using the telephone, face to face meetings and
proposals you were introduced to the critical steps necessary to move the
prospective client ‘down the funnel’ to become a paying customer. It included the
following exercises:
Exercise 6.1: What are your fears about selling?
Exercise 6.2: Understanding your sales process
Exercise 6.3: Establishing sales objectives
Exercise 6.4: Which communication channel do you prefer?
Exercise 6.5: Preparing your 30 second commercial
Exercise 6.6: Preparing for a telephone call
Exercise 6.7: Evaluating your telephone effectiveness
224 / Be a Successful Consultant
Moving Into Action / 225
Exercise 6.8: Evaluating your person to person effectiveness
Exercise 6.9: Deciding your proposal approach
In Section Three we examined Getting Money: you can have all the clients in the world but
if they are not paying you, you might find it hard to live!
  Chapter Seven introduced you to the critical tools for measuring your financial
business success and then gave you ideas on how to ensure that you charge enough
for your services to make your business profitable and pay all the necessary
overheads. It included the following exercises:
Exercise 7.1: What are your start up costs and estimated monthly expenses?
Exercise 7.2: How will you fund your business?
Exercise 7.3: Establishing financial objectives
Exercise 7.4: Creating your cash flow statement
Exercise 7.5: Calculating your target hourly rate
Exercise 7.6: Choosing your pricing structure
Exercise 7.7: Evaluating sub contracting for you
Finally in Section Four we reviewed Getting Organized: some basic principles for raising
your productivity and increasing output.
  Chapter Eight provided ideas and techniques for organizing your business for
maximum effectiveness. The following exercises would help you in this endeavour:
Exercise 8.1: Will you work from home or rent an office?
Exercise 8.2: Selecting your office equipment
Exercise 8.3: Identifying administrative support
Exercise 8.4: Prioritizing your tasks
Exercise 8.5: Planning next week
Exercise 8.6: Getting organized
Exercise 8.7: Establishing organizational objectives
  Chapter Nine talked about the different types of projects and how to ensure that
they are successful. Finally we were able to talk about the part that most people
associate with consulting – actually doing the work – with the following exercises:
Exercise 9.1: Will you use a formal contract or not?
Questions to ask
Getting started:
  Have you analysed the strengths and
weaknesses of consulting objectively?
  Have you decided your vision and
established your key result areas?
  Have you defined specific measurable,
time-based short term objectives for
yourself?
Getting clients
  Have you begun to decide a
marketing strategy?
  Have you conducted some telephone
calls and face-to-face meetings?
  Have you begun to formalize and
develop your network?
Getting money
  Have you priced your product or
service competitively, yet realistically?
  Have you decided how you will ensure
the client pays?
Getting organized
  Have you got yourself organized?
  Have you decided what type of
projects are the best fit?
Actions this month
Exercise 9.2: What type of projects are the best fit with your business?
Exercise 9.3: Outlining the stages in your consulting assignment
Exercise 9.4: Writing your project objectives
Exercise 10.1 What will you do this month?
To help you decide your plan of attack for the next month, fill in the table below.
226 / Be a Successful Consultant
Moving Into Action / 227
Case studies
All our consultants have successfully launched their consulting practices, but in very
different ways!
Joe has got going quickly by seizing the opportunity to work on a consulting basis for his
previous employer. He is delighted that he is generating revenue right out of the door. His
greatest challenge will be completing some of the strategic planning activities, which he
views as unnecessary, but which provide critical guidance in long-term direction. He
primarily used Section Two for ideas for getting clients.
Frank adopted a more methodical, structured approach, and completed Section One to
ensure that he was clear about his offering before he presented himself to clients. His use
of his network has brought him results surprisingly quickly – he didn’t realize when he was
at work how much people respected his output!
Julia has again adopted a more organized approach, with a focus on clearly identifying and
articulating her business and marketing strategy so that her energy is focused entirely on
relevant activities. She used all the sections of the book because she enjoyed the overview it
provided to her of all the steps in the consulting process. As a business person, much of the
content was a review of existing knowledge geared towards the consulting industry. She
was pleasantly surprised at the responses and business she received from her mailshot to
small companies.
Mariebegan forcefully with marketing. Having been a consultant before, she understood the
pros and cons and was committed to making her consulting business work long-term this
time. She used the funnel extensively to prioritize her contacts, so that she did not become
overwhelmed with social rather than business focused interactions. The combination of
using a distribution channel (training broker) and her own short-term projects has proved to
be very successful.
If you follow the steps in this book, and are committed to trying the process, consulting
can provide you with a greater control over your own destiny, more opportunities for
creativity, the ability to make an impact and help you produce results for clients.
If you decide to return to full-time work, worst case you will have gained a
perspective on a different lifestyle and gained some skills to help you back in work.
Good luck with whichever choice you make!
Scorecard
Before completing this book, ask yourself the following questions:
  Based on everything that you have read, be honest with yourself about howmuch you
would like the constant multiplexing of projects,marketing activities and administrative
tasks.What would work for you? What would be sources of stress?
  What are the bene¢ts to you of consulting? Towhat extentwill the bene¢ts outweigh the
potential costs?
  What are you going to dowithin the next month to either make it happen,make a decision
or get a new job?
228 / Be a Successful Consultant
TheMyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was designed to try to assess which of Jung’s
cognitive processes we use most easily and then in what sequence we use them. It provides a
four-letter code (e.g. ESTJ) which in essence, acts as a license plate to broadly describe how
an individual might approach the world and the typical behaviors that they might
demonstrate.
The Four Preferences
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI1) attempts to assess our preferences on four
dichotomies as shown below.
VISUALThe Four Preferences
DIRECTION ENERGY
FLOWS
Extraverting Introverting
FUNCTION: GATHERING INFORMATION (PERCEIVING)
Sensing iNtuiting
FUNCTION: DECISION MAKING
(JUDGING)
Thinking Feeling
FUNCTION USED IN EXTERNALWORLD
Judging Perceiving
229
Extraverting
Often drawn out to interact
Act first and then think (initiate)
Process information in the external world – talk
everything over
May be easier to ‘read:’
Self-disclose readily
May talk more than listen
May communicate with enthusiasm
May use more expressive body language
May respond quickly with a verbal stream of
consciousness
Introverting
Often pulled in to reflect
Think first and then act (respond)
Process information in the internal world – think
everything over
May be harder to ‘read:’
Share personal information with few, close people
May listen more than talk
May keep enthusiasm to self
Use more reserved body language
May respond after taking time to think – more
deliberate speaking pattern
Extraverting and Introverting
Many analysts of personality think of Extraverting and Introverting in terms of where you
get your energy: from the outer world (Extraverting) or the inner world (Introverting) but
this is not how Jung originally described the two terms.
  Extraverting is defined as when your energy naturally first flows outward to the
external world of people and events and then inwards to the world of ideas and
thoughts.
  Introverting is defined as when your energy naturally first flows inward to ideas and
thoughts, and then outwards to the world of people and events.
We have to live in both worlds! Just because an individual has an extraverting preference does
not mean that they never re£ect and allow their energy to move inwards. In the sameway, just
because an individual has an introverting preference does not mean that they nevercome out to
interact! It is a matter of where your energy £ows most naturally.
Now look at Extraverting and Introverting, represented by E\I in the diagram. Review the
characteristic behaviors associated with an Extraverting or Introverting orientation in the
chart below.
Extraverting and Introverting
Put an X by the orientation that seems most like you in the space provided.
My Orientation is toward: Extraverting (E)& Introverting (I)&
230 / Be a Successful Consultant
Sensing
Tune into information that is concrete and real: see,
hear, smell, touch, taste, and feel
Notice concrete detail like changes in someone’s
appearance; can be frustrated when others are
oblivious to the concrete environment
Like to use tangible, physical, or practical skills
Tend to specific: give details and examples in a linear
step-by-step approach or in literal form
Speak and hear literally
Tend to present concrete evidence either sequentially
or briefly and to the point
Move from specific to general: start with the steps
and move to the end result
Can appear realistic or too focused on the details
iNtuiting
Tune into information that is abstract or theoretical:
concepts, theories, patterns and insights
Notice and interpret what ’s between the lines in
communication; can be frustrated when others take
things literally
Like to philosophize and develop new concepts
Tend to be figurative with general descriptions and
theories, using analogies and metaphors
Speak and hear figuratively
Tend to present information in impressions or
organized around a conceptual framework without
concrete examples
Move from general to specific: start with the end
result and then build up the steps
Can appear visionary or impractical
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) / 231
Sensing and iNtuiting
Jung identified two main ways that we tend to gather or perceive information: Sensing and
iNtuiting.
  Individuals who prefer the Sensing process, tend to primarily gather information
through their senses such as sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, and balance. They also
tend to trust whatever can be measured or documented and what is real and
concrete. As a result, they may initially appear to doubt intuitive insights. They tend
to use more concrete language, being more literal and using specific words.
  Individuals who prefer the iNtuiting process gather information through ideas,
patterns, possibilities hypotheses, and inferred meanings. They also tend to trust
abstract concepts, ideas and potential, minimizing the importance of concrete
evidence. They tend to use more abstract language, being more general and
figurative.
Now look at Sensing and iNtuiting, represented by S/N in the diagram. Review the
characteristic behaviors associated with a Sensing and iNtuiting orientation in the chart
below.
My information gathering process is: Sensing& Intuiting&
THINKING
Feelings need to be understood to be truly felt
Conflict can be intriguing
Need to be in control of their emotions
Logical analysis
Remember numbers and figures more easily
Decisions are based on logical, objective criteria
Definition of fairness is one standard for all
Others say I sometimes appear heartless, insensitive,
and uncaring
FEELING
Feelings are felt and often difficult to explain
Conflict is gut wrenching
Like to be swept away in emotion,
need to express their emotions
Emotional intensity
Remember faces and names more easily
Decisions are based on personal, subjective criteria
Definition of fairness is caring and based on
personal factors
Others say I sometimes appear overemotional,
illogical and weak
Thinking and Feeling
Jung identified two main ways that we tend to make decisions or judge events: Thinking
and Feeling. Both are rational decision-making processes, they are simply based on
different criteria.
  Individuals who make decisions based on Thinking, tend to make decisions
impersonally, logically and analytically. They may see criteria as black and white:
‘the facts ma’am, just the facts!’
  Individuals who make decisions based on Feeling, tend to be more interested in
subjective criteria such as personal values, the people involved, and special
circumstances. They may see criteria as shades of gray.
Now look at Thinking and Feeling, represented by T/F in the diagram. Review the
characteristic behaviors associated with a Thinking and Feeling orientation in the chart
below.
My decision making process is: Thinking& Feeling&
Judging and Perceiving
The final preference, the Judging and Perceiving Preference, was added to Jung’s typology
by Myers and Briggs to help to explain which function individuals use in the external
world.
232 / Be a Successful Consultant
Judging
Most comfortable after decisions are made and then
stick to it
Set goals and work towards achieving them on time
Prefer knowing what events are coming up
Finish the task in a structured manner and enjoy the
result
Deadlines are serious: time is finite
Push for closure
Tend to schedule time, plan and organize
Perceiving
Most comfortable leaving options open or quick to
change if circumstances change
Change goals as information becomes available
Like adapting to new situations
Enjoy the process and complete the task in order to
move onto the next project
Deadlines are elastic: time is a renewable resource
Like ‘going with the flow’
Tend to be more spontaneous
The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) / 233
  Individuals with a Judging preference prefer to achieve closure, make decisions and
make plans either to organize resources to achieve an end goal, or to push for
closure to achieve group harmony. Therefore individuals with a Judging preference
tend to like to make a plan and stick to it.
  Individuals with a Perceiving preference prefer to remain flexible, open to
possibilities and enjoy exploring options from current concrete data, or generating
possibilities and employing future patterns. Therefore individuals with a Perceiving
preference either make decisions and change them easily (Artisans) or keep their
options open and postpone making a decision (Idealists and Rationals).
Place an X in the box beside the orientation that seems most like you.
My Orientation is toward: Judging& Perceiving&
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
235
Further Reading
Berens, Linda V., Ernst, Linda K., Robb, Judith E. and Smith, Melissa A., Temperament
and Type Dynamics. The Facilitator’s Guide. Huntington Beach. California:
Temperament Research Institute, 1995.
Berens, Linda V., Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to Temperament –
2.0. Huntington Beach. California: Telos, 2000.
Covey, S., The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Fireside, Simon &
Schuster, 1989.
Delunas, E., Survival Games Personalities Play. SunInk Publications, 1992.
Handy, C., The Age of Unreason. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1990.
Handy, C., The Age of Paradox. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994.
Handy, C., Beyond Certainty. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.
Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K. H., Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing
Human Resources. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
Hirsh, S., and Kummerow, J., Life Types. New York: Warner Books,1989.
Isachsen, O., Joining the Entrepreneurial Elite. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black, 1997.
Kelley, Robert Earl, Consulting. Scribner, October, 1986
Keirsey, D., Portraits of Temperament. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Books, 1987.
Keirsey, D., Please Understand Me II. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Books, 1998.
Keirsey, D, and Bates, M., Please Understand Me. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis
Books, 1978.
Kriegel, R. J., and Patler, L., If It Ain’t Broke, Break It. New York: Warner Books, 1992.
Kriegel, R.J., Brandt, David., Sacred Cows Make the Best Burgers. New York: Warner
Books, 1997.
Lakein, Alan, How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life. New American Library,
1996.
Nash, S., Turning Team Performance Inside Out. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black, 1999.
Nash, S., Dating, Mating and Relating, Oxford, UK: How To Books, 2000.
Nash, S. and Nash D., Deliver Outstanding Customer Service, Oxford, UK: How To
Books, 2002.
Nash, S. and Nash D., Delighting Your Customers. Oxford, UK: How To Books 2001.
Quenk, N., Beside Ourselves: Our Hidden Personality in Everyday Life. Palo Alto, CA:
Davies-Black, 1993.
Quenk, N., In the Grip: Our Hidden Personality. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists
Press, 1996.
Tieger, P. D., and Barron-Tieger, B., Do What You Are. Boston: Little, Brown, 1995.
Timmons, Jeffrey A., The Entrepreneurial Mind. Brick House Publications. March, 1989.
Other reference sources
Barclay’s Bank Research Review, Starting up in Business, July 1999.
Daily Telegraph, Working for Yourself Book.
Association of Management Consultants study ‘Personal Qualifications of Management
Consultants’.
IWant To Be My Own Boss – Inside the New Self Employed Revolution. Alodis/MORI poll,
2000.
Institute of Management Consultants, 32–33 Hatton Garden, London EC1N 8DL. Tel:
(020) 7242 2140.
Federation of Small Businesses, Whittle Way, Blackpool Business Park, Blackpool, FY4
2FE. Tel: (01253) 336000.
Department of Trade and Industry, Department of Social Security, the Inland Revenue
and Department for Education and Employment also print useful pamphlets.
Other books
Small Business Guide (4th edn), C Barrow Business Publications.
Be your Own Boss, David McMullan (Kogan Page).
Croner’s Reference book for the self employed and Smaller Business, Croner Publications.
Going Freelance, Godfrey Golzen (Kogan Page).
Business information
New Venture Creation, Jeffry A. Timmons.
Up Your Own Organization, Donald M. Dible.
Self improvement
First Things First, Steven Covey.
236 / Be a Successful Consultant
Index
adapting style, 136, 137
administration, 19, 21, 55, 56, 163, 197,
199, 205, 206
administrative support, 47, 190, 191, 225
advertising, 51, 52, 94, 95–6, 98, 100, 102,
103, 150, 151
artisan, 29–30, 32, 135, 136
ask for status, 132, 134
bad debts, 149, 157, 162, 172–3, 177
benefits, 82, 89–93, 97, 129, 131, 132, 137
billing rates, 162, 163–4, 166, 170, 177
business cards, 36, 81, 97, 98, 105, 129, 150
business development, 23, 52, 56, 61, 64,
65, 72, 83, 100, 106, 122, 145, 150, 157,
224
business environment, 3
business plan, 54, 55, 59, 62, 63, 65, 66, 69,
70, 78, 81, 153, 157, 199, 223, 224
capital, 6, 14, 78, 87, 100, 153, 166
cash flow statements, 61, 64, 149, 153, 157,
159–60, 166, 177, 225
characteristics of successful consultants,
17–25
clients, 81, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98, 110, 111, 113,
115, 116, 117, 118, 130, 133, 140, 141
closed questions, 130, 133
collecting fees, 172
communicating with different
temperaments, 136–7
competence (conscious and unconscious),
41–4
consulting
advantages and disadvantages, 15–17
assignments, 209, 214, 218–20
defined, 6
industry, 9, 223, 228
process, 19
contracts, 52, 110, 166, 174, 207, 209–11
costs, 4, 6, 7, 10, 62, 64, 68, 70, 97, 102, 122,
142, 149, 153, 155, 157–60, 162, 164,
177, 182, 185, 187, 209, 225
cover letters, 97, 98, 140
credibility, 11, 21–2, 23, 24, 25, 68, 96, 99,
103, 119, 125, 129, 153, 171, 214
daily planning, 197, 199, 201–2
database management, 56, 72, 75
distribution (place), 82, 100, 102–4, 118,
193, 228
e-mail, 100, 113
engage the client, 129, 130–3
equipment, 72, 150, 158, 159, 181, 184–9,
205, 206, 225, 229
ethics, 23–5, 34
evaluation, 217–9
exhibitions, 94, 99, 103, 105
features, 52, 82, 89–93, 97, 129, 132–4, 224
fee arrangements, 166–9
fees (price), 166–9
financial objectives, 74, 149, 156–7, 177,
225
financial plan, 61, 64
funding your business, 64, 152–5
goals, 34, 38, 50, 53, 61, 64, 78, 86, 106,
109, 115, 130, 138, 142, 156, 177, 221
guardian, 30–2, 135–6
idealist, 30–3, 135, 137
importance, 192–5, 197
incompetence (conscious and
unconscious), 41–4
237
key clients, 106
key result areas, 39, 49–56, 57, 58, 59, 66,
70, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78, 87, 197, 198, 203,
204, 206, 223, 226
legal structure, 59, 66–70
lifestyle, 23, 24, 206, 228
limited company, 66–9
listening, 21, 131–3, 145
long-term contracts, 213–9
loss , 61, 68, 142, 153, 158
mailings, 94, 101, 103
market
analysis, 61, 64
research, 82, 83, 85, 99, 102, 108, 109,
171, 217, 224
segmentation, 33, 48, 52, 54, 61, 64, 82,
87–8
marketing
communications, 51, 94, 97–8, 103
plan, 61, 64, 81–104, 108, 109, 224
milestones, 50, 59, 62, 70, 74, 75–6, 77, 78,
82, 85, 138, 167, 172, 192, 194, 196, 197,
198, 200, 203, 211, 214, 220, 224
mission statement, 38
monitoring progress, 213, 217, 219
monthly expenses, 149, 151, 225
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI1), 31,
32, 33, 229–33
needs assessment, 114, 213, 214, 219
network, 11, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 34, 38, 47,
52, 81, 99, 102, 104–6, 108, 109, 113,
114, 115, 116, 119, 122, 126, 127, 145,
177, 195, 224, 226, 228
networking, 22, 23, 52, 54, 84, 104, 105,
112, 150, 197, 199, 206
newsletters, 52, 72, 75, 86, 94, 95, 101, 103,
105
objectives, 49, 59, 66, 70–4, 75, 77, 78, 81,
82, 83, 86–7, 97, 108, 110, 115–6, 130,
138, 149, 156–7, 177, 192–3, 196, 197,
198, 201, 203, 205, 217, 220, 221, 224,
225, 226
office equipment, 150, 189, 205, 225
office space, 10, 151, 181–3, 206
one-off projects, 210
open-ended questions, 129–30, 133, 145
operations, 9, 49, 66, 125, 128, 161, 199,
215, 216
organisation objectives, 205
organisation (of paper), 203–5
overhead expenses, 6, 7, 68, 69, 161, 162,
164, 225
paraphrasing, 131–2, 145
partnership, 66–8, 69, 87, 102, 195
personality, 22, 24, 25, 26, 33, 34, 41
place (distribution), 82, 100, 102–4, 118,
193, 228
planning, 52, 53, 62, 84, 92, 102, 103, 114,
119, 123, 144, 193, 196–9, 201, 204–6,
210–11, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 224,
225, 228
price (fee structures), 166–9
prioritizing, 192–5, 225
product development/definition), 52, 56, 72,
193
profit, 39, 59, 61, 63, 66, 68, 87, 149, 153,
154, 156, 158–9, 160, 162, 164, 171, 194,
213, 223
project fees, 167
project objectives, 220
projects, 199, 209, 210–4, 217, 218, 221,
225, 226, 228
promotional activities, 82, 86, 94–103, 108,
224
proposals, 52, 98, 110, 113, 115, 116, 119,
137–9, 145, 162, 185, 193, 199, 224
prospects, 19, 52, 66, 71, 72, 74, 75, 90, 98,
99, 100, 102, 105, 106, 107, 113, 114,
115, 116, 119, 121, 129, 130, 132, 133,
238 / Be a Successful Consultant
139, 140, 145, 186, 187, 188, 189, 195,
203, 222, 224
public relations, 94, 96
questions to ask, 142–5
rational, 29–30, 33, 135–6
recommending options, 213, 215, 219
research and development, 53, 62, 65, 161
retainer, 168–9
revenue statements, 157–8
rule of two, 110–3, 164, 224
sales
communication channels, 4, 116–7, 119,
144
meeting, 129–134
objectives, 110, 115–6, 157, 224
process, 114, 115, 133, 134, 145
self-employed market, 3, 5–6
selling skills, 121–134
service businesses, 210, 211
Shamrock organization, 4–5
short-term contracts, 210–11
skills, 4, 5, 20–2, 24, 25, 31, 33, 34, 35, 38,
42, 43, 46, 47, 49, 81, 112, 117, 145, 161
sole proprietor/trader, 66, 68, 69
sources of capital, 153–4
speeches, 94, 98–9, 103
start-up costs, 6, 7, 149, 151–2, 153, 177,
225
stationery, 10, 150, 184, 188, 189
strengths, 14, 17, 25–6, 32, 36, 41, 42, 47,
57, 58, 60, 63, 111, 142, 223, 226
sub-contracting, 173–4, 177
suspects, 72, 106, 113, 115–6, 119, 121, 145,
171, 195
SWOT analysis, 36, 46–7, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63,
66, 223
telephone calls – managing, 116, 122–4,
145, 194, 199, 226
telephone marketing, 122–4
temperament, 26–7, 29, 30, 35, 134–7, 223
thirty second commercial, 120
trade shows, 94, 99–100, 103
ultimate benefit, 89–90, 91, 92, 93
unique selling proposition, 36, 41, 44–6, 49,
57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 86, 120, 223
urgency, 192, 194, 195, 206
utilization rate, 163–5
vision statement, 37–40, 57, 60, 63, 223
weaknesses, 17, 26, 32, 36, 41–3, 44, 46, 47,
48, 58, 60, 142, 223, 226
web site, 98, 100, 102, 103, 185
weekly planning, 197–9, 206
working from home, 184
Index / 239

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