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英文合同导读
作者:王辉   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2012-04-04 17:03:23

英文合同导读
王辉
目录
第一章英文合同概述(General Introduction)..............................................................................................1
第一节合同与协议:(Contract and Agreement)................................................................................1
第二节合同的种类与名称(Categories and Titles)........................................................................2
第二章英文合同的特色(Features of English Contracts).......................................................................4
第一节篇章结构特点(Text Structure)...........................................................................................5
第二节用词特点(Wording)..........................................................................................................12
第三节句式结构特点(Sentence Structure)..................................................................................18
第四节时态特点(Tense)....................................................................................................................21
第三章英文合同中常见的用词及句型(Usual Wordings and Sentence Patterns)..............................23
第一节合同常用词(Usual Wording)(1)............................................................................................23
第二节英语合同的常用句型(Sentence Patterns)...........................................................................39
第三节合同各部分常用例句与用词................................................................................................44
第四章英文合同一般条款........................................................................................................................47
第一节定义条款(Definition Clauses)..........................................................................................47
第二节合同转让条款(Assignment Clauses)...............................................................................48
第三节完整合同与修改(Entire Agreement/Modification to be in writing)................................49
第四节保证与担保条款(Indemnification and Warranty)............................................................51
第五节解除与终止条款(Rescission and Termination)................................................................52
第六节违约条款(Default Clauses)..............................................................................................54
第七节争议解决条款(Dispute Resolution).................................................................................56
第八节不可抗力条款(Force Majeure)........................................................................................59
第九节杂项条款(Miscellaneous).................................................................................................60
第五章英文合同特殊条款(Special Clauses)............................................................................................62
第一节保密条款(Confidentiality)................................................................................................62
第二节保险条款(Insurance)........................................................................................................63
第三节竞业禁止条款(Non-competition).....................................................................................63
第四节不形成聘用等关系条款(No Constitution of Employment, etc.)..........................................63
第五节所有权和风险条款(Risk of loss and title).......................................................................64
第六章英文合同导读范例(Model Contract for Reading Guidance)......................................................65
附录(Schedule ):合同术语CONTRACT TERNIMOLOGY..................................................................85
主要参考书目(Bibliography).....................................................................................................................88
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第一章英文合同概述(General Introduction)
In view of all this, we are making a binding agreement, putting it in writing, and our leaders, our Levites and our priests are affixing their seals to it.(Nehemiah BIBLE NIV)
因这一切的事,我们立确实的约,写在册上。我们的首领,利未人,和祭司都签了名。【尼西米】《圣经》新国际版
合同,古称契约(港台现仍多用此语),"契"者即证券,证明买卖、抵押、租赁等关系的文书,如契据、房契等。古代典籍中常见此语,《易·系辞》就有"后时圣人易之以书契。" "约"者即共同商定的事,共同议定要遵守的条文,如和约、条约等。《三国演义》中就有"昔高祖约法三章,黎民皆感其德。"
而西方在早在〈〈圣经〉〉中就有关于上帝在西乃山与以色列人立约的记载。挪亚方舟就是籍着上帝与挪亚的契约而建造的:But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons'''' wives with thee. (但我要与你立约,你以及你的儿子、妻子和儿媳,要与你一同进入方舟。)
第一节合同与协议:(Contract and Agreement)
而在现代英语合同中,合同一般成为Contract,协议一般称为Agreement。那么Contract和Agreement是一回事吗?他们之间又有什么关系呢?《中华人民共和国民法通则》第85条规定:"合同是当事人之间设立、变更、终止民事关系的协议"(A contract shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish, change or terminate their civil relationship)。《中华人民共和国合同法》第二条规定:"合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关系的协议"(Contracts referred to in this Law are agreements between equal natural persons, legal persons and other organizations for the purpose of establishing, altering and terminating mutual civil rights and obligations)。
美国法律整编合同法第二次汇编定义合同为:"合同乃为一个允诺或一组允诺。违反此一允诺时,法律给予救济;或其允诺之履行,法律在某些情况下视之为一项义务。"(A contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives a remedy, or the performance of which the law in some way recognizes as a duty.) (Restatement,Second, Contracts, Section 1)这一定义在Steven H. Gifts 编著的Law Dictionary被完全引述. 但一般而言,Contract,乃两个以上当事人间具有法律约束力之协议,或由一个以上当事人所为一组具有法律约束力之允诺。(A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties or a set of legal binding promises made by one party or more.(G. C. Lindsay, Contract, 3rd ed. 1992) 这一表述在L.B. Curzon编撰的Dictionary of Law中概括为"A legally binding agreement creating enforceable obligations." Chris Turner在其编撰的Contract Law中定义的更为具体明了"A contract is an agreement between two parties by which both are bound in law and which can therefore be enforced in a court or other equivalent forum."即合同就是对合同方具有法律上约束力,可由法院或其他同等管辖地强制执行的协议。
至于agreement,L.B. Curzon的Dictionary of Law定义为:"A consensus of minds, or evidence of such consensus, in spoken or written form, relating to anything done or to be done."是对已做和待做的有关事宜以口头或书面形式做出的相同意思表示或该意思表示的证据。
Black's Law Dictionary给Agreement下了两个定义:一个是"a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances,"即双方或多方就某些过去或将来事实或相关权利、义务或权利义务的履行而达成一致的理解和愿望。另一个是"The consent of two or more persons concurring
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respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation."即两个或多个当事人,为了约定单方责任或相互责任,就财产、权利、利益的移转取得的一致同意。
Contract(合同)和Agreement(协议)到底能不能相互替换呢?让我们来看看英文合同相关书籍和词典的说法。Chris Turner在其Contract Law中是这样阐述合同的成立:"There are three key ingredients to formation (of contracts): agreement-based on mutuality over the terms, agreement exists when a valid acceptance follows a valid offer; consideration-given by both sides, the quid pro quo, and the proof that the bargain exists; intention to create legal relations-since a contract is legally enforceable, unlike mere gratuitous promises. 即合同成立的三个要件:协议(基于要约与承诺形成对条款的相互一致而存在)、约因(双方付出的对价及对价存在的证据)和设立法律关系的意愿。(合同具有法律上的执行力,不同于纯粹的无偿赠予的允诺)这里也是用agreement来解释contract的,认为contract(合同)是一种符合一定条件的agreement(协议)。
在英语法律用语中虽然多用"agreement"来解释"contract",其实也有偶用"contract"解释"agreement"的情形,如:Agreement,…(2) A contract (The Law Dictionary) 甚至有在同一句中交替使用的实例,如:If the contract contains an innocent mistake, you can get out of the agreement if the mistake is important. (What Should I Know About Contracts, The State Bar of California, 2 Edi. 1984), 还有更为明确的:Agreement. Synonym for Contract (Robert LeRoy & Kenneth A. Buths, Business Law and Taxes, "Glossary", 1984)
综上所述,我们不难看出,汉语的法律用语仅用协议来解释合同,而英语的法律用语往往不很严格,多用Agreement解释Contract, 但也有用Contract解释Agreement的情形, 虽说大多情况Contract与Agreement有所区别,有时候两者可以作为同义词互换使用。作为具有法律意义的正式文件,两者性质上是一样的,但就广义的协议和合同来讲,还是有区别的:
从内容、条款上看,合同较为具体、详尽,着眼于微观,而协议则较为原则、粗疏,致力于宏观。实践中往往合作方就某一项目达成协议对有关原则问题作出约定,然后在此基础上签订合同,再全面明确各项具体的细节。
从涉及范围上看,合同的标的往往比较单一集中,也很明确;通常都是一事一议,就事论事,而协议的标的往往比较广泛;一项大型项目的协议往往包括或分解成若干个具体的合同。
从书写格式上看,合同已基本格式化了,大家可以看到许多的合同范本;而协议的格式相对灵活一些,没有什么固定的格式。
而狭义的协议和合同并无分别,只是用语上和习惯上的称呼而已。
第二节合同的种类与名称(Categories and Titles)
一份英文法律文件, 到底是不是英文合同, 就要看它的内容是否符合合同的要求。一般而言合同不外乎包括人、事、时、地、物五大要素,也就是4W1H (Who, When, Where, What, How),如果你手上的文件内容包括了这五项要素而且签署生效,该文件就应该具有了合同的性质,而不论它是以何面目出现的。常见的英文合同名称可分为以下四大类:
一、合同、协议(Contract; Agreement)
文件名称直接标明"Contract"或"Agreement"是最常见的英文合同。《中华人民共和国》第九章到第二十三章就合同种类作了概括,它们分别是买卖合同;供用电、水、气、热力合同;赠与合同;借款合同;租赁合同;融资租赁合同;承揽合同;建设工程合同;运输合同;技术合同;保管合同;仓储合同;委托合同;行纪合同;居间合同等十五大类。(Sales Contracts, Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas or Heat, Donation Contracts, Loan Contracts, Leasing Contracts, Financial Leasing Contract,
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Work-for-hire Contracts, Construction Project Contracts, Carriage Contracts, Technology Contracts, Safe-keeping Contracts, Warehousing Contracts, Agency Appointment Contracts, Commission Agency Contracts, Brokerage Contracts)
而常见的协议有委托代理协议(Agency Agreement)、合伙协议( Partnership Agreement、股份转让协议(Shares Assignment Agreement)、保密协议(Confidentiality Agreement)、竞业禁止协议(Non-compete Agreement)、聘用协议(Employment Agreement)等等。
二、意向书(Letter of Intent)
文件名称如果标明"Letter of Intent", "Memorandum of Understanding"(简称MOU, 通常翻译为谅解备忘录),甚至只称为"Memorandum"(简称Memo,通常称之为备忘录)。另外,也有标明"Minute of Talks"(即会谈纪要)。
这些法律文件往往是当事人双方在商洽合作中形成的,可以称之为准合同文件,虽然,从名称上看,它们似乎不是合同或者协议,但这些法律文件,如果经当事人签订,即具有一定的法律约束力。甚至,由于没有形成正式的合同或协议,而径直依据这些文件而进行实质的合作,使之具有合同或协议的性质。那就是说,合同的效力不能被其名称所拘束,如果上述的法律文件,其中完整明确地记载了交易的条款,当事人如果依据该条款内容履行,双方也能达成交易目的。那么这份法律文件就应当视为双方的合同或者协议。
三、契约(Covenant, Indenture, Deed, Compact,Protocol)
英文合同还有一些约定俗成的名称。Covenant, 主要指不动产转让的合同或证明文件,英文合同如果基于传统英美法对价的存在,也会用到这个词, 表示双方达成的契约。如:In consideration of mutual premises and covenants herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows: Indenture通常也是指不动产转让的契约文件,Deed一般指地契、房契,Compact多用于国家间的协定、协议。
Protocol, 通常翻译为草约或者议定书,往往也是双方会谈结果的文字依据。经双方签字后,即受其约束,对草约内容承担法律责任,如果需要补充、修改、完善,双方还会签订补充的协议。
四、其他书函(Letter; Waiver; Guaranty; Power of Attorney)
英文合同有时候非常简短,形式上就像信函一样,姑且称之为书函类的英文合同,常常用"Letter"(函),"Waiver"(弃权书),"Guaranty"(保证书),"Power of Attorney"(委托书)等简单明确的字眼作为合同的名称。相对于"Agreement"或"Contract"类的合同,书函类的合同一般具有补充或附属的性质,而且经常出现在"Agreement"或"Contract"类合同的附件中。当然书函类的合同对双方当事人也有完全的拘束力。
例如:甲公司向乙银行贷款,由丙公司做担保人,通常甲公司与乙银行会签署一份总协议(General Agreement),做为双方往来的主要依据,再由丙公司签署一份保证书(Guaranty)给乙银行,而乙银行每次拨款时,会发出一份授信书(Credit Letter或Facility Letter)给甲公司,授信书上会载明授信额度,作为甲公司申请拨款的依据。由本例中三份合同可以看出,General Agreement系授信的主要依据,甲公司和丙银行间的权利义务关系主要由General Agreement来规范,而Guaranty及Credit Letter均为附属在General Agreement架构下的小合同。丙公司因签署了Guaranty,因此对乙银行负有保证义务,乙银行因为签署了Credit Letter,因此对甲公司就发生了拨款的义务。
本书撰写的方式,是针对名称为"Agreement(狭义)"或"Contract"类型的合同文件做阅读方法的说明,其原因即在于此类文件的合同结构复杂而内容完整,读者若能掌握阅读此类合同的要领,阅读其它类型的英文合同时自然就"No Problem"没问题了。
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第二章英文合同的特色(Features of English Contracts)
Form follows function.
--motto of the Bauhaus school of architecture
形式服从功能
--鲍豪斯建筑学院校训
与基础英语相比,作为专业性极强的语言,英文合同的用语不同于日常语言,具有显著的特点。首先,句子冗长而且复杂、似乎总也找不到句号,用词偏僻,晦涩难读,不易理解。其次,英文合同中往往沿用拉丁语,法律术语,跟中文的文言文似的,着实是佶屈聱牙,令人痛苦不堪。再次,由于属于专业英语的范畴,英语合同必然涉及法律方面理解,阅读者除了语言本身的能力外,对于法律也应具备一定的素质。这是所有专业英语的共性,就是需相应的专业知识,这方面本文恕不多言。下面就是Plain English Campaign(直白英语运动)组织所遇到的最长的英文合同的句子,有兴趣的读者不妨看看到底是什么意思:In the event that the Purchaser defaults in the payment of any installment of purchase price, taxes, insurance, interest, or the annual charge described elsewhere herein, or shall default in the performance of any other obligations set forth in this Contract, the Seller may: at his option: (a) Declare immediately due and payable the entire unpaid balance of purchase price, with accrued interest, taxes, and annual charge, and demand full payment thereof, and enforce conveyance of the land by termination of the contract or according to the terms hereof, in which case the Purchaser shall also be liable to the Seller for reasonable attorney''s fees for services rendered by any attorney on behalf of the Seller, or (b) sell said land and premises or any part thereof at public auction, in such manner, at such time and place, upon such terms and conditions, and upon such public notice as the Seller may deem best for the interest of all concerned, consisting of advertisement in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city in which the security property is located at least once a week for Three (3) successive weeks or for such period as applicable law may require and, in case of default of any purchaser, to re-sell with such postponement of sale or resale and upon such public notice thereof as the Seller may determine, and upon compliance by the Purchaser with the terms of sale, and upon judicial approval as may be required by law, convey said land and premises in fee simple to and at the cost of the Purchaser, who shall not be liable to see to the application of the purchase money; and from the proceeds of the sale: First to pay all proper costs and charges, including but not limited to court costs, advertising expenses, auctioneer''s allowance, the expenses, if any required to correct any irregularity in the title, premium for Seller''s bond, auditor''s fee, attorney''s fee, and all other expenses of sale occurred in and about the protection and execution of this contract, and all moneys advanced for taxes, assessments, insurance, and with interest thereon as provided herein, and all taxes due upon said land and premises at time of sale, and to retain as compensation a commission of five percent (5%) on the amount of said sale or sales; SECOND, to pay the whole amount then remaining unpaid of the principal of said contract, and interest thereon to date of payment, whether the same shall be due or not, it being understood and agreed that upon such sale before maturity of the contract the balance thereof shall be immediately due and payable; THIRD, to pay liens of record against the security property according to their priority of lien and to the extent that funds remaining in the hands of the Seller are available; and LAST, to pay the remainder of said proceeds, if any, to the vendor, his heirs, personals representatives, successors or assigns upon the delivery and surrender to the vendee of possession of the land and premises, less costs and excess of obtaining possession.
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因此,国外,特别是美国要求法律文件的格式和语言应当现代化的呼声愈来愈强烈。Robert E. Swindle早在美国1980年出版的The Business Communicator一书中就写到:" ... legal and quasilegal documents can and are being written in everyday language. Several leading companies are rewriting their legal forms voluntarily, and the State of New York recently passed a law requiring that businesses write consumer contracts in nontechnical language. Additionally, the President of the United States has directed all administrative agencies to write future regulations in what he termed plain English for a change." 大意是说法律和准法律性文件能用日常语言书就,而且人们也正在这样做。几家大公司自愿重新起草他们的法律文书,纽约州最近也通过一项法律,要求商业企业用非术语草拟消费者合同。另外,美国总统下令所有行政机构在出台将来的规定时要用他所称的直白英语进行变革。而在英国也有一个成立了25年的Plain English Campaign(直白英语运动)组织致力于各种公文的直白英语化,而反对各种官样文章(gobbledygook)。1999年英国颁布实施的消费者不公平术语法(Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations)也要求消费者合同的术语必须用直白明了的语言(plain and intelligible language),该法也要求这些术语必须是易读的,意味着要用清晰的设计和排印(clear design and typography)。类似的法律也在欧盟的国家适用。
但Law Dictionary的作者Steven H. Gifts在该字典的前言中感叹到"…the special language of the law remains a barrier to nonlawyers. To the extent that this promotes the economic health of the profession, maintains its aura, and prevent unauthorized practice of the law, it may be regarded as a virtue."大意是说,法律专业语言对律师以外的人士来讲,仍然是一道壁垒。从促进行业经济的健康发展,保留行业特点和防止未经授权进行律师执业等方面考虑,可以把这种语言壁垒看作是一种行业优势。
作为非英美法系的非英语国家,面对加入WTO,全球经济一体化的严峻挑战,我们应该怎样应对纷繁复杂的英文法律文件和语言呢?尽管Plain English(直白)似乎是大势所趋,但万事都有个渐变的过程,长年累月沉淀下来的习惯不是一下就能改变的。拿来主义某种意义上,是必须的,所以我们首先还是应该先通晓传统的英语合同格式和用语,在精通的基础上,才能谈得上根据实际情况进行进一步的格式和用语方面的改革,取其精华,去其糟粕,当然,这需要一个漫长的过程。以下就针对英文合同的特色分别从篇章结构、用词、句式结构以及时态四大方面进行说明:
第一节篇章结构特点(Text Structure)
一份完整的英文合同通常可以分为标题(Title)、前言(Preamble)、正文(Habendum)、附录(Schedule)及证明部分即结尾词(Attestation)五大部分。「标题」在开宗明义地显示合同的性质;「前言」是用最简单的说明,大略介绍合同订立的背景;「正文」里包括依各种合同性质的不同而约定的具体条款,包括不论何种类型合同都会出现的一般条款;[附录]构成对前述合同正文条款作必要的补充。(不是所有合同都有该部分)最后「结尾」则是当事人签名前的一段文字,为整份合同画上完满的句号。以下分别就此五部分进行说明。
一、合同的标题(Title)
英文合同和中文合同都一样,标题并不是一定要有的,因为当事人间的法律关系是用合同内容的各个条款来判断,标题基本上不会产生任何影响。但为方便辨识的考虑,合同撰写人通常都会依照合同性质,在合同首页的最上方给予一个适当的标题。在第一章的英文合同名称中已有介绍,在此不再赘述,仅补充Confirmation(确认书),Order(定单)经常也会出现在简易的合同中。
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二、合同的前言(Preamble)
英文合同在标题之后,各式各样的条款出现之前,通常会先有一段「前言」,也称序言、导言、总则等。前言一般不会占去太多的篇幅,目的在于很简略地介绍合同内容之人、事、时、地、物等背景,让阅读合同的人在接触冗长复杂的正文前,先有一个基础的认识与心理准备。
详细来说,前言通常又分作以下两个段落:
第一部份文字叫做"Parties" ,也就是合同的「开场白」(Commencement),内容在说明当事人姓名或名称、国籍或注册地国及住所地或主营业地、订约日期包括各自在合同中的简称等等。
EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT (SALES)
EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT is made and entered into on ________ day of _________ (month), ____ (year), by and between: _______ (hereinafter referred to as the "Company"), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of ____, with its registered office located at ________________, and ______ (hereinafter referred to as the "Employee"), an individual, with nationality of _________ (Passport No._____) residing at _____________.
本聘用协议于___年_月_日签订,双方当事人为:
依_州法律组织设立的________公司(以下简称本公司) , 主营业地为_______,与
___国籍的____ (护照号码: _____)(以下简称雇员), 居住于_________________。
& by and between
要表示合同是由哪些当事人所订定,英文中通常会说"This Agreement is made by and between...",用"by"来表示合同「由谁订定」,"between"来表示「谁与谁之间的订立」。如果当事人不只两个,也可以用"by and among"来代替。
& organized and existing
合同开场白里要说明当事人的国籍,在自然人的情况下可以用"a national of ..."或"an individual with the nationality of ..."来表示,如果是法人组织多半使用"organized and existing under the laws of ..."这样的字眼,其中"organized"也可以用"incorporated"来代替。
& registered office
"registered office"是指一个公司的「注册所在地」,它和"principal office" 或" principal place of business"即「主营业地」并不一定位于同一个地方。
第二部份叫做"Recitals",是由数个以"Whereas"字样开头的句子所组合而成(这些句子俗称为"Whereas Clauses" 即鉴于条款)。"Whereas"的本义是"When in fact"、"considering that"、或"that being the case"的意思,所以"Whereas Clauses"就表示当事人乃是在基于对这些事实(例如订约的目的、背景、原由等)的共同认识,订立此合同。以下是一个补偿贸易合同(Compensation Trade Contract)的Whereas Clauses,很简单明了地表达了双方合作的意愿。
WITNESSETH
Whereas Party B has machines and equipment, which are now used in Party B's manufacturing of steel wire rope, and is willing to sell to Party A the machines and equipment; and
Whereas Party B agrees to buy the products, steel wire rope, made by Party A using the machines and
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equipment Party B supplies, in compensation of the price of the machines and equipment, and
Whereas Party A agrees to purchase from Party B the machines and equipment, and
Whereas Party A agrees to sell to Party B the products, the steel wire rope, in compensation of the price of Party B's machines and equipment;
Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter, Party A and Party B agree as follows:
兹证明(通常不译)
鉴于乙方拥有用于生产钢丝绳的机械设备,愿向甲方出售该机械设备;
鉴于乙方同意购买甲方用乙方所供应的该机械设备生产的产品,钢丝绳来补偿该机械设备的价款;
鉴于甲方同意从乙方购买该机械设备;
鉴于甲方同意向乙方出售产品钢丝绳以补偿乙方机械设备的价款;
因此,基于上述诸点认识双方特立契约,约定如下:
紧接在一串whereas clauses之后,会出现类似上例中的"Now Therefore, ……:"这样一句话,目的在提醒阅读合同的人,真正规范订约当事人权利义务关系的条款在这句话之后就要开始了,也就是说,这句话(一般称为"operative part")是前言与正文之间过渡的桥梁,在此之前为订约背景事实的叙述,在此之后则为关于交易关系的实体约定。
例如:Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter, Party A and Party B agree as follows:
兹以上述各点和契约所载条款为约因,订约双方协议如下:
三、正文(Hanbendum)
正文(Hanbendum) 部分, 也称为Body, 具体约定当事人的权利义务。各式各样的正文条款是合同中最核心的部份,也是篇幅最大的部份,与当事人的权利义务关系发生最直接、最密切的牵连。
本书拟将英文合同中的正文条款分为两类:「特殊条款」与「一般条款」。所谓「特殊条款」指的是只有在某些特定性质的合同中才会出现的条款,例如劳动合同中通常会约定保密条款、竞业禁止条款,但是买卖同就不会有这些约定。反过来说,买卖合同中一般要记载交易标的、交易条件等等条款,在劳动合同中就不会出现。
相对于「特殊条款」的所谓「一般条款」,指的是不论合同性质如何,几乎所有的合同中都会记载的条款,例如管辖法院的约定、违约条款等等,将于第四章中详细介绍,在此亦不赘述。
四、附录(Schedule)
附录也称Addendum, Annex或Exhibit,也有用Attachment, List或Table表示的。附录部分作为对正文条款的补充,不是所有英文合同都有的一项。以下就是一份聘用协议的附录,对该公司聘用的经理职责作出补充说明:
THE SCHEDULE ABOVE REFERRED TO
1.To manage, maintain and promote the business of the Company
2. To attend personally during the usual hours of business and to supervise and control the business and to
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be accessible to customers and employees of the Company.
3. To keep the usual books of account.
4. To pay daily all money received in the business into the Company''''s bank account.
5. Generally to protect the interests of the Company.
上文提及的附录是指:
1. 管理,维持并促进公司的经营
2. 亲自参与公司的日常经营,监管经营,对本公司的客户和员工平易近人。
3. 保管日常账册。
4. 支付日常公司经营到帐的款项
5. 广泛地保护公司的利益
此外,即便是有这部分的英文合同,也经常因为附录的内容庞杂篇幅较长,如有关的图表或者其他法律文书,而放在合同的最后单独列明。下文就是单独列在合同后的附录的一个信用证:
EXHIBIT B Letter of Credit
XYZ BANK LIMLTED
[Address]
Credit Bank, N. A.
International Banking Facility
Los Angeles, California 90000 U.S.A.
Date:
Letter of Credit No.:
Gentlemen:
We hereby establish this irrevocable letter of credit in your favor for account
of ABC Company in the amount of U. S. $ _______ (amount in words), available
against your draft(s) drawn at sight on Credit Bank, N.A., Letter of Credit
Department, Los Angeles, California, accompanied by your signed and dated
statement as follows:
"The amount drawn under Letter of Credit No.[_________]dated[_______] issued by
XYZ Bank Limited on behalf of ABC Company is payable to the undersigned pursuant
to the terms of that certain Loan Agreement dated as of _________, 20 ___,
between ABC Company and Credit Bank. N.A."
All drafts drawn under this Letter of Credit must bear the clause "Drawn under
XYZ Bank Limited Letter of Credit Number_____, dated_______, 20 ___.
Partial drawings are permitted.
We hereby engage with the drawers, endorsers and bona fide holders of drafts
drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this Letter of Credit that the
drafts will be duly honored if drawn and presented to the above drawn in Los
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Angeles, California, on or before [Expiry date 30 days after the final
Installment Payment Date].
This Letter of Credit is subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for
Documentary Credits (1983 Revision), International Chamber of Commerce,
Publication No. 400.
Special Instructions to Drawee Bank
In reimbursement for any payment made by you hereunder, you may debit our
account with you.
XYZ BANK LIMITED
BY____________
(Authorized Signature)
附件B:
XYZ银行
地址:
北美信贷银行
国际银行业务部
美国加州洛杉玑
日期:
信用证号码:
*先生
我行在此开立,以ABC公司为受益人,总额为*美元的不可撤销信用证,凭交加州洛杉玑北美信贷银行信用证部开出的即期汇票付款。并附有贵行签署、具名日期的如下声明:
由XYZ银行代表ABC公司*年*月*日开立的第*号信用证项下款项系根据ABC公司与北美信贷银行*年*月*日订立的某贷款协议条款规定,付与签字人。
本证项下开具的汇票须注明"本汇票系凭XYZ银行..年..月..日第.号信用证下开具"的条款。
允许部分提款。
凡根据本证开具与本证条款相符的汇票,如按时开具提交我行,我行保证对出票人、背书人和善意持有人不迟于最后分期付款日后30天内承担付款责任。
本信用证系根据国际商会第400号出版物跟单信用证统一惯例与实务(1983年版)缮制。
付款行特别指令
贵行本信用证项下所付款项,记入我行与贵行的借记帐户。
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XYZ银行
授权签字
五、证明部分(Attestation)
英文合同结构中的最后一个部份就是结尾辞即证明部分与当事人的签名。所谓「结尾辞」指的是在当事人签名之前经常会出现一段文字,相当于中文合同中"双方签字盖章,特此为证"。除了表明签名人确实为正当授权的代表外,还会具明签名的日期。至于签名档的部份,如果当事人是公司的话,除了代表人的签名以外,还要加盖公司印鉴,并且通常会注明代表人的职务(title)。
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by duly authorized representatives of both parties on the date and year first written above.
___________________ ___________________
By: By:
Title: Title:
本协议由被授权之人,于本协议上述所记载日期,代表双方当事人缔结生效之,特此为证。
_________________ __________________
代表人: 代表人:
职务: 职务:
& IN WITNESS WHEREOF
这三个词是英文合同结尾辞的标准模式,实体上讲并没有什幺特别的功能或意义,与中文合同里最后通常会记载的「恐口说无凭,特立契为证」很类似,也有用IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF 替代,有时候也会用"INTENDING TO BE LEGALLY BOUND"代替,意思也是一样的。
& duly authorized representatives
当合同之当事人为法人组织时,必须推选出一位自然人作为法定代表人,例如公司的法定代表人通常会是董事长,代表公司对外签订合同,建立权利义务关系。除了董事长根据法律当然具备对外代表公司的权限之外,公司董事会也可以通过决议授权某一个董事、总经理、或其它重要职员作为公司签约的代表人,此时与公司签约的对方当事人为了确保这个代表人的确属于"duly authorized representative",可以要求公司提供这个授权的董事会决议证明,以妥善保护自己的权益。下面就是一个董事会对采购员的授权决议:
BOARD OF DIRECTORS'RESOLUTION
DESIGNATING A PURCHASING AGENT
Pursuant to a duly made, seconded, and carried motion the Board of Directors of __________ _________________ (hereinafter referred to as Corporation) adopted the following resolution by a unanimous vote:
RESOLVED, that ______________________ is hereby appointed Purchasing Agent of this Corporation with limited authority to make purchases in the Corporation''''s name and behalf. Under no circumstances will the Purchasing Agent have real or apparent authority to make a purchase for the Corporation if the dollar amount of said purchase or the total dollar amount of an installment purchase will exceed the amount of __________ dollars ($___________).
I The undersigned, _________________________, certifies that he or she is the duly appointed Secretary of _______________________ Corporation and that the above is a true and correct copy of a resolution duly adopted at a meeting of the directors thereof, convened and held in accordance with law and the
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Bylaws of said Corporation on _____________, (Date) and that such resolution is now in full force and effect.
IN WITNESS THEREOF, I have affixed my name as Secretary of _________________
____________________ Corporation and have attached the seal of ________________
____________________ Corporation to this resolution.
Dated: ______________________ ___________________________
Secretary
Seal:
董事会决议:
任命采购员:
就已第二次提起到董事会的动议,本公司董事会全体一致通过如下决议:
兹决议,本公司授权***为本公司采购员,以本公司名义代表本公司对外采买。但其单笔采购金额或分期购买的总额不得超过****美元。超过该数额该采购员概无真实或表见代理权。
我,签字人,证明***,他/她是本公司正式任命的秘书,以上是本公司董事会决议的真实准确的副本,该决议系按法律和本公司章程在*年*月*日召开的董事会上正式通过,现完全有效。
作为公司秘书我签字并盖公司印鉴于该决议,特此为证。
日期:*年*月*日
秘书:(签字)
公司印鉴:(盖章)
& the date and year first written above
如果合同结尾辞里注明的日期和合同前言所载明的日期相同,就用这句话表示,如果不同的话,就应该另以条款明定合同生效日(Effective Date),以免产生争议。如下例:
After this contract is signed by the duly authorized representatives of both parties, both parties shall submit the contract to their governments or Boards of Directors for approval. The date when the later party obtains
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the approval shall be taken as the effective date of the contract. Both parties shall attempt to get the contract approval within 60 days from signing and notify by telex or cable the other party of the approval which is confirmed by the following registered air-mail letter.
本合同经双方正式授权代表签署后,应提交各自政府或董事会批准。以后一方获得批准日期为本合同生效日。双方应尽力在合同签署后60日内获得批准并以电传或电报形式通知该批准,随后以航空挂号邮件确认。
第二节用词特点(Wording)
作为正式法律文件,英语合同在用词方面极其考究,要求选词专业(professional),正式(formal),准确(accuracy)。具体体现如下:
1.专业性术语(Technical Terms/ Terminology)
法律专业性术语是在合同等法律文件中才用到的词汇,它并不以一般受众为对象,而针对专业人士,力求使语言表达准确无误。中文合同中常见的诸如"瑕疵"(defect)、"救济"(remedy)、"不可抗力"(force Majeure)、"管辖"(jurisdiction)等专业用词就已经让非专业人士大惑不解了,英文合同的专业用词自然就更玄妙无比了。具体的实例如下:
Without prejudice to the parties'' rights under Clause 18. 1, the indemnities provided for in Clausel6. 1 and/or 16. 2 and/or 16. 3 shall be the sole compensation for the damages caused by such delays.不妨害18.1款双方的权利,16.1,16.2及16.3款规定的赔偿应为上述延误引起损害的唯一赔偿金。indemnities较compensation专业,此处用compensation解释了indemnities;
Any such assignment, transfer or conveyance shall be without other consideration than the mutual covenants and considerations of this agreement.任何转让除根据本协议相互契约和对价外不得考虑其他。Transfer,assignment和conveyance都有转让的含义,其中assignment和conveyance(多用于不动产)尤为专业。
We advise you of our intention to terminate our tenancy on or before ________________ (Date) and to deliver to you full possession of the premises。我方不迟于某日期通知你方终止租约并交还房屋全部所有。tenancy指房屋租赁的租约,而premises指租赁的房屋及其附属物都是专业用语。
Licensee agrees to pay to Licensor a minimum royalty of___________ Dollars ($______) as a minimum guarantee against royalties to be paid to Licensor during the first contract term, said minimum royalty to be paid on or before the last day of the initial term hereto. 受许可方同意支付许可方最低使用费*美元作为该许可合同第一期使用费的最低保证金,该最低使用费不迟于本合同的入门期最后一天支付给许可方。Royalties在许可合同中专指特许权使用费。
Price of the Contract shall be calculated on Royalty in accordance with the content and scope stipulated in Article 2 to the Contract and shall be paid in___________.按照第二条规定的内容和范围。本合同采用提成方式计算价格,计价的货币为___。与上例不同的是,这里的royalty指的是许可合同计价方式的一种即提成计价(royalty price),相对于统包价格(lumpsum price)
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Default in observing or performing any of the covenants or agreements of debtor set forth in any collateral document of security given to secure indebtedness hereunder, and the continuation of such default beyond any period of grace specified in any such document.
借款人未能履行契约或附带的担保文件列明的协议,以及该违约的持续超过上述文件规定的宽限期。在借款合同中grace专指宽限期,而不是普通英语的其他意思。
Furthermore, the parties agree that the following situations shall be considered as exceptional circumstances which justify the earlier termination by the other party: bankruptcy, moratorium, receivership, liquidation or any kind of composition between the debtor and the creditors, or any circumstances which are likely to affect substantially one party''s ability to carry out his obligations under this contract。此外,双方同意以下条件应认为是对方合理提前终止合同的例外情形:破产、延付令、破产在管、清算或其他债权人和债务人任何形式的和解,或任何可能对一方履行合同项下义务能力造成实质影响的情形。此处的composition显然不是普通英语中"作文"的意思,而是指破产和解。
In addition, upon request of the Board and if the Liquidating Trustee determines that it would be imprudent to dispose of any non-cash assets of the Company, such assets may be distributed in kind to the Members in lieu of cash, proportionately to their right to receive cash distributions hereunder.另外,应董事会请求且如果清算托管人确定处理本公司非现金财产非明智之举,该财产可按各成员根据合同项下收取现金份额的权利以实物形式替代现金进行分配。In kind 此处与in cash 相对,通常用于合资、合伙协议中表示"以实物出资",本句中是以实物分配清算。In lieu of 表示替代相当于基础英语中的instead of。
The Buyer shall establish the covering letter of credit before the date specified in Clause Three of this Sales Confirmation, failing which the Seller reserves the right to rescind without further notice, or to accept whole or any part of this Sales Confirmation not fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for losses sustained, if any.买方须于销售确认书第三条所规定的日期之前开出本批交易的信用证。否则,售方有权不经通知取消本确认书,或接受买方对本销售确认书未履行的全部或一部分,或对因此遭受的损失提出索赔。Reserve为专用词汇,我们常见的"版权所有"英语表达就是All rights reserved。Rescind(取消合同/协议)和lodge(提出索赔,与claim(s)连用)也都是专业用语。
In case one party desires to sell or assign all or part of his investment subscribed, the other party shall have the preemptive right. 如一方欲出售或转让其所投资的部分或全部,另一方应有优先购买权。Assign(其名词形式assignment)和Preemptive属专业用语。
2. 正式用语(Formal Terms)
英文合同,习惯采用书面的形式,合同往往使用正式的书面用语,较少使用口头用语,以显示合同正规、严肃。具体实例如下:
At the request of Party B, Party A agrees to send technicians to assist Party B to install the equipment.应乙方要求,甲方同意派遣技术人员帮助乙方安装设备。assist 较help 正式;
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The personnel shall not to partake in any political activities in Iraq.所有人员不得参加伊拉克国内的任何政治活动。partake in 较take part in 正式;
The Employer shall render correct technical guidance to the personnel.雇主应该对有关人员给予正确技术指导。render 较give 正式;
Party A shall repatriate the patient to China and bear the cost of his passage to Guangzhou.甲方应将病人遣返中国并负责其返回广州的旅费。repatriate 较send back 正式;
This Contract shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of China.本合同受中国法律管辖,并按中国法律解释。construe 较explain, interpret 正式;in accordance with 较according to正式。
The Employer may object to and require the Contractor to replace forthwith any of its authorized representatives who is incompetent.雇主认为承包人委派的授权代表不合格时,可以反对并要求立即撤换。require较ask正式;而且,require表示上对下的要求,ask没有这么明确,它含有request和require之意,其中request表示下对上的要求,即"请求"公文体forthwith 较at once 正式;
The Chairperson may convene and preside an interim meeting based on a proposal made by one-third of the total number of directors.董事长可以根据董事会过1/3董事的提议而召集主持临时董事会议。Convene较hold正式,preside较be in charge of 正式,interim也是正式用词较temporary正式。
In processing transactions, the manufacturers shall never have title either to the materials or the finished products.加工贸易中,厂方无论是对原料还是成品都无所有权。title 较ownership 正式。
The term "Effective date" means the date on which this Agreement is duly executed by the parties hereto."生效期"指双方合同签字的日子。execute 较sign 正式;
The submission to and consent by the Engineer of such programs or the provision of such general descriptions or cash flow estimates shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his duties or responsibilities under the Contract.向工程师提交并同意的上述进度计划或提供上述一般说明或现金流量估算,并不解除合同规定的承包人的任何义务或责任。Consent和estimate都是正式用词;
The Appendix hereto shall, through the contract period, be deemed to be construed as an integral part of this Contract. 整个合同期间,本合同附件应理解为合同不可分割的一部分。deem较consider正式。
The parties shall work together in order to endeavour to achieve the timely completion of the Project in accordance with the Project Schedule as Annex 4 according to which the construction period shall be _________years from the commencement date.双方共同努力确保按附件四的工程进度表及时竣工,根据该工程进度表工期应从开工日起*年。Commencement较starting、beginning正式。
同、近义词、相关词并列(Parallel Synonyms, Parasynonyms and Associated)
在英文合同中同近义词或相关词成对或多个并列连用,使合同周密严谨,以减少漏洞和争议。
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This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.本协议由甲方与乙方签订。句中made与entered into同义,而by与between相关。
Party A agrees to purchase from Party B the following commodity under the terms and conditions set out below: 甲方同意按照下列条款向乙方购买如下商品:terms 和conditions同义,往往并列连用表示合同的条款。
Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any order sort to collect any account on and after September 20. 自9月2O日起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。On与after相关词连用用以明确时间。
Any partner or his/her agent, may review any and all accounting or other records at anytime.任何合伙人或其代理人,可随时审查任一或全部会计账目或其他记录。Any 与all 相关词连用,表达更为严谨。
The decision by such arbitration shall be accepted as final and binding upon both parties。该仲裁裁决为终局裁决,双方均受其约束。Final和binding属相关词连用。
The Company hereby releases and discharges Party A from further performance of, and any duties, obligations or liabilities under, the amended Agreement.本公司特此解除甲方已修正协议的进一步履行及其修正协议下的义务和责任。Release和discharge相关词连用,duty,obligation和liability属近同义词连用。
If the Contractor shall duly perform and observe all the terms, provisions, conditions and stipulations of the said Contract, this obligation shall be null or void but otherwise shall be and remain in full force and effect.如果承包人切实履行并遵守上述合同的所有条款、条件及规定,此义务即告终止,否则将保持完全有效。句中terms, provisions, conditions,stipulations为一组同义词,意为合同的条款及规定,null和void,be和remain,force和effect也都是同义连用。
4.大写字母的运用(Capitalization)
英文合同中,有些词的首字母需要大写。需要大写首字母的词除了基础英语中用在句首的一般情形外,尤其应注意下列的几种情况:
当事人
当事人指合同双方或各方(一般为两方以上)时,首字母通常大写。例如:
Party B shall inspect the raw materials supplied by Party A forthwith upon receipt thereof.
乙方应一经收到甲方提供的原材料,即行检验。
机构名称
英文合同中涉及的机构名称,首字母要大写。例如:
China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission.
(中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会)
International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (简称UNIDROIT)
(国际统一私法协会)
The Board of Directors (董事会)
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合同涉及的特指名称
在英文合同中,一些涉及到的关键词语,一般首字母要大写。通常会在合同的定义条款中定义,然后再重复使用。例如:
The Acceptance Test Manual shall be the document prepared by A which will be used by A and the Purchaser FOR checking that the Equipment is in accordance with the specification and Approved Data.
本验收实验手册系指由A提供的,供A与买方检验设备是否符合技术规格和认可资料的文件。句中的Acceptance Test Manual , Equipment, Approved Data均有特指含义。
本合同及合同具体条款及附件名称
Such Site Acceptance shall take place within a period of two weeks after the Effective Date to the Contract as such period may be extended pursuant to Article 6 hereof.
现场验收应在本合同生效日后2周内进行,此项验收的时间按本合同第6条延长。
Party A and Party B shall make full endeavors to fulfill this Contract with the stipulated period. The schedule of various activities is attached at Appendix 4.
甲乙双方应竭尽全力在规定的期间内完成本合同,各活动的日程表见附件4
国际公约、惯例和国家法律法规、条例规章等的名称,
例如:This Contract is signed on a mutuality voluntary basis by and between the following Employer and Employee in accordance with "The Labour Law of The People''s Republic of China."
本合同在自愿的基础上由聘用方和受聘方根据《中华人民共和国劳动法》达成协议如下:
合同提及的国际公约、惯例的首字母也需大写,如:
International Chamber of Commerce Term 2000(简称INCOTERMS 2000)
2000年国际贸易术语解释通则
也称International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms 2000
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods(简称CISG)
《联合国国际货物买卖合同公约》
The Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits,1993 Revision ICC Publication No. 500
《跟单统一信用证统一惯例》(1993年修订本,国际商会第500号出版物)
The Uniform Law on International Sale of Goods 《国际货物买卖统一法》
The Uniform Law on the Formation OF Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
《国际货物买卖合同成立统一法》
The Principles of International Commercial Contracts
《国际商事合同通则》
合同中的货币名称
Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US$600 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY). 聘方须每月付给受聘方美元600元整。SAY表示后接大写,ONLY表示整
此外,英文合同为强调某些部分而用大写字母书写以资醒目。
例如在英文合同的开头往往有这样的句子:This AGREEMENT … WITNESSES that WHEREAS … and WHEREAS … NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of it is hereby agreed as follows:
5.古体词与外来词(Archaic Words and Loan Words)
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英文合同中迄今仍然使用一些古体词语,最突出的形式是把here, there, where加上介词而构成的复合副词。如:hereby, hereto, hereunto, herein, hereinafter, hereinbefore, hereunder, thereof, thereto,whereby, whereas等等。Here+介词一类往往可以套用介词+this agreement来帮助理解。There/where+介词就需要考虑上下文参照here+介词的理解方法。具体的理解和运用将在第3章英文合同常用词一节详述。
基于民法法系对普通法系的影响,英文合同的外来词主要是法语和拉丁语,有些外来词已经同化为英语,成为英语词汇的一部分,还有一些保留下来,现在仍在使用。连Contract这个词都是从拉丁语contractus演化来的呢。英文合同中常见的不可抗力条款用的Force Majeure也是拉丁语。具体例子如下:
The arbitration shall take place in the Plaintiff''s or Defendant''s country.仲裁应在原告或被告的国家进行。Plaintiff 和defendant原为法语,现在已同化为英语。
The provisions of Paragraph 6 and Paragraph 12 of the US Plan apply mutatis mutandis to the UK Scheme, save that if an amendment is made to the UK Scheme or to the terms of an Approved Stock Option at a time when the UK Scheme is approved by the Inland Revenue under Schedule 9, the approval will not thereafter have effect unless the Inland Revenue have approved the alteration or addition. 应用于英方方案的美方规划的第6节和第12节的规定的已作必要的修正,除非对英方方案或已批准股票期权条款的修改时值根据附件9英方方案已获批准,此后该批准不得生效,除非内税局已批准该改变或增补。mutatis mutandis为拉丁语,意为已作必要的修正。
An allowance on the basis of 2% of the sales price for each unit shall be calculated and deducted from the purchase price fraction pro rata. 补贴应按每单位售价的2%计算并从购价中按比例扣除。Pro rata 为拉丁语意为in proportion, according to a factor that can be calculated exactly.
We appoint and empower Mr./Ms. _____________ to be our agent ad litem in the first and second instances and/or retrial respectively, as well as in the enforcement procedures, with respect to the case of _______vs.__________.我方委托授权某先生/女士为某案一审,二审,再审和执行程序的委托代理人。Ad litem为拉丁语"for the suit". Agent ad litem表示为诉讼代理人。
6. 助动词的准确使用(Auxiliaries)
英文合同中,shall并非单纯表示将来时,而常用来表示法律上可强制执行的义务,具有约束力,宜译为"应"、"应该"、"必须"; will无论语气还是强制力要比shall弱,宜译为"将"、"原"、"要";should通常只用来表示语气较强的假设、比如"万一"。多用"shall"代替"will"或"should"加强语气和强制力。
This Contract shall become effective upon and from the date on which it is signed.
本合同签字生效。
This Contract shall be written in English in four copies. Each party shall keep two copies.
本合同应以英文写成,一式四份,双方各持两份。
Investment contributed by the parties is Renminbi __________, which will be the registered capital of the joint venture company. 各方认缴投资总额为人民币***,将作为合资公司注册资本。
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May则时常用来表达当事人拥有的选择性权利。如During the Option Period, the Purchaser may terminate this Agreement with a written notice to the Seller. 选择期间,买方可书面通知卖方终止本协议。另看下例:
The parties hereto shall, first of all, settle any dispute arising from or in connection with the contract by friendly negotiations. Should such negotiations fail, such dispute may be referred to the People''s Court having jurisdiction on such dispute for settlement in the absence of any arbitration clause in the disputed contract or in default of agreement reached after such dispute occurs.首先,合同双方应通过友好协商解决合同产生与合同有关的争议。如协商不成,所争议合同缺少仲裁条款或争议后未达成仲裁协议,则该争议可提交到有管辖权的人民法院诉讼解决。
本句中shall,should和may的表达准确,符合人们通过"协商"-"仲裁"-"诉讼"解决争议的基本流程。Shall表示义务性约定,should表示假设条件不成就,may表示行使选择性权利。
第三节句式结构特点(Sentence Structure)
1.句子冗长,结构严谨,语序复杂(prolixity, preciseness and perplexity )
英文合同为了准确、严密、清楚地表达,多以庞杂的从句和/或短语并列,语序复杂多变的长句面目出现,很少以简单句为主。
A.主句的状语的位置,一般放在助动词后,行为动词前,与基础英语频度副词如;often,sometimes,always,never,seldom的位置相同。例如:
The Company shall, at all time during the term of the Joint Venture, effect and maintain full and adequate insurance against loss or damage by fire and such risks as are customarily issued in connection with the operation of the Company.合资公司应在合资期间的任何时候,就火灾以及此类与公司经营相关的其他风险所造成的损失或损害进行投保,并保持充分和适当的保险。
If, at any time during the execution of the Work, the Engineer requires the Contractor to make bore-holes or to carry out exploratory excavation, such requirement shall in accordance with Clause 51, be the subject of an instruction unless an item or a Provisional Sum in respect of such work is included in the Bill of Quantities.在工程施工过程中的任何时间内,如果工程师要求承包人钻孔或进行勘探性开挖,则根据第51条规定以指示形式下达这一要求,但工程量报价表中已经包括了涉及此类工作的项号或暂定金额者除外。
B.从句复杂,从句的状语,往往放在连词之后,从句的句子之前。例如:
If, at any time during the execution of the Contract, either of the Parties to the contract is prevented from executing the Contract in case of Force Majeure such as war, serious fires, flood, typhoon and earthquake, etc., the time for execution of the Contract shall be extended for a period equal to the affect of those causes.在合同期间的任何时候,合同任一方,由于受到战争、严重火灾、洪水、台风和地震等不可抗力事件的影响而不能履行合同时,合同履行期应予延长,延长期限相当于事件影响的时间。
If, at the time and in the place agreed under Sub-Clause 37.3, the materials or plant are not ready for inspecting or testing or if, as a result of the inspection or testing referred to in this Clause, the Engineer
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determines that the materials or plant are defective or otherwise not in accordance with the Contract, the Engineer may reject the materials or the plant and shall notify the Contract thereof immediately.如果在按第37.3条约定的时间和地点,供检查和检验的材料或工程设备未准备好,或者按本条规定所作的检查或检验结果,工程师认为材料或工程设备有缺陷或是不符合合同规定的,则工程师可拒收这些材料或工程设备,并应立即通知承包人。(本句较为复杂,有两个条件从句,一个宾语从句)
C.主从复合句,从句经常用简略形式。例如:
A party dissatisfied with the judgment may, within 15 day upon receipt of the judgment, file an appeal to the next upper People’s Court.如不服本判决,该方可于接到判决之日起十五日内向上一级法院提起上诉。
The Contractor shall, unless otherwise provided in the Contract, make his own arrangement for the engagement of all staff and labour, local or other, and for their payment, housing, feeding and transport.除合同另有规定外,承包人应自行安排从当地或其他地方雇用的所有职员和劳务人员,以及他们的报酬、住房、膳食和交通。
2. 否定前置与倒装(Negative Fronting and Anastrophe)
英语中处理否定的方式一般有两种:一是否定词放在情态动词或助动词后,行为动词前,构成正常的陈述语序;二是否定词放在句首,然后情态动词或助动词与主语位置调换,构成倒装语序。英文合同中含否定意义的句子往往采用后者。例如:
否定仅前置:(Fronting)
l Nothing in Article 12.3 shall prevent Party A or any of its affiliation from continuing to carry on any of their present businesses.合同第十二条第三款规定不得妨碍甲方或其分支机构持续经营现有业务。
l Neither party, without prior consent of the other, may assign or transfer to nay third party any equity interests held by its side.未经对方同意,任一方不得向任何第三人转让其持有的股权。
否定倒装:(Anastrophe)
l In no event shall the Seller be liable for lost profits, delay, injury to goodwill or any special or consequential damages howsoever any of the same are caused.对于利润损失、延误、商誉损害或任何特别或间接的损害赔偿,不论任何原因引起的,卖方概不承担责任。
l In this case, Party B shall refund to Party A the amount which Party A has paid to Party B plus the related interest at the rate of 10% per year immediately, but in no case shall such refunding by Party B exceeds 30 days from receipt from Party A of the notice to terminate the contract.在此种情况下,乙方应立即返还甲方已支付给乙方的款项并按年利率10%加算利息,但不论怎样乙方该返还不得超过收到甲方终止合同通知后30日。
3.被动语态(Passive Voice)
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和基础英语一样,英文合同中如果不必知道行为主体、不知道行为主体、想强调行为结果时,就会使用被动语态。被动结构往往作为后置定语、状语或者句子的谓语。例如:
l Failure to notify Party A shall be deemed to be a material breach of this Agreement.未能按上述要求通知甲方的,则视为构成实质违约。(作谓语)
l Seller agrees to sell and the Buyer agrees to buy the undermentioned goods subject to terms and conditions set forth hereinafter as follows:,按如下列明的条款,卖方同意出售,买方同意购买下述商品:(作后置定语)
l Therefore, Executive agrees that the Company shall be entitled to an injunction restraining Executive from any actual or threatened breach of paragraphs 7, 8 or 9 or to any other appropriate equitable remedy without any bond or other security being required.因此,董事同意本公司无需提供任何保证或其他担保,有权发出申请禁令限制董事任何实际或危及违反7、8或9节的行为或获得任何其他适当衡平救济。(作状语)
l The payment of all the expenses under this contract shall be made by M/T through Bank of China, Shenzhen Branch and the bank designated by Party B.所有合同项下的费用均应通过中国银行深圳分行和乙方指定银行进行支付。(作谓语和后置定语)
l Upon termination or dissolution of the Partnership,the partnership will be promptly liquidated, with all debts being paid first, prior to any distribution of the remaining funds.合伙企业一经终止或解散,合伙企业立即清算,在分割剩余财产前,首先偿还所有债务。(作谓语和状语)
1. Such…as的用法
英文合同力求严密、准确,为避免误解和歧义,常用such……as作关系代词,引导从句,把所修饰的词或短语放在such和as之间来明确含义。例如:
l The Engineer shall have authority to issue to the Contractor, from time to time, such supplementary Drawings and instructions as shall be necessary for the purpose of the proper and adequate execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein.工程师有权随时向承包人发出合理和恰当施工、竣工及修补工程缺陷所必须的补充图纸和指令。
l B shall provide such information and data as useful and necessary for the negotiation and appoint a person to cooperate with the representatives from C or New Company and the People''s Insurance Company of China in charge of the negotiation.乙方应向丙方或新公司和主管该谈判的中国人民保险公司提供谈判所需的有用资讯材料并指定人员与上述各方进行配合。
l The Employee shall also comply with such future Employer policies, rules, regulations, performance standards and manuals as may be published or amended from time to time. 受聘员工也应遵守可随时公布或修改的聘用方今后的政策、守则、规定、行为规范和员工手册。
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l The Contractor shall provide the following personnel on the Site for the purpose of the execution and completion of the Works and remedying of any defects:
Only such technical assistants as are skilled and experienced in their respective callings (fields) and such formen and leading hands as are competent to give proper superintendence of the Works.
承包人应为施工、竣工或修补工程缺陷向现场(工地)提供:在本行业中技术熟练,经验丰富的技术助理,和能对工程给予正确监督的监工和领班。
All material, Plant and Workmanship shall, from time to time, be subject to such tests and inspections as the Engineer may require at the place of manufacture, fabrication or preparation, or on the Site, or at such other place or places as may be specified in the Contract, or at all or any of such places.一切材料、工程设备和工艺应随时按工程师可能提出的要求,在制造、装配或准备地点,或在现场,或在合同规定的其他地点或若干地点,或在所有此类地点或其中任何地点进行检验。
第四节时态特点(Tense)
由于合同具有预见性,其约定是希望未来发生、可能发生、应避免发生的事宜,所以英文合同中的时态多为一般将来时或一般现在时(从句中多见)。而且往往以“应当做(shall do)”、“可以做(may do)”、“必须做(must do)”、“不得做(may not/shall not)”等表达形式出现来说明当事人的权利、义务。参看第二章第二节,在此不再赘述。也有基础英语常见的will、will not、to do及do(用于强调语气)的表达形式。绝少看到其他时态和表达方式。例如:
In case Party B becomes delinquent in the payment of any sum due hereunder, Party A will be entitled to suspend the performance until such delinquent is corrected, and initiate termination for cause in accordance with Section 10.2.乙方违约未按本协议规定按期支付的,甲方有权中止履行协议,直至该违约得以纠正,甲方还有权于协议第十条第二款规定的事由出现时终止本协议的执行。(In case从句和until从句中一般现在时,主句用will do表一般将来时)
Licensee agrees that it will not during the term of this agreement, or thereafter, attack the title or any rights of Licensor in and to the Name or attack the validity of this license.受许可方同意在本协议期间及其后不以或对许可方名义侵害许可方的所有权或任何权利或侵害该许可的效力。(主句一般现在时,从句用will not表一般将来时的否定)
The above mentioned loss to be calculated from the 16th day after expiry of the free storage time at the port should be borne by the Buyer with the exception of Force Majeure.上述损失从到港卸货仓储期届满后第16天起算,由买方承担,不可抗力除外。(to be calculated将来可能需要计算的)
In consideration of employment with the Company, I do hereby acknowledge the facts set out below and agree to be bound as follows:考虑到受聘于公司,本人由此认可以下列明事实并同意受其约束:(do强调郑重的语气可不翻译出)
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当然,在特定的情况下,偶尔也会看到完成时态、进行时态的表达。例如:
From time to time after Licensee has commenced selling the articles and upon Licensor’’s written request, Licensee shall furnish without cost to Licensor not more than additional random samples of each article being manufactured and sold by Licensee hereunder, together with any cartons, containers and packing and wrapping material used in connection therewith.受许可方开始销售产品后,应许可方随时书面要求,不对许可方产生任何附加费用,受许可方应向许可方提供根据本协议正在生产销售的随机样品及其相关的纸箱、集装箱和包装材料。
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第三章英文合同中常见的用词及句型(Usual Wordings and Sentence Patterns)
I don't care what their intention was. I only want to know what the words mean. A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged, it is the skin of a living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and the time in which it is used.
--Towne v. Eisner, 245 U.S.418, 425(1918)(Holmes, J.)
我并不在意他们的意图是什么,我只是想知道文字的意思。文字不是水晶般通明一成不变,而是活生生思想的外衣,会因使用的场合和时间在色彩和内容上产生巨大的变化。
-霍尔姆斯法官(美国)
英文合同中常见的用词和句型有其相对固定的含义和用法,不仅可以帮助准确理解掌握合同条款的含义,而且这些成熟的表达方式可以为提高、完善草拟和翻译合同所借鉴,达到事半功倍的效果。
第一节合同常用词(Usual Wording)(1)
当大量接触英文合同,就会发现英文合同中有些词或短语出现的频率非常高,往往影响或决定了对合同的准确理解,下面就分门别类从常见实词和常见虚词两个方面进行具体介绍:
一、英文合同常用虚词(Usual Function Words)
1. Here/there/where+介词构成的古体词
基本规则:Here代表this,there代表that,where代表which或what即here/there/where+介词=介词+this/that/which or what
Hereby: by means of; by reason of this.特此,由此,兹等意。
例句:The Buyer hereby orders from the Seller the undermentioned goods subject to the following conditions:买方向卖方订购下列商品,条件如下:
Herein:in this。此中,于此。
例句:The minimum royalty herein specified shall be paid by Party B to Party A. 在此规定的最低特许权使用费应由乙方付给甲方。
Hereinafter: later in the same Contract. 以下,在下文。通常与to be referred to as, referred as, called 连用。
例句:This Agreement is made and concluded on ______, (date)____(year), by and between _____(hereinafter called Party A) on the one hand and _____(hereinafter called Party B) on the other hand. 本协议书于____年___月___日由_____(以下简称甲方)为一方,与_____(以下简称乙方)为另一方签订。
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Hereof:of this。关于此点,在本文件中。
Hereunder:under this. 本文件规定。
例句:Both parties agree to attempt to resolve all disputes between the parties with respect to the application or interpretation of any term hereof of transaction hereunder, through amicable negotiation.合同双方就本合同规定交易任一条款的适用和解释所产生的所有争议同意力求通过友好协商予以解决。
Hereto:to this.本文件的。
Thereof:of that.它的,其。
Thereto:to that 与之,向那里。
例句:“Licensed Products” means the devices and products described in Schedule 1 annexed hereto together with all improvement and modification thereof or development with respect thereto. “特许产品”系指在本协议附件1中所述的装置和产品,及其全部改进和修改的产品和与之相关的产品。
Herewith:with this.与此,附此。
Thereby:by that means.因此,由此,从而
例句:In any one or more of the provisions contained in this Contract or any document executed in connection herewith shall be invalid of un,enforceable in any respect under any applicable law, the validity and enforceability of the remaining provisions contained herein shall not in any way be affected thereby. 如果根据现行法律,本合同及与此有关文件中有一项或多项条款被视为无效或不能履行,本合同其余条款的效力和履行将不因此受影响。
Thereafter: after that,afterwards. 此后
例句:The Contract for the contractual joint venture shall continue from a period of two years thereafter.本合作经营企业合同,此后应持续有效两年。
Therein: in that; in that particular context; in that respect.在那里;在那点上;在那方面。
例句:The Leased Premises are deemed to be fit for occupation when the building therein is substantially completed.当在那里的建筑物实质完成时,该租赁房屋才认为适合占有居住。
Therewith:with that.以此;此外。
例句:The Employer shall indemnify and save harmless the Contractor against and from the same and against and from all claims, proceedings, damages, costs, charges and expenses whatsoever arising there out or in connection therewith.业主应赔偿所有索赔、诉讼、损害赔偿、支出、花费、费用,不论因本合同产生或与其相关,并保证承包人免于承担上述责任。
Whereby: by the agreement, by the following terms and conditions, etc. 凭此协议,凭此条款等。
例句:This Agreement is made and concluded by and between AA Corporation (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and BB Company (hereinafter referred to as Party B) whereby the Parties hereto agree to enter into the compensation trade under the terms and conditions set forth below: 本协议由AA公司(以下简称甲方)和BB公司(以下简称乙方)签订。双方同意按下列条款进行补偿贸易。(本句中省略未译)
2. WITNESSETH, Whereas, Now Therefore, NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS, Know All Men by these presents,In witness Whereof, In Testimony Whereof, Undersigned.
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WITHNESSETH, Whereas, Now Therefore用于英文合同前言部分,In witness Whereof用于合同结尾证明部分,在第二章篇章结构特点中已有涉及,恕不赘述。
In Testimony Whereof: in Witness Whereof.以此为证,特立此证。
例句:In Testimony Whereof we have hereto signed this Document on _____ (date) accepted on _____ (date).我方于__年__月__日签署本文件,并于__年__月__日接受该文件,特此为证。
NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS: 兹特立约为据, 本句话也是用于WHEREAS条款之后引出具体协议事项。
例句: NOW THESE PRESENTS WITNESS that it is hereby agreed between the parties hereto as follows: 兹特立约为据,并由订约双方协议如下:
KNOW ALL MEN by these presents:根据本文件,特此宣布。(通常用于前言部分)
例句:KNOW ALL MEN by these presents that we_____(bank’s name)having our registered office at ______ (hereinafter called “the Bank”) will be bound unto _____(the Owner’s name)(hereinafter called “the Owner”) in the sum of ____ for payment well and truly to be made to the said Owner, the Bank will bind itself, its successors and better assignee by these presents.根据本文件,兹宣布,我行,(银行名称),其注册地点在(以下简称本银行)向(业主名称)(以下简称本业主)立约担保支付(金额数)的保证金。本保证书对本银行及其继受人和受让人均具有约束力。
Undersigned:法律文件末尾的签名者,前面加定冠词the,是指文件签署者的自称。
例句:The undersigned Seller and Buyer have agreed to close the following transaction in accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated as follows: 兹经签约的买卖双方同意,按下列条款,达成这笔交易。
3. Notwithstanding: in spite of, despite. 即使,尽管。
例1:Notwithstanding any other provisions to the contrary herein, insurance coverage and limits shall be subject to approval of all the parties.即使有与本合同相悖的规定,保险范围和责任限制应以合同各方同意为准。
例2: Notwithstanding Article 2.2, the parties may agree to extend the Expiration date to such date as is reasonable in the circumstances if any of the conditions precedent referred to in Article 2.1 is not satisfied or waived on or before the Expiration Date, any such agreement or waiver to be in writing. 尽管有本合同第二条第二款规定,如果上述第二条第一款规定的先决条件在合同期满日之前既未实现又未放弃,合同各方亦可根据具体情况,约定合理延长合同的期满日。
4. As 合同英语中as出现的频率极高,而且用法灵活多变,是典型的自由人。在某种意义上讲,as使用的熟练程度可以衡量合同英语的造诣。具体用法和含义见以下实例:
As 放在代表规定的provide,stipulate,set forth,prescribe等词的过去分词前,含义为“依照某某
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规定”。
例1:For purpose of this, Capital Account shall be adjusted hypothetically as provided for in Section 4.6 herein.基于此,应依照本合同第四条第六款调整资金账户。
例2:based on their respective Venture interests as set forth in Section 5.2 hereof. 基于本合同第五条第二款规定的各方在合资公司中的权益。
另有Except as otherwise provided结构,表示“除非本文/某条款另有规定”。
例句:Except as otherwise provided herein, all notices or demands sent by registered airmail shall be deemed received 8 days after they have been sent and notices or demands sent by telex shall be deemed received at the time of the dispatch thereof.除非本合同另有规定,所有通知和请求以航空挂号信寄出则发出后8日应视为送达收悉,以电传方式发出则在发送时视为收悉。
As构成as the case may be(视具体情况而定), as the case may require(视具体要求而定)和as the Venturers may determine等短语。
例句:The Venture may relocate its office from time to time or have additional offices as the Venturers may determine.该合资公司视投资者决策,可随时迁址或增添营业场所。
As构成as of the date of ____ (date) 短语是英语合同中表示“自某年某月某日起”最正式的表达。
例句:In witness whereof, the parties have caused this instrument to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written. 合同双方签订本文件,该文件自以上书就日期即时生效,特此为证。
As还用在as soon as practical短语中,意义用法相当于as soon as possible.
例句:During the Employment Period, the Company agrees that it shall recommend to the Board the election of the Employee as a Director of the Company on the Commencement Date or as soon as practical thereafter. 本公司同意在聘用期间,应自本协议开始或其后尽早的时间向董事会推选受聘方为本公司董事。
As与such连用是英文合同中一大特色,参看本书第二章第三节部分,在此不在赘述。
5. foregoing, aforesaid, the said, aforementioned, above-mentioned, in question
Foregoing, aforesaid, the said, aforementioned, above-mentioned一族,一般放在名词前作限定,意为“前述的”或“上述的”,为避免重复已经提到的姓名或名称。
例1:The Bank shall give prompt written or telex notice to the Borrower of the Interest Rate in effect from time to time in accordance with the foregoing sentence.本银行将根据前述的句子以书面或电传形式随时及时通知借款方生效的利率。
例2:The contract shall be written in Chinese and in ____________. Both language versions are equally authentic. In the event of any discrepancy between the two aforementioned versions, the Chinese version
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shall prevail.本合同应以中文和_文书就,具同等法律效力。前述两种文本如有歧异,以中文文本为准。
In question: under consideration; being talk about. 通常表示“在考虑或讨论中的”某件事或某个问题,可译为“这”或“该”问题。
例句:All prices to be paid by the Buyer under its obligations of the buyback/counter-purchase Contract shall be the world market prices taking into account the other delivery terms for the goods in question.买方根据返销或回购货物合同的义务所支付的价格应为世界市场价格,结合考虑该货物的其他交货条件。
6. follows, as below, the following
这一族都表示“下列”,一般放在动词后,而the following作为“下列”在英文合同中用的较少。这样的例子俯手皆是,恐怕每个英文合同都少不了的。
NOW THEREFORE, the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows;
为此,双方达成契约,约定如下:
NOW THEREFORE, it is hereby agreed as below.
为此,双方约定如下:
Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter, Party A and Party B agree as follows:
兹以上述各点和契约所载条款为约因,订约双方协议如下:
7. according to, under, subject to, in accordance with, as per, as provided in, pursuant to, in compliance with
这一族都表示“依照,根据”合同的约定或者法律的规定。其中尤以“according to”最不正式,自然用的最少了,而“in accordance with”最为常见。
例如:In case no settlement can be reached, the case may then be submitted for arbitration to China International Economic And Trade Arbitration Commission in accordance with the provisional Rules of Procedures promulgated by the said Arbitration Commission.如未能达成和解,该案件可提交中国国际贸易仲裁委员会根据该仲裁委员会颁布的仲裁程序暂行规定进行仲裁。
又如:A Photostat copy of the Acceptance Certificate of the Contract Plant signed by the representatives of both parties as per Chapter 9 of the present Contract.该合同设备的验收证书的影印副本由双方代表按照该合同第九章签收。
再如:Both Parties shall each contribute their paid in capital in compliance with the items specified in the appendix to the Contract.合同双方应按照本合同附件中载明的项目进行出资。
8. Including but not limited to与including, without limitation以及including by way of illustration
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but not limitation
英文合同表达“包括但不限于”时,就会用到这几个短语。
例如:The time for the performance of the Seller's obligations set forth in this Contract shall be automatically extended for a period equal to the duration of any nonperformance arising directly or indirectly from Force Majeure events including but not limited to fire, flood, earthquake, typhoon, natural catastrophe, and all other contingencies and circumstances whatsoever beyond the Seller's reasonable control preventing, hindering or interfering with the performance thereof. 本合同规定卖方履行义务的时间应自动延长等同于由于直接或间接由于不可抗力事件导致的不能履行的期间。不可抗力事件包括但不限于火灾、洪水、地震、台风、自然灾害和卖方无论怎样也无法合理控制的阻止、妨碍、干扰本合同履行的其他风险和情形。
9. prior to, no later than, on or before,on and after
常用在英文合同中限定日期,prior to表示“某日之前,提前多少日”。on or before, no(not) later than,表示“不迟于”,On and after表示“从某日起”。
例如:Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any order sort to collect any account on and after September 20. 自9月2O日起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。
例如:Our terms are cash within three months, i.e. on or before May 1.
我公司的条件是,3个月内,即不得晚于5月1日,支付现金。
例如: Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract, i.e. not later than December.本合同签字之日一个月内,即不迟于12月15日,你方须将货物装船。
例如:10-15 days prior to the date of shipment, the Buyer shall inform the Seller by cable or telex of the contract number, name of vessel, ETA of vessel, quantity to be loaded and the name of shipping agent, so as to enable the Seller to contact the shipping agent direct and arrange the shipment of the goods.装运前10天到15天,买方应以电报或电传方式通知卖方合同编号、装运船名,预计到达时间,装载数量和承运代理商名称,以便能使卖方直接联系承运代理商安排货物装运。
此外,为限定时间更为明确,还常用inclusive、including和included,来限定含当日在内的时间。
例如: This credit expires till January 1 (inclusive) for negotiation in Beijing. (or:This credit expires till and including January 1 for negotiation in Beijing.) 本证在北京议付,有效期至1月1日。如果不包括1月1日在内,则为till and not including January 1。
10. Without prejudice to
Without prejudice to,常用于英文合同中,表示在“不损害某规定/情况下”。
例如:The Buyer shall nevertheless have the right to cancel in part or in whole of the contract without prejudice to the Buyer's right to claim compensations. 不妨害买方索赔权,买方仍有权取消合同的部分
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或全部。
11.Attributable to, due to, owing to, by virtue of, in view of, because of, on account of,considering, in consideration of
这一组短语出现在英文合同中都表示“因为”,其中due to,owing to,because of较不正式,很少使用。
例如:Should the Buyer be unable to arrange insurance in time owing to the Seller's failure to give the above-mentioned advice of shipment by cable or telex, the Seller shall be held responsible for any and all damages and/or losses attributable to such failure.
如果因为卖方未能以电报或电传形式发出上述装运通知,买方不能及时安排保险,则卖方应对此产生的损失和或损害赔偿承担责任。
例如:Licensee hereby agrees that its every use of such name shall inure to the benefit of Licensor and that Licensee shall not at any time acquire any rights in such name by virtue of any use it may make of such name.
被许可方特此同意该名称的使用应有利于许可方利益且不得在任何时候因利用该名称而取得该名称项下任何权利。
例如:Buyer shall have the right to inspect the goods on arrival and, within _______
business days after delivery, buyer must give notice to seller of any claim for damages on account of condition, quality or grade of the goods, and buyer must specify the basis of the claim of buyer in detail.
买方应有权在货物运抵及交付后*个营业日内进行检验,买方须通知卖方任何基于货物条件、品质、等级而产生的索赔,并详细说明索赔事由。
例如:In view of the personal nature of the services to be performed under this Agreement by you, you cannot assign or transfer any of your obligations under this Agreement.
考虑到本协议项下待你方履行的服务有人身性质,你方不能转让本协议项下你方的任何义务。
IN CONSIDERATION OF 以..为约因/报酬
约因是英美法系的合同有效成立要件之一,没有则合同不能依法强制履行。但是,大陆法系的合同则无此规定。
例如:Now, Therefore, in consideration of the mutual premises and covenants herein contained, it is hereby agreed: 兹以上述各点和契约所载条款为约因,订约双方协议如下:
In consideration of the payment to be made by Party A to Party B, Party B hereby covenants with Party A to complete the building in conformity with the provisions of the Contract.
乙方特此立约向甲方保证按合同规定完成工程建设,以取得甲方所付的报酬。
12. In lieu of: 一般出现在英文合同中表示“替代”的意思相当于基础英语中的in place of, instead of.
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例句:In circumstance provided above in Clause 14.1, Party C or New Company shall, at its sole option and discretion, be entitled to transfer to Party B all or part of Party C or New Company’s proprietary rights and ownership of the infrastructure project, under construction or after Completion Date, as liquidated damages, in lieu of computing and compensating the actual damages provided that such transfer shall be conducted of Party C’s own free will or rendered in the arbitration award as stipulated in clause 23.
在上述第十四条第一款规定的情形下,丙方或新公司自行选择决断有权向乙方转让丙方或新公司的所有权及在建或竣工后基础设施的所有权的全部或部分作为约定的固定数额的违约金来替代计算赔偿实际损害,但该转让应为丙方自己自愿实施的行为或根据二十三条的规定基于仲裁裁决的处分。
13. In respect of;in respect thereof;with respect to:as regards 涉及,至于,在…方面
英文合同中常用in respect of, in respect thereof或with respect to, 表示与本合同/协议/条款有关的问题,比about, concerning, as regards正式。
例如:Notwithstanding Clause 16.1, Party B shall not be entitled to claim for itself in respect of any Force Majeure in Clause 16.1.
不管16条第一款的规定,乙方无权根据16条第一款为其自身提出有关不可抗力的索赔。
例如:Upon the termination of the Existing Letter of Credit and the payment of all amounts (if any) owing in respect thereof, Bank Boston, N.A. shall cease to be an Issuing Bank hereunder.
现有信用证一经期满所有相关应付款项支付(如果有的话)即告终止,北美波士顿银行不再是该信用证项下的开证行。
例如:Party C or New Company shall retain all rights with respect to the specifications, plans, drawings and other documents and Party B undertakes not to disclose the same or divulge any information contained therein to any third country without the prior written consent of Party C or New Company.
丙方或新公司应保留有关说明书、计划书、图纸和其他文件的所有权利且乙方应承诺未经丙方或新公司事先书面同意不披露上述文件或泄露上述文件所包含的任何信息给第三国。
此外,Pertaining to, pertaining thereto也表示“涉及,与。。。有关”。
例如:Broker is in the business of brokering real estate loans and engages sales representative to perform services pertaining to such business.
经纪人是在房地产贷款经纪业务中聘用销售代表进行有关该业务的服务。
14. SAY, ONLY
英文合同为明确金额的数量,小写金额之后,在括号内用大写文字重复该金额,在大写文字前加上“SAY”,意为“大写”;在最后加上“ONLY”.意思为“整”。当然,小写与大写的金额数量要一致。
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例如: Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US$600 (SAY SIX HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY). 聘方须每月付给受聘方美元600元整。
15. In favor of:in one’s favor 表示以。。。为受益人。
例如:One original and one copy of the irrevocable letter of guarantee issued by the Licensor's Bank for a sum of 10% of the total price for the technical know-how in favor of the Licensee.
由许可方银行开具以被许可方为受益人,金额为专有技术总价10%的不可撤销保函正本和副本各一件。
又如:We hereby establish this irrevocable letter of credit in your favor for account of ABC Company in the amount of U. S. $ _______ (amount in words), available against your draft(s) drawn at sight on Credit Bank, N.A., Letter of Credit Department, Los Angeles, California, accompanied by your signed and dated statement as follows:
我行特此开立在ABC公司帐上以贵方为受益人总额为美元*(大写金额),凭交加州洛杉玑北美信贷银行信用证部开出的即期汇票付款,附有贵方签字和具名日期声明如下:
但注意in favor有时另有它义。
例如:Our goods that we offer you are much in favor in the European Continent.我方向你方报盘的货物,在欧洲大陆颇受好评。(in favor此处表示受赏识,受好评)
16.In confirmation of 为确定。。。。。。起见
例如:In confirmation of such subordination, Tenant shall from time to time execute promptly any certificate that Owner may request.
为确认该从属关系起见,承租人应随时及时签署任何业主可能要求的证书。
二、英文合同常见实词(Content Words)
1. Represent, warrant, undertake, guarantee
在英文合同中这几个词都表示“保证”的含义。Represent 往往和warrant连用,出现在合同的声明保证部分:
例如:Both the Seller and the Purchaser warrant and represent that no broker was involved in negotiating this purchase and sale, and both the Seller and the Purchaser agree to indemnify and hold each other harmless against any and all claims for brokerage.
买卖双方保证并声明没有中介介入交易磋商,且保证赔偿对方因中介引起的索赔并使其免受损害。
例如:Under FOB terms, the Seller shall undertake to load the contracted goods on board the vessel
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nominated by the Buyer on any date notified by the Buyer, within the time of shipment as stipulated in Clause 8 of this Contract.
根据离岸价格术语,卖方应保证根据在本合同第八条规定的时限内,按买方通知的日期,装运货物至买方指定船只。
例如:Party B guarantees that the machines and equipment are unused, sophisticated and of best quality, and that the machines and equipment are capable of manufacturing the steel wire rope.
乙方保证机器设备未经使用,性能良好、品质卓越而且该设备能生产出钢丝绳。
2. Principal place of business (principal office), domicile, business premise, registered office
在英文合同中,这几个词的意思分别是:“主营业地”、“住所地”、“营业场所”、“注册地”。往往出现在前言的“parties”部分。
例如:This Contract made on April 1, 19- -, at ______, China, between ABC Co. with its principal office at ______, China (hereinafter called Party A), and XYZ Co. with its principal office at______, USA (hereinafter called Party B).
本合同于19**年4月1日于中国***签订,合同双方为ABC公司(以下简称甲方),其主营业地位于中国***,和XYZ公司(以下简称乙方),其主营业地为美国***。
例如:If franchisee is declared in default of the agreement, the franchiser has the right to conclude the terms of the agreement and also has the right, without notice to execute any dutiful and authorized acts, on the business premise necessary.
如被特许方承认违约,许可方则有权终止该协议且有权未经通知在必要的营业场所采取任何尽责和授权行为。
例如:EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT is made and entered into on ________ day of _________ (month), ____ (year), by and between: _______ (hereinafter referred to as the "Company"), a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of ____, with its registered office located at ________________, and ______ (hereinafter referred to as the "Employee"), an individual, with nationality of _________ (Passport No._____) residing at ________________.
本聘用协议订立于*年*月*日,协议双方为***(以下本公司),其按*州法律组织设立,注册地为***,和***,自然人,国籍为*国,护照号码为***,住址为***。
例如: The Arbitration shall be conducted in the country of the domicile of the defendant.
本仲裁应在被申请人住所地的国家进行。
3.Chapter, article, section, clause, paragraph, subparagraph
英文合同中的“章”、“条”、“款”、“项” 分别用chapter, article/section/clause, paragraph, subparagraph表示。
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例如:The Borrower further irrevocably consents to service of process upon it out of said courts in any such action or proceeding by mailing copies thereof by United Stated registered air mail, postage prepaid, to the Borrower at the address specified in Section 10. 5 hereof.
借款人进一步不可撤消同意上述法院就该事宜诉讼或程序的送达,接受按照本合同第十条第五款指定的借款人地址寄来的美国航空挂号信,邮资已付邮件中的副本。
4. Have the right to do, be entitled to, may do, reserve the right to do, be (duly) authorized to do, have the authority to do, do sth at one’s option or/and discretion, be liberty to do
这一组短语是都表示“有权做”。Be entitled to表示to give sb. the right to sth.(to sth.)体现该权利法律上的强制性。Reserve the right to do表示to have a specified power of right in law体现法律上规定的权利。而be authorized to do, have the authority to do指经授权而有的权利,至于do sth. at one’s option or/and discretion则指行为人自主决定的权利。
例如:The Buyer shall nevertheless have the right to cancel in part or in whole of the contract without prejudice to the Buyer's right to claim compensations.
尽管如此,买方有权撤消合同的全部或部分,概不妨碍买方索赔权之行使。
例如:In circumstance provided above in Clause 14.1 C or New Company shall, at its sole option and discretion, be entitled to transfer to B all or part of C or New Company's proprietary rights and ownership of the infrastructure project, under construction or after Completion Date, as liquidated damages, in lieu of computing and compensating the actual damages provided that such transfer shall be conducted of C's own free will or rendered in the arbitration award as stipulated in clause 23.
在上述第十四条第一款规定的情形下,丙方或新公司自行选择决断有权向乙方转让丙方或新公司的所有权及在建或竣工后基础设施的所有权的全部或部分作为约定的固定数额的违约金来替代计算赔偿实际损害,但该转让应为丙方自己自愿实施的行为或根据二十三条的规定基于仲裁裁决的处分。
又如:The Buyer shall establish the covering letter of credit before the date specified in Clause 3 of this Sales Confirmation, failing which the Seller reserves the right to rescind without further notice, or to accept whole or any part of this Sales Confirmation not fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for losses sustained, if any.买方须于销售确认书第三条所规定的日期之前开出本批交易的信用证。否则,售方有权不经通知取消本确认书,或接受买方对本销售确认书未履行的全部或一部分,或对因此遭受的损失提出索赔。
再如:The supervision personnel appointed by Party A and its representative shall have the authority to supervise the progress of work and give instruction.
甲方任命的监管人员及其代表应有权监督工程进度并发出指令。
5. Perform, fulfill, execute implement
英文合同表示合同履行时经常用到这几个词,perform表示to do what one party is obliged to do by a contract泛指双方履行合同的各项责任和义务,而fulfill表示to do everything which is promised in a
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contract强调合同一方具体履行合同的义务。Execute implement表示则强调具体实施,execute也有签约、生效的用法。
例如:With respect to the outstanding 180 M/T of low-density polyethylene NY2-11 under Contract No. 79hp-106, we insist that you must open the covering letter of credit the soonest possible to secure the performance of the contract. We hereby would like to call your attention to the fact that the Adviser Inc., who purchased LDPE NY2-11 from us at the same time as you did have fulfilled their commitment under the previous Contract not long after we offered our regulated price and signed a new contract covering substantial quality.
有关第79hp-106号合同项下180公吨的低密度聚乙烯(NY2-11)未付款项,我方坚持要求贵方尽快开立信用证以保证合同的履行。我方在此提请贵方注意该事实,同时从我公司购买低密度聚乙烯(NY2-11)的Adviser公司已经按先前的合同履行完义务,不久后,我方就提供了调整的价格并签订了一份产品品质优良的新合同。
例如:Each of the parties to this Agreement shall use its reasonable best efforts to effect the transactions contemplated hereby and to fulfill and cause to be fulfilled the conditions to Closing under this Agreement including, without limitation, Parent using reasonable best efforts to obtain the Parent Stockholder Approval at the meeting of Parent''s stockholders scheduled to be held on June 25, 1999 or at any adjournment or postponement thereof (the "June 25 Meeting"). Each party hereto, at the reasonable request of another party hereto, shall execute and deliver such other instruments and do and perform such other acts and things as may be necessary or desirable for effecting completely the consummation of this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby.
合同任一方应竭尽全力来完成在此预期的交易并按本协议履行或促使交易的成交条件的履行。包括但不限于母公司尽力按日程在1999年6月25日召开的母公司股东会或该日期延后或休会期间通过母公司股东批准。本合同一方应在他方合理的要求下,应签署并交付其他文件并切实履行本协议和预期交易完全成就所必需或需要的行为和事宜。
例如:All disputes arising in connection with this contract or in the execution thereof, should be settled amicably through negotiations.
所有与合同或合同履行有关的争议,应通过友好协商解决。
例如:All expenses of keeping the books and records of the Company and the preparation of financial statements required to implement the provisions of this Agreement or otherwise needed for the conduct of the Company's business shall be borne by the Company.
所有履行本协议规定所要求的或其他本公司经营所需要的保存本公司账册记录和准备财务报表的费用由本公司承担。
6. Abide by, observe, obey, comply with
这几个词在英文合同中都表示“遵守,服从,”的意思。Comply with的主语通常是Sth.而observe和abide by则的主语通常是Sb.
例如:The delivered equipment shall be installed and tested by Party B and shall fully comply with the technical requirements and processing quality of the contract.
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所交付的设备应由乙方安装调试,应完全符合本合同的技术要求和工艺质量。
例如:The Contractor shall observe and abide by all applicable laws, rules and regulations in connection with the Work.承包人必须遵守和服从与该工程有关的一切适用法律规章和条例。
7. have the legal obligation to do, be obliged to, shall do, be under the obligation to do,
be liable/responsible to do, be liable/responsible for,
在英文合同中这一组短语都表达“有责任、有义务”。Shall do sth.在第二章英文合同特点时,已经述及,在此不再赘述。其他短语的用法,参看下例:
例1:The Company has no legal obligation, absolute or contingent, to any other Person to sell any material portion of the assets of the Company, to sell any material portion of the capital stock or other ownership interests of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or to effect any merger, consolidation or other reorganization of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or to enter into any agreement with respect thereto.
本公司没有完全或随附的任何法律义务向任何他人出售公司资产的任何重要部分,出售股本的任何重要部分或本公司或其任一子公司的其他所有权权益,或实现本公司或任一子公司的并购、合并或其他的重组或签订有关以上事项的协议。
例2:RCII is not under any legal obligation, whether written or oral, to do any of the foregoing. RCII公司没有任何书面或口头上的法律义务来做以上的任何一项。
例3: In the case of dangerous and/or poisonous cargo (es), the Seller is obliged to take care to ensure that the nature and the generally adopted symbol shall be marked conspicuously on each package.在危险或有毒货物的情况下,卖方有义务照管确保其属性安全且应在每一包装上标注通常采用的标识。
Within the time as notified by the Buyer, after its arrival at the port of shipment the Seller shall be fully liable to the Buyer and responsible for all losses and expenses such as dead freight, demurrage. 在买方通知的时限内,抵达装运港后,卖方应对买方承担全部责任并对诸如空仓费、延滞费等所有损失和费用负责。
The Seller shall not be held liable for failure or delay in delivery of the entire lot or a portion of the goods under this Sales Contract in consequence of any Force Majeure incidents.
卖方对因任何不可抗力事件导致本买卖合同项下整批或部分货物未能交付或延误概不承担责任。
8. effect
在基础英语中,effect一般作名词,指效果、影响,英文合同中如:come into effect表示生效,sth. in effect表示生效的法律文件。除了这些基本用法外,effect还常用作动词表示“实现”、“完成”的意思。例如:
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This contract shall come into effect on the date when it is signed by both parties.
本合同从双方签字之日起生效。
The Buyer shall accept the bill of exchange immediately upon the first presentation of the bill of exchange and the required documents and shall effect the payment on the maturity date of the bill of exchange.
汇票一经承兑交单,买方应在汇票到期时完成支付。
此外,当表达实际上,事实上的含义时,英文合同常用in effect, 而不是in fact.
9.Counterpart, copy, duplicate, original
在英文合同中,Counterpart, copy, duplicate, original 都用作表示合同一式几份。Counterpart, copy和duplicate指副本,而original指的是正本,而且duplicate就有双重双份的意思,也常见in duplicate的用法,与此类似的还有in triplicate(一式三份), in quadruplicate(一式四份),in quintuplicate(一式五份),in sextuplicate (一式六份),in septuplicate(一式七份),in octuplicate (一式八份),in nonuplicate (一式九份),in decuplicate (一式十份)等等。
例如:This Agreement may be executed simultaneously in two or more counterparts. Each counterpart shall be deemed an original, and all of the counterparts together shall constitute but one and the same instrument.
本协议文本可同时签署两份或多份副本。每一副本应视为一份原件,所有副本一起应构成唯一同一文件。
10.Incur
英文合同中incur指“招致,引起”,相当于基础英语中的cause。通常以过去分词incurred形式出现。
例如:In case her age exceeds 15 years, the extra average insurance premium thus incurred shall be borne by the Seller.
如果她的年龄超过15岁,则由买方承担因此产生的平均保险费以外的费用。
例如:No costs incurred in the manufacture, sale, distribution or exploitation of the articles shall be deducted from any royalty payable by Licensee.
产品的生产、销售、分销或开发引起的花费不得从被许可方的使用费中扣除。
11.To-wit
作为法律专用语,to-wit的意思为“即”,相当于基础英语中的“that is to say(i.e.)”。
例如:WITNESSETH: That for and in consideration of the sum of One Million Eleven Thousand One
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Hundred Fifty Dollars ($1,011,150.00) cash in hand paid by the party of the second part to the party of the first part and other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of all of which are hereby acknowledged, the said party of the first part does hereby bargain, sell, grant and convey, in fee simple, with general warranty of title, unto the party of the second part, the following, to-wit:
兹证明(通常省略不译):兹以乙方支付甲方的一百零一万一千一百五十美元现金和其他为约因,特此确认充分并予接受,上述甲方由此交易、出售、转让***,对所有权向乙方作一般保证如下,即:
12.Sanction, approval, examination
英文合同表示审批、批准时,常常使用这几个词,sanction尤其专用于合同。
例如:The amendment of the contract or other appendices shall come into force only after a written agreement has been signed by Party A and Party B and approved by the original examination and approval authority.
本合同的修改或其他附件当仅当甲乙双方签署完书面协议后并经原审批机关批准后方能生效。
例如:This sanction is lifted prospectively upon the filing of a proper registration.
妥当的登记申请才会提交审批。
此外,sanction在英文合同中也常作“制裁”解。
例如:If Licensee is joined in such proceeding, Licensor shall indemnify and hold harmless Licensee from and against any claim, sanction, liability, damages, attorney's fees, judgments or orders of any kind arising out of such proceeding.
如果被许可方参加该诉讼,许可方则应保证赔偿许可方由该诉讼导致的任何索赔、制裁、债务、损害赔偿、律师费、判决或任何裁令并保证免除被许可方有关责任。
13.Do sth. in its entirety
英文合同中do sth. in its entirety相当于基础英语中的do sth. totally或do sth. as a whole,表示完全彻底地做某事。
例如:The Aggregate Revolving Commitment (and the Revolving Commitment of each Bank) shall terminate in its entirety on April 15, 1998 unless the Closing Date shall have occurred on or prior to such date.联合周转协议(及各银行的周转协议)应在1998年4月15日完全终止,除非结算发生在当天或先于该日期。
14.encumbrance, mortgage, charge, pledge, security, lien, security
mortgage相当于我国法律的抵押;pledge相当于质押,lien相当于留置,security相当于担保,保证;
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encumbrance: A liability or claim which burdens property, e.g., a lease, mortgage, easement, restrictive covenant, rentcharge…(Dictionary of Law, 6th edition, L.B.Curzon)指在财产上设定的债务或债权,如:租赁、抵押、地役、限制性契约,收租。试译为他物权。
charge: …4. An encumbrance, e.g., on land, which secures payments for money…(Idem) 一种担保物权,如:土地上设定的用于付款的担保,保证。
例如:Seller warrants that the goods are now free, and that at the time of delivery shall be free from any security interest or other lien or encumbrance.
卖方保证货物现无约束,交付时应没有设定担保物权、其他留置权或债权。
例如:During the joint venture term of the Joint Venture Company, Without Party B’s written consent, Party A shall not create any option, right to acquire, mortgage, charge, pledge, lien, or any other form of security or encumbrance on, over, or affecting the whole or any part of its equity interest in the Joint Venture Company.
本合资公司合营期间,未经乙方书面同意,甲方不得对本合资公司所有或部分股权设定期权、购并权、抵押权、保证、抵押权、留置权、或其他任何形式的担保或债权,或因以上设定影响本合资公司的所有或部分股权。
15.Pertinent, relevant
这两个词都是作为形容词“有关的,相关的”含义,出现在英文合同中,pertinent似乎较relevant更为正式。
例如:All activities of the Cooperative venture company shall be governed by the laws, decrees and pertinent rules and regulations of the People's Republic of China.
合作经营企业的一切活动均应受中华人民共和国的法律、法令及有关规定和规章约制。
再如:In accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Cooperative Joint Ventures and other relevant Chinese laws and regulations, ABC Company and XYZ Company, in accordance with the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultations, agree to jointly set up a Cooperative venture in Beijing, the People's Republic of China.
根据中华人民共和国中外合作企业法及有关法律法规,ABC公司与XYZ公司,本着平等互利的原则,经过友好协商,同意共同在中华人民共和国北京设立合作企业。
16.Seek recourse to, resort to 在英文合同中都表示“求助于,诉诸于”的含义。
例如:The arbitration shall take place in Beijing and the decision of the Arbitration Commission shall be final and binding upon both parties; neither party shall seek recourse to a law court or other authorities to appeal for revision of the decision. Arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party.
仲裁应在北京进行。仲裁委员会的裁定应为终局性,对双方均有约束力。任一方不得诉诸于法院或其他机构上诉寻求修正该裁定。仲裁费应由败诉方承担。
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又如:The exercise of a remedy does not waive the right of either party to resort to arbitration or reference. 任一方行使补救权利不放弃其诉诸仲裁或仲裁程序的权利。
第二节英语合同的常用句型(Sentence Patterns)
一、in the event that(短语为in the event of), in case(短语为in case of), providing(that), provided(that), on the conditions that, if(if and whenever), where, in so far as(insofar as), should, suppose/supposing(that)
在英文合同中,以上这些词常用来引导条件从句表示“如果、假如”等情形,至于基础英语中常用的“as long as”在英文合同非常鲜见。
如:In the event that the Contract Price or any other terms of the Contract changes after the issuance of the Letter of Credit (or Letter of Guarantee) the Owner shall arrange for such Letter to be amended accordingly as soon as possible after any such changes.如果在信用证(或保函)开出后,合同总价或合同其他条款发生变化,业主应尽快安排对信用证(或保函)进行相应的修改。
如:In case part of or all know-how of the above-mentioned technical contents have been published by Party B or Third Parties A obtains evidence of such publication, then Party A shall no longer be responsible for keeping secret and confidential the part already published.如上述专有技术的一部分或全部已由第三方公布,而甲方也掌握了已公布的证据,则甲方不再承担保密义务。
如:15% of the above contract price, e.g. US$21000 shall be paid by Party A to Party B by M/T within 30 days after Party A has received from Party B the following technical documentations and documents and providing that they are in conformity with the contract: 甲方从乙方处收到以下技术资料和文件后30天内应信汇乙方上述合同总价的百分之十五,也就是两万一千美元,但该技术资料和文件应符合本合同要求。
如:Either party may at anytime replace the chairman, deputy chairman or director(s) it has appointed, provided that it gives written notice to the Joint Venture Company and the other party.任何一方可随时更换自己委派的董事长、副董事长或董事,但必须书面通知合资公司和合资的另一方。需要注意的是,provided that通常语气上有转折的含义,不宜翻译为“假如,如果”,译为“但是”,则译文过渡自然,符合汉语表达的规范。
Should the seller make delivery on time as stipulated in the Contract with the exception of Force Majeure specified in Clause18 to this contract, the Buyer shall agree to postpone the delivery on condition that the Seller agree to pay a penalty which shall be deducted by the paying bank from the payment under negotiation.如果卖方并非因本合同第18条规定的不可抗力事件而未按合同规定的期限交货,那么,只要卖方同意支付罚金,并由付款行从议付款中扣除,买方便同意卖方延期交货。
句中出现两处条件从句,should引导的从句属于非真实条件句,即虚拟语气,表示该条件发生的可能性很小,也就是说是当事人不希望出现的不利情况。而on condition that引导的条件从句,往往表
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示只要某情况出现,就如何如何。
Notwithstanding the completion of the sale and purchase of the __ ordinary shares in the Company, the terms and conditions of this agreement shall remain in full force and effect as between the parties hereto in so far as the same are not fulfilled.即使买卖公司*股普通股已经结束,只要该行为尚未履行完毕,本协议条款对双方仍然完全有效。
In all cases where Licensee desires artwork involving articles which are the subject of this license to be executed, the cost of such artwork and the time for the production thereof shall be borne by Licensee.
如果被许可方需要的工艺品涉及本许可将履行的标的,则该工艺品的费用和生产该工艺品的时耗应由被许可方承担。
As an example, suppose that Stamps.com has a partnership agreement with a company called "Internet Marketing". In this example, "Partner Name" would be "Internet Marketing".
试举一例,如果Stamp.com公司与一家名叫Internet Marketing的公司有一合伙协议。本例中,该“合伙名称就是“Internet Marketing”。
If and whenever the attorney at law designated by Party B comes to work with Party A, Party A shall offer all sufficient and necessary facilities, arrange the said legal counsel with an office, appoint a company officer to assist legal counsel with his function, provide relevant information and writ and print legal draft for such legal counsel.
乙方律师到甲方工作时,甲方应充分给予安排,安排法律顾问办公场所,选派干部协助律师工作,提供有关情况,缮写打印稿件等。
相关链接:in no case, in no event, in the case of,in any case等
in no case和in no event表示“决不”即无论怎样都不行。
例如:Vessel over 20 years of age shall in no event be acceptable to the Buyer.船龄超过20年的买方概不接受。
In the case of 就什么来说,关于,in any case 无论如何
例如:In the case of dangerous and/or poisonous cargo (es), the Seller is obliged to take care to ensure that the nature and the generally adopted symbol shall be marked conspicuously on each package.
关于危险或有毒货物,卖方有义务照管确保其属性安全且应在每一包装上标注通常采用的标识。
二、Sth. is (shall remain) the property of sb., the title of sth. shall be vested in sb.
英语合同表示“某物所有权属于某人”时,常用到这两个句型。如果用the ownership of sth. belongs to sb.,或者sb owns/possesses sth.就不够正式,而且possess只指目前属于某人,并不能说明获得的来源,而own只表示“对。。。。。的合法占有”。
如:Any drawings or technical documents interested for use in the Construction of the Plant or of part
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thereof and submitted to the Seller by the Buyer prior or subsequent to formation of the Contract remain the exclusive property of the Buyer.本合同订立前后由买方送交卖方用于建筑设备或其部分设备的图纸或技术资料仍为买方的专有财产。
又如:Licensee hereby agrees that at the termination or expiration of this agreement Licensee will be deemed to have assigned, transferred and conveyed to Licensor any rights, equities, good will, titles or other rights in and to the Name which may have been obtained by Licensee or which may have vested in Licensee in pursuance of any endeavors covered hereby, and that Licensee will execute any instruments requested by Licensor to accomplish or confirm the foregoing.
被许可方特此同意本协议终止或届满时,被许可方视为转让许可方被许可方以和对该名义可能已获得或经努力已所有的任何权利、权益、商誉、所有权或其他权利,并且被许可方应在许可方的要求下签署完成或确认上述内容的任何文件。
三、It is + p. p(past participle过去分词) + that clause
英文合同在使用被动语态时,有一些常见的特殊句型:
It is agreed that clause
如:It is mutually agreed that the certificate of quality and quantity of weight issued by the manufacturer shall be part of the document for payment with the adopted Letter of Credit. 双方同意制造厂出具的质量、数量或重量检验证明书作为有关信用证项下付款的单据之一。
It is expressly agreed that Lessee will not, without obtaining prior written permission of Lessor, assert on its behalf, or on behalf of Lessor, any immunity from taxation based on the tax-exempt status, if any, of the Lessor.双方明确同意承租人未经出租人事先书面同意,不得自行或代表出租人基于出租人的免税身份主张免税。(如果出租人有该身份)
It is understood that clause
又如:It is strictly understood that the Sellers can not be held responsible for non-delivery of delayed delivery of the goods ordered if the situation is caused by Force Majeure, such as war, rebellion, fire, strike, new levies imposed by government, mistakes in telegrams, inability of, or refusal by the manufacturers to fulfill this Contract or any other causes beyond Seller’s control.严格明确卖方对于自己无法控制的不可抗力,如战争、叛乱、火灾、火灾、罢工、政府新征税、电报错误、生产厂商无能力或拒绝按合同生产致使已定货物不能发货或迟延发货概不负责。
It is understood that the Seller shall not be liable for any discrepancy of the goods shipped due to causes for which the Insurance Company, Shipping Company, other transportation organizations and/or Post Office are liable. 双方明确卖方概不承担属保险公司、装运公司或其他运输机构、邮局责任范围内原因所造成已装运货物的瑕疵责任。
It is stressed that clause
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再如:It is essentially stressed that the Buyers are requested to sign and return the duplicate of this Contract within 3 days from the date of receipt. In the event of failure to do this, the Sellers reserve the right to cancel the Contract.必须强调:买方应于收到本合同之日起3天内签字并退还合同的副本,如买方不这样做,卖方保留取消合同的权利。
四、Saving Clause
在英文合同中Saving Clause(除外条款, 但书条款)通常有Save that句型和Save as句型,表示“。。。。。。者例外”。
例如:The provisions of Paragraph 6 and Paragraph 12 of the US Plan apply mutatis mutandis to the UK Scheme, save that if an amendment is made to the UK Scheme or to the terms of an Approved Stock Option at a time when the UK Scheme is approved by the Inland Revenue under Schedule 9, the approval will not thereafter have effect unless the Inland Revenue have approved the alteration or addition.
应用于英方方案的美方规划的第6节和第12节的规定的已作必要的修正,除非对英方方案或已批准股票期权条款的修改时值根据附件9英方方案已获批准,此后该批准不得生效,除非内税局已批准该改变或增补。
再如:Save as expressly provided herein, this Agreement may be amended or terminated, and any of the terms hereof waived, only by a document in writing specifically referring to this Agreement and executed by the parties hereto or, in the case of a waiver, by the party waiving compliance.
除非本协议明确规定,本协议可作修改或终止,本协议任一条款可放弃,当仅当通过书面文件特别提及本协议并由本协议双方执行或一方通过弃权声明放弃遵守。
此外,也常见用Proviso表示限制条款或但书。
例如:5.6 Legal Proceedings; Injunctions. (a) The Seller, the Buyer and the Company shall use commercially reasonable efforts (subject to the proviso in Section 5.6(b)) to cooperate with each other in connection with any claim, action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation with any other person which relates to the execution and delivery of this Agreement or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereunder.
法律诉讼;禁止令(!)卖方、买方和本公司应竭尽全力(除本条第二款的但书规定外)互相配合处理涉及本合同履行与交付及本合同项下预期交易完成的与他方有关的索赔、诉讼、案件、诉讼程序、质询或调查。
例如:Tenant shall not be required to join in any proceedings referred to in the proviso at the end of 4.6 hereof unless the provisions of any law, rule or regulation at the time in effect shall require that such proceedings be brought by or in the name of Tenant, in which event Tenant shall join and cooperate in such proceedings or permit the same to be brought in its name, but shall not be liable for the payment of any costs or expenses in connection with any such proceedings, and Landlord shall reimburse Tenant for, and indemnify and hold Tenant harmless from and against, any and all costs or expenses which Tenant may reasonably pay, sustain or incur in connection with any such proceedings.
承租人不得被应要求参加本合同第四条第六款最后但书/限制性条款提及的任何诉讼,除非当时生效的法律法规要求该诉讼应以由承租人或以承租人名义提起,此种情况下,承租人应参加配合该诉讼
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或允许该诉讼以其名义提起,但概不承担任何与该诉讼有关的任何费用和花费,业主应偿还并保证赔偿承租人合理支付的因该诉讼产生或遭受的全部费用和花费且确保承租人免于以上责任。
五、as句型
参看本章第一节As的用法
六、Upon sth ……
英文合同中表达一经。。。。。,就。。。。。。含义时,不用基础英语中的as soon as, 而用Upon sth., ……表达。
例如:Upon expiration of such term of contract, the contract shall automatically become void and null.
合同一经届满则自动失效。
再如:Upon substantial completion of the infrastructure project, C may request to New Company or its representative that the infrastructure project has successfully completed its testing and that accordingly the Completion Date has occurred.
基础设施工程一经实质完成,丙方就可向新公司或其代表要求该工程业已顺利完成测试,因而竣工日期成就。
七、Unless otherwise 和except(as) otherwise
英文合同中表示“除非另有规定”时,常常用到这两个句型,在句中的位置非常灵活,句首,句末或者句中都能看到他们的身影。后接stipulate, provide, require, state, specify等动词或其过去分词。
例如:On the Transfer Date New Company shall transfer to B, free from any lien or encumbrance created by New Company and without the payment of any compensation, all its right, title to and interest in the infrastructure project, unless otherwise specified in the Agreement or any supplementary agreement.
新公司应在转让日转让给乙方,概不承担新公司设定的质押或担保并概不支付基础设施工程中的赔偿、全部权利、所有权和权益,除非本协议另有规定或补充协议。
又如:The arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing Party except otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Institute.
仲裁费由败诉方承担,除非仲裁机构另有裁决。
再如:Except as otherwise provided herein, all import permits and licenses and the import duties, customs fees and all taxes levied by any government authority other than the Seller's country shall be the sole responsibility of the Buyer.
除非本协议另有规定,所有进口许可证照和政府机关(不是卖方国家)征收的进口关税和所有税费均应由买方独自承担责任。
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八、use all reasonable endeavors (efforts) to do sth., make full endeavors (efforts) to do sth.,exert one’s effort(s) to do sth./ exert oneself to do sth.
英文合同中表示“尽力做某事”时,常常用到这几个句型,而不用基础英语中try one’s best to do sth.等句型。
例如:Except as contemplated by this Agreement, from the date hereof through the Closing Date, Mattel shall cause each TLC Subsidiary to use commercially reasonable efforts to conduct its business in the ordinary coursein all material respects, and shall use commercially reasonable endeavors to preserve intact its business relationships, keep available the service of its employees and maintain satisfactory relationships with its suppliers and customers.
除非本协议预期,从本协议日期到成交日,Mattel公司应促使TLC子公司竭尽全力在所有实质方面按通常程序进行交易。并应尽力来保持其商业关系完整,可获得其员工的服务并与供应商和客户维持良好的关系。
又如:However, both parties shall make efforts to get the ratification within 60 (sixty) days.
然而,双方应努力在60天内获得批准。
再如:Each of Quotesmith and IIS agrees to exert its commercially reasonable efforts so that IIS can begin providing instant quotes on QIM in as short a time as the capabilities and technologies of each party will allow.
每一Quotesmith和IIS的人员同意尽其全力使得IIS在各方能力和技术许可的范围内尽快开始向QIM公司提供即时报价。
还如:Promptly following the Effective Time, the shareholders of Tunes who are employed by JAMtv or Merger Sub shall exert their best efforts to cause all employees of Tunes and Merger Sub to execute in favor of Merger Sub proprietary rights agreements substantially similar to JAMtv's existing employee proprietary rights agreement.
生效时间后,被JAMtv公司或Merge Sub公司所聘的Tunes公司股东应立即竭尽全力促使Tunes公司和的所有员工执行Merge Sub公司控股权协议,该协议实质上与JAMtv公司现有的员工控股权协议类似。
第三节合同各部分常用例句与用词
英文合同由标题(Title)、前言(Preamble)、正文(Habendum)、附录(Schedule)及证明部分即结尾词(Attestation)五大部份构成。标题部分由于比较简单,在此就不多述,而附录由于不是所有合同都具备,固定的句式用词很少,现就前言(Preamble)、和证明部分即结尾词(Attestation)两个方面介绍如下:
一、前言(Preamble)部分:
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前言(Preamble)又分为合同方(Parties)和叙述(Recital)两部分,合同方(Parties)部分主要载明合同当事人的名称或者姓名、国籍、主营业所在地或住所地以及合同签订的日期等内容,通常有两种句型:
一种是完整的句子,以This Contract is made on____, 19____, by and between ABC Company Ltd. (hereinafter called Party A) and XYZ Company Ltd. (hereinafter called Party B).为代表。
另一种则是由名词主语加动词过去分词构成的短语,以Agreement made this ___________day of ______________, between ___________(hereinafter called "Licensor"), and ________(hereinafter called Licensee"):为代表。
其中,made 后常用entered/concluded into等,用this后直接用日,或者用on后接方式较为灵活,但接日更为正式。而表达合同各方时还成对出现of /as one part(y), of/as the other part(y), 或是of/as one hand, of/as the other hand.而表示“以下简称”时通常用(hereinafter) called 或是hereinafter referred as to, 甚至有直接把简称写到括号里的情形。
合同方(Parties)的句式范例:
1. This Contract made on April 1, 19- -, at ______, China, between ABC Co. with its principal office at ______, China (hereinafter called Party A) , and XYZ Co. with its principal office at ______, USA (hereinafter called Party B). 本合同于19**年4月1日于中国***签订,合同双方为ABC公司(以下简称甲方),其主营业地位于中国***,和XYZ公司(以下简称乙方),其主营业地为美国***。
2. This contract is signed on this ___(date) of____(year) in___ (place) by and between_______ (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and______ (hereinafter referred to as Party B).
本合同由*公司(以下简称甲方)与*公司(以下简称乙方)于*年*月*日于*地签订。
3. AAA Corporation, Beijing, China (hereinafter referred to as the Buyer) as one party and_____________(hereinafter referred to as the Seller) as the other party agree to authorize their representatives to sign the present Contract under the following terms and conditions:
合同一方中国北京AAA公司(以下简称买方)和合同另一方*公司(以下简称卖方)同意授权各自代表签署现有合同,条款如下:
4. This contract is made by and between the Sellers and the Buyers; Whereby the Sellers agree to sell and the Buyers agree to buy the undermentioned goods according to the terms and conditions stipulated below and overleaf:
本合同由买卖双方签订,凭此合同,卖方同意出售买方同意购买根据下文和背面规定条款的如下货物:
前言的叙述(Recital)部分,往往由Whereas引导的句子(鉴于条款)后,再接NOW THERFORE……(最为常见)等结构。
1. Now therefore, in consideration of the premises and covenants described hereinafter, Party A and Party B agree as follows:
由此,以上述各点和以下规定契约为约因,甲乙双方约定如下:
2. Now therefore, the parties hereby agree as follows: 由此,双方特约定如下:
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3. Now, Therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises herein contained, it is hereby agreed: 由此,以相互本协议包含的承诺为约因,双方特此约定如下:
4. Now it is hereby agreed as follows: 特此约定如下:
5. NOW, THEREFORE, THE PARTIES AGREE AS FOLLOWS: 由此,合同方约定如下:
6.It is understood and expressively agreed that:双方确认并明确约定如下:
二、证明部分即结尾词(Attestation)
英文合同的该部分,通常表达“双方签字盖章,特此为证”的含义。主要是由IN WITNESS WHERE OF 或者IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF 后接常用的句子。通常有如下形式:
1. In witness whereof, the parties hereto have caused their respective duly authorized representatives to execute the Agreement on the ______day of _______in the year of ________.
合同双方授权其代表于*年*月*日签订本协议,特此为证。
2. In witness whereof, the parties have caused this instrument to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.
双方确认本协议于上述所具日期起签订生效,特此为证。
3. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by their duly authorized representatives as of the day and year set forth below.
合同双方确认本协议自以下注明的日期起由其授权代表签字生效,特此为证。
4. In witness whereof, the parties have executed this agreement at __________
(designate place of execution) the day and year first above written.
合同双方于上述日期于*地(指定签订地)签订本协议,特此为证
5. In testimony whereof, Assignor has caused this Assignment to be executed by its officer(s) thereunto duly authorized.
转让方授权其官员签署生效本转让协议。
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第四章英文合同一般条款
When signing a contract, it helps to remember "the big-type gives, and the small-type takes away."
-- Groucho Marx
签订合同,是为了有助于记住"大写的是付出,小写的是拿走"。
--格鲁克.马克思
英文合同的一般条款是相对于特殊条款而言,指不管合同的性质如何,通常都会出现的条款,例如不论是买卖、合资、租赁、借贷、技术转让等合同,尽管缔约目的各自不同,却同样少不了约定违约与免责、解除与终止等等一般性的约定,记载这些一般性约定的条款,就叫做一般条款。
详细来说,一般条款又可分作两大类:第一种为与当事人所要规范之交易的实体权利义务有关系的一般条款,这种一般条款虽然在每一种性质的合同中都会记载,但是内容上依照各类合同性质可能大相径庭。
第二种一般条款与合同特定的实体交易内容没有直接的关系,而仅是在规范倾向行政方面的事务,这种一般条款的重要性并不逊于第一种的一般条款,但是由于不论合同实体交易的性质为何,它们的内容与用语都非常相近,因此比较容易掌握与了解。以下就后者逐一介绍:
第一节定义条款(Definition Clauses)
英文合同中,为了避免对某些重要的名词、概念出现理解上的争议,往往订立定义条款对合同中重复出现的具有特殊意义且容易引起争议的名词概念作出专门的解释。重要的英文合同往往第一章就是定义条款的部分。定义的名词往往在合同中以首字母大写的形式出现,在本书第二章第二节用词特点大写字母的运用部分已经涉及,在英文合同,能够很容易辨识出定义条款。
定义条款常用的句型结构大致分为如下3种:
1. Shall be(construed as)结构:
例如:As used in this Agreement, any gender shall be construed as including all
other genders and the singular shall be construed as including the plural and the plural the singular, as the sense requires.
本协议所用某一性别应解释为包含其他性别,单数应被理解包括复数,视句子需要复数包括单数。
又如:"Acceptance Test Manual"
The Acceptance Test Manual shall be the document prepared by A which will be used by A and the Purchaser FOR checking that the Equipment is in accordance with the specification and Approved Data.
"验收实验手册"
验收实验手册系指由A提供的,供A与买方检验设备是否符合技术规格和认可资料的文件。
2. Shall mean或means结构:
例如:Know-how shall mean all the manufacturing technology and process engineering to manufacture the contract products which are required by Party A and which Party B possesses. Such technology engineering shall include technical details of all designs, operation drawings, technical documentations, manufacturing engineering, procedure and techniques.
专有技术系指所有乙方拥有甲方需要的用于生产本合同产品的生产技术和工艺技术。该技术应包括具体的设计、操作图纸、技术文件、生产工艺、流程和技术。
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又如:"Acceptance" means the acceptance by the Buyer of the Contract Plant which certifies the Supplier''s fulfillment of the Contract in respect of any Performance Test required thereunder in accordance with Article 25.3 (Acceptance) hereof.
验收系指买方接受合同设备,证明供应商就本协议第25条第3款规定所要求的性能测试合格,完成合同履行。
3.Shall refer to
例如:Contract products shall refer to the SIO2 and ITO conductive coating glass products which are in conformity with the technical specifications and standards as specified in Appendix I of this contract, e.g. the products manufactured by Party A with the know-how and equipment supplied by Party B.
合同产品系指符合本合同附件I规定技术规格和标准的STO2和ITO导电涂层玻璃产品。如由甲方使用乙方提供专有技术和设备所生产的产品。
4. 此外,也偶有直接使用is/are的情形:
例如:"System Parts"
System Parts are those which are necessary to B in the performance of this Agreement and derived from Approved Data and shall include but not limited to those parts which are manufactured by B''s suppliers. Notwithstanding the foregoing, mutually agreed simulated and modified equipment used in lieu of the foregoing shall be deemed to be System Parts.
系统部件
系统部件系指B执行本协议所必需的部件(从认可资料中可以查到),应该包括但不限于B制造的部件,经双方商定仿制或改进用以代替上述设备的也应视为系统部件。
又如:
"MOFCOM" is the Ministry of Commerce of the Republic of China.
商务部即中华人民共和国商务部。
第二节合同转让条款(Assignment Clauses)
合同的转让是指当事人的一方将合同权利和义务全部或部分转让给第三方(A party assigns, wholly or in part, its contractual rights and obligations to a third party)。第三方是合同的受让人(assignee),合同的转让(assignment of contracts)不同于合同的变更(modification),它是合同主体的变化。
1. NO ASSIGNMENT. Neither party shall transfer or assign any rights or delegate any obligations hereunder, in whole or in part, whether voluntarily or by operation of law, without the prior written consent of the other party. Any purported transfer, assignment or delegation by either party without the appropriate prior written approval shall be null and void and of no force or effect. Notwithstanding the foregoing, without securing such prior consent, each party shall have the right to assign this Agreement or any of its rights or obligations to an Affiliate provided that such party continues to be liable for the performance of its obligations and either party shall have the right to assign this Agreement and the obligations hereunder to any successor of such party by way of merger or consolidation or the acquisition of substantially all of
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the business and assets of the assignin,g party relating to the Agreement.
不得转让。未经对方事先书面同意,无论自愿还是法律运用,任一方不得转让本合同项下任何权利或让渡任何义务。任何未经事先书面批准的任一方所企图的转让或让渡一概无效。尽管前述,未获得该事先同意,任一方应有权转让本合同或本合同的任何权利或义务给关联公司,但该方继续对其义务的履行承担责任并且任一方应有权通过实质兼并、合并或并购本协议关联的转让方的业务和资产的方式转让本协议或本协议项下的义务给其继受方。
2. ASSIGNMENT.
Neither party''s rights, duties or responsibilities under this Agreement may be assigned, delegated or otherwise transferred in any manner, without the prior written consent of the other party. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no such consent shall be required in connection with the assignment, delegation or other transfer of any such rights, duties or responsibilities (a) by a party to any affiliate which directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by or is under common control with such party, where such control is by more than fifty percent (50%) of the relevant voting power, or (b) in connection with any transaction, regardless of its form, in which all or substantially all of the assets of Lycos are acquired.
转让
未经他方事先的书面同意,任一方不得以转让、让渡或其他任何方式转让其本合同项下的权利、义务或责任。尽管前述,以下上述权利、义务或责任转让、让渡或其他让与无须上述同意:1)由一方转让给任何该方直接或间接控制,该方受控制或在通常控制下的关联公司,如果该控制不小于有关投票权的50%;或2)不论形式,与任何Lycos全部或实质全部资产遭收购的交易有关。
3. The Contractor shall not assign the Contract or any part thereof, or any benefit or interest therein or thereunder without the prior written consent of the Employer.
未经业主事先书面同意,承包方不得转让本合同或本合同的任何部分或本合同项下任何利益或权益。
4. This Agreement may not be assigned without prior notice by either party. Such assignment is subject to the mutual consent and approval of any such assignment.
未经事先书面通知,本协议不得转让。上述转让以双方同意和对任一转让的许可为准。
第三节完整合同与修改(Entire Agreement/Modification to be in writing)
英文合同中的完整合同(entire agreement/complete agreement)条款是说明当事人关于本合同所约定的全部事项已经悉数记载到合同中,其余本合同外的任何书面或口头的约定概不作数。往往其后接有合同的修改方面的约定。
例如:Entire Agreement
This Agreement with Exhibits embodies the entire agreement and understanding between the parties hereto and supersedes all prior agreements and understandings relation to the subject matter hereof.
本协议及其附件包含本协议双方间完整协议和磋商,取代以前所有与本协议标的有关的协议和磋商。
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例如:ENTIRE AGREEMENT:
This agreement contains the entire understanding of the parties. It may not be changed orally. This agreement may be amended or modified only in writing that has been executed by both parties hereto.
本协议包含协议方的完整磋商。不得口头变更。本协议仅得以书面形式经协议双方签字方能修正或修改。
例如:Entire Agreement; Amendments; Severability; General:
This Agreement, including all exhibits and schedules hereto, as amended from time to time in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, contains the entire agreement between the parties relative to the subject matters hereof. This Agreement or the Articles of Organization may only be amended or modified by a writing executed and delivered by Members owning not less than seventy-five percent (75%) of the Membership Interests, provided, however, that the provision in Paragraph 3.1 concerning appointment and election of Managers shall not be amended without the consent of the persons then entitled to serve as Managers. If any provision of this Agreement or the application thereof to any person or circumstance shall be invalid or unenforceable to any extent, the remainder of this Agreement and the application of such provisions to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby, and the intent of this Agreement shall be enforced to the greatest extent permitted by law. The designations of Members and Managers as used herein shall include singular, plural, masculine, feminine or neuter as required by context.
完整合同,修正;效力瑕疵;一般:
本协议含其所有附件附表,可根据本协议条款随时修正,包含双方就本协议标的有关的完整协议。本协议或组织章程仅当拥有不少于75%成员利益的成员以书面形式签发交付始可修改或修正,但是如果第三节第一条有关任命的规定和经理的选任未经有资格出任经理的人等同意不得修正。如果本协议的任何规定或该规定对某人或某情形的适用在任何程度上应为无效或无法执行,本协议其余部分和该部分对其他人或其他情形的适用不得因此受影响,本协议的目的应按法律所允许的最大程度予以执行。在本协议中使用的成员或经理的指定应包含单数、复数,男性、女性或上下文所需的中性。
又如:COMPLETE CONTRACT :
The terms and conditions found within this Contract constitute the complete and final understanding of the Seller and the Buyer (hereinafter "the Parties") with respect to the commodity referred to herein. No modification, extension or release from any provision hereof shall be effective unless the same shall be confirmed in writing by the Party to be bound.
完整合同
本合同内所设立的条款构成买方和卖方(以下简称合同双方)有关本合同提及的货物的完整和最终磋商。任何修改、扩展、解除除非经合同双方书面确认,概不生效,不产生任何约束力。
还如:Amendment
No provision of this Agreement or the Note may be amended, modified, supplemented, discharged or terminated, unless the Bank consents thereto in writing.
除非本银行以书面方式同意,任何本协议的规定或记录不得修正、修改、增补、解除或终止。
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第四节保证与担保条款(Indemnification and Warranty)
担保条款(Warranty Clauses)往往是对诸如:品质、权利、履约等方面作出承诺,经常是与声明(Representative)、承诺(Covenant)一并出现使用。而保证条款(Indemnification/Hold harmless)其实是一种救济的约定,即如果合同当事人外的第三人对合同某一方当事人提起关于本合同的诉讼或其他损害赔偿请求时,所引起的责任及损失由合同另一方补偿,实际上由该方当事人最终承担了相关责任和损失。
例如:WARRANTY:
The Seller warrants that all commodities will conform to the description set out in Clause 1. Save as aforesaid all representations, conditions and warranties of whatsoever nature are hereby excluded and extinguished.
卖方保证所有商品符合第一条规定的规格说明。除了前述本协议在此排除和废止的任何性质的声明、条件或担保。
例如:
YEAR 2000 WARRANTY.
Tripod hereby represents and warrants to Licensee that the Licensed Software will perform its function without interruption or failure by reason of the calendar year in which used, whether before, during or after the year 2000, or by reason of errors in date processing, date recognition or other date dependent functions, provided that all other products used in combination with the Licensed Software, including without limitation operating systems and other software, properly exchange data with the Licensed Software. In the event of any breach of the foregoing warranty, Tripod shall, as Licensee''s sole remedy, modify the Licensed Software so as to comply with the foregoing warranty
2000年担保
Tripod 公司在此向被许可方声明担保如果与其他产品结合使用(包括但不限于操作系统及其他软件),正常地与所许可软件交换信息,所许可软件不会因在2000年期间或2000年前后的使用或因日期进程,日期辨识或其他日期相关功能的错误导致运行中断或失灵。如果违反上述担保,Tripod公司应修改所许可软件以符合上述担保,仅以此作为对被许可方的补救。
例如:INDEMNIFICATION OF LESSOR.
Lessee shall and does hereby agree to protect and save Lessor harmless against any and all losses or damage to equipment by fire, flood, explosion, tornado or theft and Lessee shall and does hereby assume all liability to any person whomsoever arising from the location, condition or use of equipment, and shall indemnify Lessor of and from all liability, claim and demand whatsoever arising from the location, condition, or use of equipment whether in operation or not, and growing out of any cause, and from every other liability, claim and demand whatsoever during the term of this Lease or arising while equipment is in the possession of Lessee. Lessee also agrees to promptly reimburse Lessor, in cash, for any and all personal property taxes levied against equipment and paid by Lessor.
出租人保证赔偿
承租人应由此同意保护并使出租人免于任何因火灾、洪水、爆炸、飓风、偷盗造成的任一和全部损失或对设备造成的损害。承租人应承担所有因设备位置、条件、使用所产生对任何人的责任。而且
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应保证赔偿出租人全部的责任、索赔或要求,无论是基于设备设备的位置、条件或使用与否,还是任何原因,以及保证赔偿无论在租约期间或承租人占有设备时所产生的其他责任、索赔和要求。承租人也同意立即以现金方式补偿出租人所支付的对设备征收的所有动产税费。
例如:Indemnification:
The Company shall indemnify the Managers and Members to the fullest extent permitted or required by the Act, as amended from time to time. The Company may advance expenses incurred by the Managers or Members upon the approval of the Managers, provided such Manager or Member agrees to reimburse the Company unless it is finally determined that such Manager or Member is entitled to be indemnified by the Company against such expenses. The Company may also indemnify its employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by the law, provided that a Majority in Interest of the Members first approve such indemnification. The indemnification provided herein shall be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which a person seeking indemnification may otherwise be entitled, shall continue as to a person who ceases to be a Manager or Member, shall inure to the benefit of the estate, heirs, personal representatives or other successors of the indemnity, and shall not be deemed to create any rights for the benefit of any other person or entity.
保证赔偿:
本公司应保证对经理和成员按法律所要求或允许的最大限度予以赔偿,随时修订。本公司可按经理的批准垫付经理或成员所遭受的费用,但该成员或经理同意偿还本公司,除非最终决定该成员或经理有权获得公司就该费用的赔偿。本公司也可对其员工或其他代理人按法律所允许的最大限度保证赔偿,但首先经股东多数股权批准该赔偿。本协议所规定的赔偿应视为排除任何寻求赔偿人可另行获得的任何其他权利,应适用于财产利益、继承利益、个人代表不得或其他赔偿的继受人,并不得视为对其他个人或实体的利益创设任何权利。
第五节解除与终止条款(Rescission and Termination)
英文合同中对于合同履行的期间通常会约定解除和终止的条款,合同的解除(Rescission)与合同的终止(Termination)不同,合同解除是单方法律行为(one-sided act in law),由于主客观情况的出现,导致不可能或不必要履行合同时,当事人一方可根据法定或约定,通知另一方解除原合同法律关系。合同的终止是基于合同履行完毕、生效裁决或者合同当事人合意(meeting of minds)等法律事实,而导致合同法律关系归于消灭。需要注意的是:合同的终止(termination)和合同的中止(suspension)的区别,前者是完结了合同法律关系,后者是合同履行的暂时停止。
相关链接《中华人民共和国合同法》第94条: 有下列情形之一的,当事人可以解除合同:(The parties may rescind the contract under any of following circumstances:
(一)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;(If the objectives of the contract cannot be reached due to Force Majeure.)
(二)在履行期限届满之前,当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行主要债务;(If a party, before the expiration of the performance term, expresses explicitly or implies by its action that it shall not perform its main debt obligations.)
(三)当事人一方迟延履行主要债务,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行;(If a party has delayed
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the performance of the main debts, and fails to perform them in a reasonable limit after being urged to do so.)
(四)当事人一方迟延履行债务或者有其他违约行为致使不能实现合同目的;(If the objectives of a contract cannot be reached because a party delays performing its debts or commits other actions in breach of the contract.
(五)法律规定的其他情形。(any other circumstances as provided for by law.)
Rescission.
If at any time after acceleration of the maturity of the Loans, the Borrower shall pay all arrears of interest and all payments on account of principal of the Loans and Reimbursement Obligations which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest on principal and on overdue interest, at the rates specified in this Agreement) and all Events of Default and Potential Events of Default (other than nonpayment of principal of and accrued interest on the Loans due and payable solely by virtue of acceleration) shall be remedied or waived pursuant to Section 12.08, then by written notice to the Borrower, the Requisite Lenders may elect, in the sole discretion of such Requisite Lenders, to rescind and annul the acceleration and its consequences and thereupon shall release any deposit made pursuant to Section 10.02(b); provided, however, that no rescission shall occur after the earlier of 30 days after the date of acceleration or any Event of Default specified in paragraph (f) or (g) of Section10.01. No action pursuant to this paragraph (c) shall affect any subsequent Event of Default or Potential Event of Default or impair any right or remedy consequent thereon. The provisions of the preceding sentence are intended merely to bind the Lenders to a decision which may be made at the election of the Requisite Lenders; they are not intended to benefit the Borrower and do not give the Borrower the right to require the Lenders to rescind or annul any acceleration hereunder, even if the conditions set forth herein are met.
解除
在本贷款加速期间届满后的任何时间,借款人应支付所有拖欠利息和借款本金账户下的所有款项。并且根据第十二条08款除加速条款外的偿还债务(根据本协议规定的利率加收本金利息和逾期利息)及所有违约事件和潜在违约事件(不是根据加速条款到期应付的贷款本金和累积利息未付)补救或放弃。则通过书面方式通知借款人,必需的贷款人可自行决定选择解除并撤消加速条款及其后果,由此应解除根据第十条02款第二项的押金;如果,然而,加速期后前30天后或出现任何第6节或第七节规定的违约事件则不得解除本协议。
根据本节(第三节)的任何行为概不影响任何后续的违约事件或潜在违约事件或损害因此产生的任何权利或补救后果。上句的规定仅意图限制贷款人决定必需贷款人的选择;并不意图使借款人获益也并不赋予借款人权利来要求贷款人解除或撤消本协议项下的加速条款,即使达到本协议规定的条件。
相关链接:《中华人民共和国合同法》91条:有下列情形之一的,合同的权利义务终止:(The rights and obligations under a contract shall be terminated in any of the following circumstances:
(一)债务已经按照约定履行;(Liability has all been performed according to the agreement by the parties.)
(二)合同解除;(the contract has been rescinded.)
(三)债务相互抵消;(Liabilities have mutually offset.)
(四)债务人依法将标的物提存;(The debtor has withdrawn and deposited the subject matter according to laws.)
(五)债权人免除债务;(The creditor has remitted liabilities.)
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(六)债权债务同归于一人;(Both the creditor''s rights and the debtor''s liabilities are undertaken by one same person; or)
(七)法律规定或者当事人约定终止的其他情形。(Other circumstances as provided for by law or stipulated by the parties.)
例句:In case of inability to fulfil the contract or to continue operation due to heavy losses in successive years as a result of force majeure, the duration of the cooperative venture and the contract shall be terminated before the time of expiration after being unanimously agreed upon by the board of directors and approved by the original examination and approval authority.
如果因不可抗力致使在下一年度遭受严重损失而不能履行合同或继续经营,经董事会一致同意,并经原审批机关批准,合作企业期间和本合同应在期限届满前终止。
With the unanimous agreement of the Board of Directors and approval of the original inspection department, the Joint Venture can be terminated prior to the original term or the contract be terminated in advance if the Joint Venture suffers losses in consecutive years and is incapable of going on with the business for certain reasons.
经董事会一致同意并经原审批机关批准,本可在原期间之前提前终止,或如果本合资企业连续年度遭受损失且出于某些原因不能继续经营,则本合同应提前终止。
第六节违约条款(Default Clauses)
英文合同的违约条款(Default Clauses/Breach of contract),也就是对于合同履行过程中,违约方(Defaulting Party)对受害方(Damaged Party)的救济。通常分为如下几种:
相关链接:《中华人民共和国合同法》第107条:当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,应当承担继续履行、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任。(Either party that fails to perform its obligations under the contract or fails to perform them as contracted shall be bear the liability for the breach of contract by continuing to perform the obligations, taking remedial measures, compensating for losses)
1. 赔偿损失(Compensation for damages)
Damages:
With the exception of late delivery or non-delivery due to "Force Majeure" causes, if the Seller fails to make delivery of the goods in accordance with the terms and conditions, jointly or severally, of this Contract, the Seller shall be liable to the Buyer and indemnify the Buyer for all losses, damages, including but not limited to, purchase price and/or purchase price differentials, deadfreight, demurrage, and all consequential direct or indirect losses. The Buyer shall nevertheless have the right to cancel in part or in whole of the contract without prejudice to the Buyer's right to claim compensations.
损害赔偿:
除非因不可抗力导致的交付迟延或交付不能,如果卖方未能根据本合同的条款交付货物,卖方应对买方承担责任并保证赔偿买方因此造成的损失、损害赔偿,包括但不限于购买价格或购买差价、空仓费、延滞费以及所有因此产生的直接或间接的损失。然而买方应有权解除合同的部分或整个合同,不得妨害买方行使索赔权利。
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相关链接:《中华人民共和国合同法》第113条:当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,给对方造成损失的,损失赔偿额应当相当于因违约所造成的损失,包括合同履行后可以获得的利益,但不得超过违反合同一方订立合同时预见到或者应当预见到的因违反合同可能造成的损失。(If either party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or does not perform its obligations as contracted and thus causes losses to the other party, the amount of compensation for the loss shall be equivalent to the loss actually caused by the breach of contract and shall include the profit obtained after the performance of the contract, but shall not exceed the sum of the loss that might be caused by a breach of contract and has been anticipated or ought to be anticipated by the breaching party in the making of the contract.
《中华人民共和国合同法》第119条:当事人一方违约后,对方应当采取适当措施防止损失的扩大;没有采取适当措施致使损失扩大的,不得就扩大的损失要求赔偿。(After either party breaches the contract, the other party shall take appropriate measures to prevent the increase of the loss; the party that fails to take appropriate preventive measures and thus aggravates the loss may not claim compensation for the increased part of the loss.)
当事人因防止损失扩大而支出的合理费用,由违约方承担。(The reasonable expenses incurred by the other party in preventing the aggravation of the loss shall be borne by the breaching party.)
2. 违约金(Default Penalty)
违约金可分为法定违约金(Legal Penalty)和约定违约金(Contractual Penalty)。Penalty(违约金)与Damages(损害赔偿金)的关系,如果合同中没有明确约定Liquidated Damages, 那么,Penalty(Legal)通常就是1中的损害赔偿一种Unliquidated damages。
当约定了Liquidated Damages 作为Penalty(contractual),则可能该违约金的金额可能大于受害方实际的损失,即1中的compensation。
In circumstance provided above in Clause 14.1 C or New Company shall, at its sole option and discretion, be entitled to transfer to B all or part of C or New Company's proprietary rights and ownership of the infrastructure project, under construction or after Completion Date, as liquidated damages, in lieu of computing and compensating the actual damages provided that such transfer shall be conducted of C's own free will or rendered in the arbitration award as stipulated in clause 23. However, any transfer shall be subject to the confirmation and approval of the People's Insurance Company of China and the lending bank.
相关链接:《中华人民共和国合同法》第114条:当事人可以约定一方违约时应当根据违约情况向对方支付一定数额的违约金,也可以约定因违约产生的损失赔偿额的计算方法。(The parties may stipulate that in case of breach of contract by either party a certain amount of penalty shall be paid to the other party according to the seriousness of the breach, and may also stipulate the method for calculating the sum of compensation for losses caused by the breach of contract.)
约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以增加;约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以适当减少。(If the stipulated penalty for breach of contract is lower than the loss caused by the breach, the party concerned may apply to a people''s court or an arbitration institution for an increase. If the stipulated penalty for breach of contract is excessively higher than the loss caused by the breach, the party concerned may apply to a people''s court or an arbitration institution for an appropriate reduction.)
当事人就迟延履行约定违约金的,违约方支付违约金后,还应当履行债务。(If the parties agree upon a penalty for the breach of contract by a delayed fulfillment, the breaching party shall, after paying
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the penalty for breach of contract, perform its obligations notwithstanding.)
3. 补救措施(Remedial Measures)
当事人一方发生违约事实后,为防止损失的发生或扩大,而由违约方根据法律规定或合同约定而采取的瑕疵修补措施,在买卖合同、加工承揽合同中特别常见:
Subject to special provisions explicitly of this Agreement thereunder, the other party shall be entitled to notify the party in default by registered letter; Unless satisfactory remedial measures are take within a period of two (2) weeks, the party demanding remedy shall be entitled to claim compensation for losses and damages.
根据本协议项下明确地专门规定,本协议的另一方有权以挂号信的方式通知违约方;除非在两周内采取符合要求的补救措施,要求补救的一方有权就其遭受的损失和损害提出索赔。
4. 继续履行(Continuing to perform obligations)
不论违约方是否已经承担赔偿损失或违约金的责任,都必须根据对方请求,在可能履行的情况下,继续履行合同。
The payment of any penalty by Party B according to 8.6 shall not release the obligation of Party B to continue the delivery of the technical documentations.
根据本协议第八条第二款之规定,乙方违约金的支付不得解除其继续履行交付技术文件的义务。
5. 解除终止权(Right of Termination and Rescission)
对于违约方的违约行为,受害方在不愿或不能再继续维持合同关系的情况下,可通知对方解除或提前终止合同。(参见上节)
第七节争议解决条款(Dispute Resolution)
英文合同中关于争议解决,程序上一般先约定友好协商,协商不成,则根据仲裁条款或补充的仲裁协议进行仲裁,如果没有仲裁条款,争议发生后又没有补充的仲裁协议,才选择诉讼解决,双方可能会约定管辖法院,实体上也可能约定适用的法律。
相关链接:《中华人民共和国合同法》128条:当事人可以通过和解或者调解解决合同争议。(The parties may settle contract disputes through consultation or mediation.)
当事人不愿和解、调解或者和解、调解不成的,可以根据仲裁协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁。涉外合同的当事人可以根据仲裁协议向中国仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构申请仲裁。当事人没有订立仲裁协议或者仲裁协议无效的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人应当履行发生法律效力的判决、仲裁裁决、调解书;拒不履行的,对方可以请求人民法院执行。(If the parties are unwilling to resort to consultation or mediation, or such consultation or mediation fails, the parties may apply to an arbitration institution for arbitration according to the arbitration agreement. The parties to a foreign-related contract may, according to the arbitration agreement, apply to a Chinese arbitration institution or any other arbitration institution for arbitration. If the parties have no arbitration agreement or the arbitration agreement is invalid, they may initiate an action in a people’s court. The parties shall implement any legally effective judgment, arbitral
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award or letter of mediation; in case of a refusal to implement, the other party may apply to a people’s court for execution.)
例如:
1.Venue
The Borrower hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any objection which it may now or hereafter have to the laying of venue of any suit, action or proceeding arising out of or relation to this Agreement or the Note brought in the courts of the State of California or the United States District Court for the Northern District of California and hereby further irrevocably waives any claim that any such suit, action or proceeding brought in any such court as been brought in an inconvenient forum.
管辖地
在法律允许的最大限度内,借款人特此不可撤消地放弃任何反对现在或以后对因本协议或票据产生或与本协议或本票据有关的起诉、诉讼、或诉讼程序的管辖地的设置在加州法院或美国加州北区地区法院,并进一步不可撤消地放弃任何异议如果以上诉讼在以上法院的不方便的法庭提起进行。
2.ARBITRATION:
All disputes in connection with this Contract or the execution there of shall be settled through friendly negotiations.
In case no settlement can be reached through negotiations, the case should then be submitted for arbitration to China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing, in accordance with its arbitration rules. The arbitration so all take place in Beijing and the decision rendered by the said Commission shall be final and binding upon both parties; neither party shall seek recourse to a law court or other authorities for revising the decision. The arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing part.
仲裁:
与本合同或其履行有关的所有争议应通过友好协商解决。
如果协商不成,该争议可提交到北京中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会按该仲裁委员会的仲裁规则进行仲裁。仲裁在北京进行且该仲裁委员会的裁定应为终局性对双方均有约束力;任一方不得诉诸于法院或其他机构更改该裁决。仲裁费应由败诉方承担。
3.Dispute Resolution
争议解决
20.1 Throughout the term of this Agreement representatives of the parties shall meet regularly at not less than semi-yearly intervals to discuss the progress of the Project and the operation of the infrastructure project in order to ensure that the arrangement between the parties hereto proceeds on a mutually satisfactory basis.
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贯穿本协议期间,为确保双方的安排在相互满意的基础上进行,双方代表应定期(不少于半年一次)讨论该工程进度以及基础设施工程的运作。
20.2 The parties hereto agree that in the event that there is any dispute or difference between them arising out of this Agreement or in the interpretation of any of the provisions hereof they shall endeavour to meet in an effort to resolve such dispute by discussion between them but failing such resolution the representatives of parties shall meet to resolve such dispute or difference and the joint decision by them shall be
binding upon the parties hereto and in the event that a settlement of any such dispute or difference is not reached pursuant to this Clause then provisions of Clause 23 shall apply.
协议双方同意如果因本协议或其规定的解释产生争议或分歧,双方应努力会谈协商解决该争议,如果协商不成,双方代表应会谈解决该争议或分歧且双方共同决议应对协议双方均有约束力。如果根据本条无法解决该争议或分歧,则适用第23条的规定。
20.3 In the event any dispute should arise between the parties as to any technical matter in regard to the construction or operation of the infrastructure project, design and production standards shall be provided and the case shall forthwith be referred to the expert chosen by agreement of both parties. Subject to arbitration, as hereinafter provided, such decision shall be final and binding upon the parties. If the expert fails to render his decision within such_________ days or if either of the parties is dissatisfied with any such decision, the party may, within ______days after the expiration of the first-named period of _______days or after receiving notice of such decision, as the case may be, refer the dispute to arbitration as provided in Clause 23.
如果双方间争议涉及有关基础设施工程的建设或实施,设计及产品标准的技术问题,则应立即提交本协议双方选出的专家解决。根据下文规定的仲裁,该裁决应为终局性并对双方均有约束力。如果该专家未能在*天内作出裁决或任一方对其裁决不服,则该方可在首先提及的*天期间届满后*天内或收到其裁决的通知后,视具体情况而定,按照第23条规定将该争议提交仲裁。
Governing Law
适用法律
This Agreement, the Note and the right and the obligations of the parties hereunder and thereunder shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of California.
本协议、本票据及双方在其项下的权利义务应适用加州法律并按加州法律解释。
Jurisdiction
The Borrower hereby agrees that any legal action or proceeding with respect to this Agreement, the Note of the other documents contemplated hereby or referred to herein and any action or proceeding to execute or otherwise enforce any judgment obtained against if for breach thereof, may be instituted in the courts of the State of California or in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California or in any court in [Name of Country] or elsewhere, as the Bank may elect, and by execution and delivery of this Agreement the Borrower irrevocably and unconditionally submits to each such jurisdiction.
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司法管辖
借款人特此同意任何有关本协议、其他预期或参考的单据票据的诉讼或诉讼程序以及任何因为违约所获判决的执行或其他强制执行的诉讼或诉讼程序可在加州法院或美国地区法院加州北区法院或由本行指定的某国(国名)任一法院或其他地方进行。通过签署及交付该协议借款人不可撤消无条件接受以上每个司法管辖。
第八节不可抗力条款(Force Majeure)
英文合同中的不可抗力条款是指对于发生不可抗力事件导致合同一方不能履行合同义务,则在所证明的不可抗力事件影响的范围内,该方可免除部分或全部合同责任。
相关链接:《中华人民共和国合同法》第117条: 因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除责任,但法律另有规定的除外。当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不能免除责任。(If a contract cannot be fulfilled due to force Majeure, the obligations may be exempted in whole or in part depending on the impact of the force Majeure, unless laws provide otherwise. If the force Majeure occurs after a delayed fulfillment, the obligations of the party concerned may not be exempted.
本法所称不可抗力,是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。(Force Majeure as used herein means objective circumstances which cannot be foreseen, avoided or overcome.
《中华人民共和国合同法》第118条: 当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可能给对方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。(Either party that is unable to fulfill the contract due to force Majeure shall notify the other party in time in order to reduce losses possibly inflicted to the other party, and shall provide evidence thereof within a reasonable period of time.)
、《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》有关内容;A party is not liable for a failure to perform any of his obligations if he proves that the failure was due to an impediment beyond his control and that he could not reasonably be expected to have taken the impediment into account at the time of the conclusion of the contract or to have avoided or overcome it or its consequences. (如果当事人一方能证明,其不履行合同义务是由于某种非他所能控制的障碍,而且对于这种障碍,在订立合同时无法合理预期能考虑到或能避免或克服它或它的后果,则该当事人不负责任。)
例如:Force Majeure
不可抗力
12.1 Force majeure shall refer to war, flood, fire, typhoon, earthquake and other accidents that both parties mutually agree as force majeure.
不可抗力系指战争、洪水、火灾、飓风、地震和其他双方相互同意的其他事件。
12. 2 In case of force majeure, the affected party shall notify by telex or cable the other party of the accident as soon as possible and send by registered air-mail to the other party the evidence issued by the local government within 14 days from the accident.
如果发生不可抗力,受影响的一方应以电传或电报尽快通知对方该事件并在该事件发生后14天内以航空挂号信形式寄送当地政府出具的该事件的有关证明。
12. 3 If the implementation is affected by force majeure and the accident lasts for more than 20 days, both
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parties shall hold friendly discussions as soon as possible with regard to the further implementation of the contract.
如因不可抗力合同履行遭受影响且该不可抗力事件持续超过20天,则双方应就合同的进一步履行进行友好协商。
Force Majeure:
Neither the Seller or the Buyer shall be held responsible for late delivery or non-delivery owing to generally recognized "Force Majeure" causes. However in such a case, the Seller shall immediately advise by cable or telex the Buyer of the accident and airmail to the Buyer within 15 days after the accident, a certificate of the accident issued by the competent government authority or the chamber of commerce which is located at the place where the accident occurs as evidence thereof. If the said "Force Majeure" cause lasts over 60 days, the Buyer shall have the right to cancel the whole or the undelivered part of the order for the goods as stipulated in Contract.
不可抗力:
因公认的不可抗力事件致使迟延交付或交付不能,无论买方还是卖方概不承担责任。然而,在该情况下,卖方应立即以电报或电传的方式通知买方该不可抗力事件,并在该事件发生15天内以航空邮件方式送达由该事件发生的当地有权政府部门或商会出具的该事件的证明书以资证明。如果上述不可抗力事件持续超过60天,则买方应有权撤消整个合同或本合同规定货物定单未交付部分。
第九节杂项条款(Miscellaneous)
除了以上介绍的各种一般条款外,往往在英文合同的最后还有一个杂项条款(Miscellaneous),也称为其他条款,把一些较为简单的条款汇合在一起。常见的有语言(Language)、效力瑕疵(Severability)、标题效力(Headings/Captions)、通知(Notice)、弃权(Waiver/Disclaimer)等。
Language
All notices, demands, requests, statements or other communications to be made or given by the Borrower hereunder shall be in the English language. Any documents other than financial statements required to be delivered pursuant to this Agreement which are not in the English language must be accompanied by a certified English translation thereof and in the event of any conflict between the original of the document and the English language translation thereof, the English language translation shall for all purposes be deemed to be the correct and controlling version.
语言
本协议项下所有借款人发出或接受的通知、要求、请求、声明或其他通信均应以英语书就。除财务报表外任何根据本协议需要交付的文件如果不是以英语书就,则必须附有该文件的经认可的英文译文。如果文本原件和英文译本不一致,则以英文译文为准。
Headings, Etc.
The headings of the various sections and subsections hereof are for convenience of reference only, do not constitute a part hereof and shall not affect the nearing or construction of any provision hereof.
标题等
本协议不同条款的标题仅供查阅方便,不得构成本协议的一部分也不得影响其临近条款或该条款规
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定的解释
SEVERABILITY
Each section, part, term, and provision of this agreement shall be considered severable. If, for any reason, any section, part, term, or provision of this agreement is determined to be invalid and contrary to, or in conflict with, any existing or future law or regulation of a court or agency having valid jurisdiction, such determination shall not impair the operation or affect the remaining portions, sections, parts, terms, or provisions of this agreement, and the latter will continue to be given full force and effect and bind the parties to this agreement. The invalid section, part, term, or provision shall be deemed not to be a part of this agreement.
效力瑕疵
本协议每章、节、条、款应被认为是可分离的。如出于某种原因,本协议任一章、节、条、款被认定为无效或或与有管辖权法院或机构的现行或将来的法律法规发生矛盾或冲突,则该裁决不得损害或影响本协议其余部分、章、节、条、款的适用,且后者继续完全有效对本协议双方均有约束力。无效的章、节、条、款应视为不再是本协议的一部分。
NOTICE
All notices required or permitted by this agreement shall be in writing and shall be deemed sufficient where sent by certified mail to the receiving party at the address set forth above or at such other address as that party may have designated in writing.
通知
本协议所要求或允许的通知应为书面方式且应视为按上文规定的地址或其他该方书面指定的其他地址以保证邮件充分送达到收件方。
No Waiver
No waiver of any term, provision or condition of this Agreement, the breach or default thereof, shall be deemed to be either a continuing waiver or a waiver of a subsequent breach or default of any such term, provision or condition of this Agreement.
合同任一方对他方违背或不履行本协议约定的情形,表示放弃法律追究权利的,该弃权不得被解释为继续性的权利放弃,对于他方将来可能再有的违约行为,仍有依法追究的权利。
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第五章英文合同特殊条款(Special Clauses)
Dig a well before you are thirsty.
--Chinese Proverb
未雨稠缪-中国谚语
本章所介绍的英文合同特殊条款,是指因为合同种类和性质的千差万别,个别种类的英文合同常见的条款,本章仅就劳动合同、买卖合同、服务协议、技术转让等合同中常见的保密条款(Confidentiality),国际货物买卖合同、补偿贸易合同等合同中常见的保险条款(Insurance),劳动合同、代理合同、销售协议、服务协议等合同中常见的竞业禁止条款,服务协议、代理协议等合同中常见的不形成劳动关系条款,以及买卖合同中常见的所有权和风险转移条款作简单介绍:
第一节保密条款(Confidentiality)
基于商业秘密的保护,英文合同中往往特别注重保密条款的规定。广义上讲包含两方面的内容;不泄露(to keep the disclosed information confidential)和不滥用(not to use the disclosed information other than in connection with the agreement)。
例1:CONFIDENTIALITY
The CVC acknowledges and agrees that the Technology it will receive from Party B during the term of this Contract shall be kept secret and confidential.
The CVC agrees that it and all of its employees and personnel shall use the Technology only for the purposes specified in this Contract and shall not disclose in any way whatsoever any of the Technology to any third Party or Parties without the prior written consent of Party B. Such confidentiality shall be maintained during the terms of this Contract and for a period of _______ ( ) years after the termination of this contract.
保密条款
CVC公司承认并同意在本合同期间对将从乙方收到的技术应予保密。
例2:CONFIDENTIALITY(保密)
l) China Corporation and the Personnel shall keep confidential to any third party all documents and information related to the Works during the execution of this CONTRACT.
中方公司及其员工在本合同履行期间对有关该工程的文件和资料应对任一第三方保守秘密。
2) The Employer and its staff shall keep confidential to any third party all documents and price of manpower supplied by China Corporation as stipulated in this CONTRACT during the execution of this CONTRACT.
业主及其职员根据本合同规定在本合同履行期间应对中方公司提供人力资源支持的所有文件和价格向任何第三方保守秘密。
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第二节保险条款(Insurance)
现代商业社会,保险无处不在,英文合同也经常使用,尤其在国际贸易合同特别常见。
例1:Insurance:
To be covered by Party A for 110% of the invoice value, covering W. A. and War Risk.
保险
由甲方按发票价格的110%投保共同海损险和战争险。
例2:INSURANCE:
Covering All Risks for 110% of the invoice value as per Insurance: Policy of People's Insurance Company of China (P.I.C.C.)
To be affected by the Buyer.
保险:
按本保险单以发票价格的110%投保一切险,中国人民保险公司(P.I.C.C.)保单
第三节竞业禁止条款(Non-competition)
一般而言,竞业禁止条款(Non-competition)分为两种类型:其一为使因合同而取得特定地位的当事人不能危及他方当事人的特殊地位。如劳动合同,聘用协议中的有关条款。其二为使因合同丧失特定地位的当事人不能再从事威胁因合同取得其地位者的活动。如:公司转让合同。
例1:NONCOMPETITION PROVISION.
In further consideration of employment, the Employee shall not engage in a business in any manner similar to, or in competition with, the Company's or the Company's affiliated businesses during the term of his or her employment. Furthermore, the Employee shall not engage in a business in any manner similar to or in competition with the Company's business for a period of _________ (___) years from the date of termination of his or her employment with the Company in the geographical area within a ____________ (____) mile radius of any present or future office opened by the Company during the term of employment and the geographical area within a _________ (____) mile radius of the Employee's home address.
竞业禁止规定
进一步考虑聘用关系,在其聘用期间,受聘方不得从事任何与本公司或其关联企业近似或竞争的业务。此外,在本聘用协议终止后*年内在本公司现有或将来开立的营业场所方圆*英里范围内或本聘用协议期间在受聘方家庭住址方圆*英里范围内,受聘方不得以任何方式从事类似或与本公司业务竞争的业务活动。
第四节不形成聘用等关系条款(No Constitution of Employment, etc.)
在英文合同中,有时会在服务协议、代理协议等合同协议中作出特别的约定,声明所形成的合同关系不得理解为聘用等关系,即不得适用劳动法等其他法律有关的规定。
例1:Both parties agree that sales representative is an independent contractor and not an employee of the broker.
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双方同意销售代表为独立缔约人并非中介人的雇员。
例2:FRANCHISEE AS INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR(被特许方作为独立缔约人)
14.1 This agreement does not constitute Franchisee an agent, legal representative, joint venturer, partner, or employee of Franchiser for any purpose.
本协议概不形成被特许方为特许方代理商、法定代表人、合资人、合伙人、雇员关系。
14.2 Franchisee shall be an independent contractor and is in no way authorized to make a contract, agreement, warranty, or representation on behalf of Franchiser or to create any obligation, express or implied, on behalf of Franchiser.
被特许方应为独立缔约人决无授权代表特许方签订合同、协议、保证或声明或代表特许方明示或默示创设任何义务。
14.3 The parties agree that this agreement does not create a fiduciary relationship between Franchiser and Franchisee.
双方同意本协议在特许方和被特许方并不创设信托关系。
第五节所有权和风险条款(Risk of loss and title)
所有权和风险的转移对于许多英文合同是至关重要的。
例1:Retention of title
If the parties have validly agreed on retention of title, the goods shall remain the property of the Seller until the complete payment of the price, or as otherwise agreed.
所有权保留
如果双方确实同意对所有权保留,则在完成货款支付前该货物的所有权仍归卖方,或另有规定。
例2:Seller hereby assumes all risk of loss, damage or destruction resulting from fire or other casualty to the time of transfer of assets and Closing.
卖方由此承担财产转移和成交前因火灾或其他事故所引起的灭失、毁损的所有风险。
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第六章英文合同导读范例(Model Contract for Reading Guidance)
The golden rule is that there are no golden rules.
--G..B.Shaw, Man and Superman
黄金规则就是没有黄金规则
--G.B.肖,《人与超人》
从主料、辅料、作料用料各个方面层层揭开英文合同的神秘面纱后,摆在我们面前的俨然就是一道令人垂涎欲低,色香味俱佳的绝美西餐。各位看官大概也禁不住跃跃欲试,想要品味一下吧。那么如何品味英文合同这道西餐呢?下面在给出样菜(导读范例)前,我们来简单介绍一下品味的方法,也就是阅读英文合同的一些基本技巧,当然,要想充分领略个中滋味,就必须Practice make perfect(熟能生巧),多多品尝,自然就能深得其味,成为美食家了。
首先,主次分明,各个击破。
也就是说,英文合同的本文部分(主菜)和附件部分(配菜)要分清主次,然后再各个击破,搞清该合同的主旨。
其次,一般特殊,分类解读。
就是要将英文合同中的一般条款,特殊条款,尤其是特殊条款往往因合同性质种类标的而千差万别,需要在阅读时给予足够重视。
再次,望文不生义,术业有专攻。
英文合同,除了法律语言外可能还会涉及到其他专业领域的Jargon(行话、术语),所以有些时候就切莫望文生义,就必须请教有关领域的专业人士达疑解惑了。
此外,法律和英语一个都不能少,作为法律英语的应用,基础英语和有关法律知识方面的掌握自然少不了。否则,自然就如读天书,一窍不通了。
下面就一起来阅读分析一下作者本人亲自接触过的一个英文合同范例:
DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT
(合同名称) 经销协议
THIS DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT (the "Agreement") is made on this day of 200, between ABC INC., a Florida Corporation (the "Company") located at XXX, Florida 32114 and _________________ (the "Distributor") located at _______, Beijing.
本经销协议(以下简称"协议") ,系由ABC公司,位于佛罗里达州某地的公司(以下简称本公司)与_______________(以下简称"经销商") 位于北京某地的公司于200*年*月*日签订。
(合同当事双方及签约日期,为下文引用方便,直接在各方的全称后括号内标注其简称,说明其在合同中的地位)
WITNESSETH
兹证明(可忽略不翻译)
WHEREAS, the Company is the exclusive worldwide distributor of cosmetic and skin care products (collectively the "BBB Product or Products") manufactured by BBB INTERNATIONAL, INC. a Florida Corporation; and
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鉴于本公司是BBB化妆品的全球独家的经销商,所代理的护肤品均由佛罗里达BBB国际公司制造(以下称"BB产品") 。
WHEREAS, the Company desires to increase the public''s consumption of the BBB Products specified herein within the geographic area described in Exhibit A (the "Territory"); and
鉴于本公司希望经销商在附件1所规定的地理区域内(以下简称本区域)提高公众对本合同项下BBB产品的消费额度。
WHEREAS, the Distributor desires to secure the right to market the aforementioned Products in the Territory and such additional territories as may be agreed upon in writing between the Company and Distributor.
鉴于经销商希望能得到授权在该区域及与本公司以书面方式协商一致的另外区域对上述产品进行销售。
(鉴于条款,说明当事人签约的原由属一般性条款)
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the mutual promises set forth herein and for other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which is hereby acknowledged, the parties agree as follows:
由此,考虑到双方以上共识和本协议达成的相互承诺及其他对价,双方在此充分接受达成一致,协议如下:
(过渡段,按英美法传统说明当事人基于对价(valuable consideration)达成合意,约定如下,引出正文条款)
ARTICLE I 第一条
APPOINTMENT TO SELL AND DISTRIBUTE
委任销售与分销
Section 1.1 Appointment. The Company agrees to sell and the Distributor agrees to buy Products on the terms and conditions contained in this Agreement. The Distributor agrees to sell, distribute and promote the sale of Products throughout the Territory on the terms and conditions contained in this agreement.
第一条第一款委任按本协议条款规定本公司同意售卖,经销商同意购买该产品。经销商同意根据本协议项下条款在本区域出售、分销、促销本产品。
Section 1.2 Territory. Except as provided in Section 11.4 hereunder, the Company agrees not to deliver the Products to any person other than Distributor within the portion of the Territory, provided, however, that the Company shall have the right to ocean-going vessels and to ship Products through or deliver Products within the Exclusive Territory if it knows or reasonably believes that substantially all of such Products are to be reshipped for eventual delivery outside the Territory. Without the prior written consent of the Company, which in the Company''s sole and absolute discretion may be withheld, Distributor hereby covenants and agrees that it shall not: (i) sell, ship or deliver the Products to or in any place or geographic area located outside the Territory; or (ii) sell Products to any purchaser if Distributor knows or has reason to believe that more than 20% of such Products will eventually be sold through retail outlets located outside the Territory. In the event that sales of Products are made by a distributor in another area and a substantial portion of such Products are shipped by customers of such Distributor into the Territory, or in the event sales of Products are made within the Territory by Distributor and a substantial portion of such Products are shipped by customers into an area outside the Territory in which another distributor has sales rights, (whether or not such shipments take place as the result of a breach hereof), then the Company shall have the right in its discretion (in addition to any other rights and remedies) to make an equitable apportionment of the adjusted gross profits from such sales between the Distributor and any other distributors of the Products purchasing directly from the Company involved in such dispute. Any such
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apportionment in adjusted gross profits may be determined by the Company acting in its sole discretion exercised in good faith, taking into account such factors as sales effort and expenses in securing the customer''s business, the level of advertising and promotion by the distributor into whose territory the Products are shipped, and the likelihood that the cross-shipments have reduced sales which otherwise would have been made in the territory into which the goods have been shipped. Adjusted gross profits, as used herein, shall mean sales prices, less (I) cost of goods sold, (ii) direct freight, and (iii) direct selling cost.
第一条第二款区域划分
除本协议第11.4规定外, 本公司对经销商所签订的区域实行区域内销售保护,不能在区域内将产品提供给其他人, 但如果本公司知道或者有理由确信,实际上这些产品将最终转运到保护区域外地区,则有权在本保护区域运送本产品。未经本公司的书面同意,本公司有权随时收回该同意,经销商承诺保证同意不得有如下行为:(1)不在/到任何非经销商区域内进行销售、装运、交付本产品;(2)经销商知道或应当知道,20%以上的本产品将最终通过区域外的零售店销售出去,则不得出售给该买方。如果,另一个区域的经销商窜货到本区域或该经销商客户大部分货物窜货到本区域以及本区域内经销商窜货或其客户窜货到别的区域,(无论装运是否构成违约的后果),本公司有权(除了任何其他权利和救济),在直接从本公司购买产品的涉及纠纷的经销商之间调整毛利作出公平分配以避免矛盾。本公司将根据诚实信用的原则独自裁量,考虑经销商的销售业绩、业务花费、广告促销水平以及因为窜货而引起的销售额减少程度等因素来调整这一合理的区域利润分配。调整毛利润意味着调整销售价格,减少(1)销售成本,(2)直接运费,(3) 直接销售费用。
(委任销售、经销所在区域和权限等内容是该类协议的特殊条款)
CORPORATE ACCOUNTS: BBB公司账户:
BBB has no interest in supplying accounts in Distributor''s respective territory and will strongly discourage accounts from electing to be supplied directly thru BBB corporate. However, in some rare instances, an existing or new account may elect to be supplied directly by BBB corporate, i.e., an international hotel chain or spa chain. In these rare instances, Distributor would be immediately notified by corporate of any such activity in their respective territory. In this case, Distributor would then be awarded a 20% commission on all sales generated from BBB retail and professional products on placed orders from said BBB corporate account. In exchange for this commission, Distributor would be required to train, educate and support said account. However, BBB corporate would be solely responsible for advertising and co-op advertising incentives, spa menu design package and event sampling opportunities, etc.
BBB公司不会给经销商在各自经销区域提供的账户,并强烈反对直接提供通过BBB公司选用帐户。然而,在一些特殊情况下,BBB公司也可直接提供账户,如国际宾馆或者水疗连锁。在这些特殊情况下,公司会立刻告知各自区域的经销商该活动。在这种情况下,经销商会获得来自从BBB公司在该帐户所产生的BBB零售和专业产品销售额的20%提成。作为提成的交换,经销商需要培训、训练和支持该帐户。但是,BBB 公司会独自负责进行广告运作和合作广告激励、Spa项目设计包装和事件抽样机会等。
In the event Distributor elects to refrain from training, educating and supporting said corporate account, Distributor would be awarded a monthly commission of 5% on all sales generated from BBB retail and professional products on placed orders.
如果经销商不愿意对该帐户进行培训、训练以及支持的话,那么经销商可以每月从总的销售BBB产品的成交定单销售额中得到5%的提成。
(这一段说明会计账户)
Section 1.3 Ocean-Going Vessels. Distributor shall not sell Products to ocean-going vessels unless
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approved in writing from the Company.
第一条第三款海运出口。经销商未经本公司书面许可的不得将产品出口。(转运出口的限制)
Section 1.4 Conflicts of Interest. Distributor hereby covenants and agrees that during the initial term and any renewal term hereof neither Distributor nor any Related Person (as hereinafter defined) shall, either directly or indirectly, distribute or sell within the Territory any products or goods not manufactured or sold by the Company which are or may be in competition with the Products, including (without limitation) skin care products; (The term "Related Person" shall mean: (i) any person who directly or indirectly owns any beneficial interest in or in any manner controls any of the stock of Distributor; (ii) any member of Distributor''s or any such stockholder''s immediate family; and (iii) any person, partnership, corporation or other entity which any of the foregoing individually or collectively control or in which any of the foregoing have any direct or indirect ownership or financial interest.)
第一条第四款利益冲突。经销商特立约同意在初始期间和其后任何续约期间,经销商和任何关联人员(下文中定义的)不得直接或间接在区域内分销或者销售任何不是本公司制造或者销售的或可能产生竞争的产品,包括(但不限于)护肤品;(术语关联人员指:(1)任何直接或者间接享有经销商权益或以任何方式拥有经销商股份的人; (2)经销商股东或者任何经销商股东的直系亲属;(3) 任何上述独自或共同控制或直接间接拥有所有权或者财产利益的自然人、合伙、公司或者其他实体)。(利益冲突,也就是竞业禁止的约定)
Section 1.5 Remedies. Distributor specifically acknowledges that any breach of any of its covenants contained in this Section I may cause irreparable harm to the Company and that damages are not an adequate remedy. Distributor therefore agrees that the Company shall be entitled to injunctive or equitable relief to enforce such covenants. (The foregoing shall not be construed to limit in any way the Company''s right to enforce such covenants in any manner or the Company''s rights to injunctive or equitable relief with respect to any other terms of this Agreement.)
第一条第五款救济。经销商明确承认任何违背本条规定的契约的行为可能给本公司带来不可弥补的损害且损害赔偿金不足以救济。因此,经销商同意本公司有权申请禁止令或衡平救济来强制履行该契约。(以上所述并不得解释为以任何方式限制本公司就本协议其他条款用任何手段来强制履行该契约或申请禁止令或衡平救济的权利。) (违约救济的约定,注意普通法救济,衡平法救济双重救济模式)
Section 1.6 Invalidity of Covenants. In the event that any covenant of Distributor set forth in this Section I is determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to be unenforceable for any reason, the Distributor hereby agrees to be bound by such lesser restrictions as such court determines are enforceable.
第一条第六款契约无效。如本协议第一条规定的任何约定由有管辖权的法院因某种原因裁定无法执行,则经销商在此同意按该法院裁定可执行的较小限制的而受约束。(契约效力的一般性约定)
Section 1.7 Bond. In any action or proceeding by Company to obtain a temporary restraining order and/or preliminary injunction to enforce these covenant(s), Distributor hereby agrees to waive the necessity of the posting of any injunction bond by Company in order to obtain the temporary restraining order and/or preliminary injunction. In the event that Company''s request for a temporary restraining order and/or motion for preliminary injunction is granted in whole or in part but Company is ultimately unsuccessful in obtaining a permanent injunction to enforce any of these covenant(s), Distributor hereby waives any and all rights it may have against Company for any injuries or damages, including consequential damages,
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sustained by Distributor and arising directly or indirectly from the issuance of the temporary restraining order and/or preliminary injunction.
保证金公司为获得临时限制和提前约束而订立的合同, 经销商要遵从。公司请求订立的最终合同和条款如果最终全部或者部分生效,经销商必须放弃任何可能因为合同生效后而对公司产生损失的权力。
(这一段约定经销商保证对临时限制令和预先禁止令造成损害赔偿的权利放弃)
ARTICLE II 第二条
TERM 协议期间
Section 2.1 Duration of Agreement. Unless this Agreement is earlier terminated as provided herein, this Agreement shall be for an initial term beginning on the date hereof and ending _______, 200__. This Agreement shall be renewed for successive one-year terms thereafter unless either party gives written notice of non-renewal at least 30 days prior to the end of the initial term or any renewal then in effect.
协议期间。除非根据本协议项下规定本协议提前终止,本协议初始期间将从签订日期开始生效至_______,200__终止.如任一方未以书面方式在初始期间届满前至少30天通知不再续约,则本协议续展至其后的下一年期间,该续展即时生效。(协议期间的约定包括续约的条件)
ARTICLE III 第三条
PRODUCTS AND PRICES
产品和价格
Section 3.1 Products. The term "Products" shall include only those products of the Company listed in Exhibit "B". The Company may, upon fifteen (15) days written notice to the Distributor, cease selling any or all of the Products to Distributor without any liability to Company, provided that the Company does not sell any of such Products to another person or legal entity within the Territory during the term hereof, and that the discontinuance is undertaken in good faith for bona fide business reasons. The Company may add Products to Exhibit "B" from time to time upon such terms and conditions as it deems appropriate.
第三条第一款产品本协议中用语"产品" 只包括本公司在附件2 中所列出的产品.本公司可以提前15天书面通知经销商,停止销售任一或者全部产品而不承担任何责任,但本公司不得在本协议期间销售任何该产品给本区域中的其他自然人或者法律实体且该中断是按诚实信用原则基于善意的商业理由。本公司可以在适当时机,根据该条款随时增加产品到附件2。
Section 3.2 Prices. Company shall strive to maintain reasonable price levels of Products, which shall be determined and established at its sole discretion, taking into consideration such factors as competition and market conditions in Territory as well as the nature and extent of the sales promotion support that Distributor and Company shall each provide. Company shall notify Distributor of any changes in price thirty (30) days in advance of any price changes.
第三条第二款价格本公司应考虑诸如本区域竞争因素、市场情况以及经销商和本公司所提供的促销支持的性质和程度,独自裁量确定价格并且努力维持该产品的合理价格水平。遇有价格变化,本公司应提前30天告知经销商。
Section 3.3 Marketing and Advertising Material. Distributor shall abide by all corporate policies and
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procedures directly relating to trademarks, product/packaging color guidelines, image, marketing and advertising materials as defined by the latest revision of Corporate Policies & Procedures Booklet.
第三条第三款市场营销和广告宣传材料经销商应遵守所有最新版的公司制度规程手册中所定义的与商标、产品包装颜色说明、图像、营销广告品有关的公司制度和规程。
Distributor shall pay Company for all marketing and advertising material which the Distributor desires subsequent to the marketing and advertising material furnished Distributor with its initial order. Company will sell marketing and advertising material to distributor at Company''s cost. Distributor shall also pay all shipping charges and a reasonable handling charge for the marketing and advertising material. All translations and printed material in foreign languages are at the sole expense of the Distributor. All "brand-related" design, set-up time and artwork submitted to Company''s graphic department shall be reasonably requested and provided free of charge as follows: proofs provided in PDF format, final artwork provided on CD final art format. Should distributor or distributor''s media sources require final films/matchprints said material will be provided to distributor at Company "Cost" only after distributor approves/signs Job Quote and return to Marketing Department.
经销商应支付供给经销商最初订单产品所有市场营销和广告材料的费用以为随后所需,公司将以成本价供给经销商。经销商也应支付该材料所有的运费和合理的装卸费用。所有资料的翻译以及翻译后的印刷的费用由经销商独自承担。
所有提交到本公司策划部与"商标相关的" 设计、安装时间、图案,可在以下情形下合理要求免费提供。经销商在以下合理的情况下可以申请免费提供和使用:以PDF文件格式提供的文样,以CD格式提供的最终图案。倘若经销商或者经销商委托的媒体需要原版胶片的,当经销商同意/签收报价并返还给本公司销售部以后,则按照本公司成本价格提供。
Section 3.4 Orders. Company shall fill and ship each order of the Distributor within sixty (60) days of receipt of such order, but shall not be liable in any respect for failure to ship or for delays in shipment where such failure or delay shall have been due wholly or in part to fire, strike, differences with workmen, failure to secure materials or energy sources from usual supply outlets, any governmental regulations, orders or controls, or to any cause beyond its control. Any portion of an order remaining uns,hipped after such sixty (60) days may be cancelled by Distributor upon written notice to Company.
第三条第四款订单。本公司应在收到订单后的六十(60) 天内海运发货,但是本公司对全部或部分因火灾、罢工、劳工争议、未能从通常的供应渠道获得原料或能源、政府法令或管制或任何无法控制的原因导致不能装运或延迟装运概不负责。订单上的任何部分在发出订单六十(60) 天之后还不能发货的,经销商可以书面通知本公司予以取消。
Section 3.5 Shipment. Company agrees to ship the Product to Distributor or to any individual or entity that Distributor so directs EXWorks. The cost of such shipment and any charges for demurrage, storage, or otherwise after the arrival of the Product at its destination shall be borne by Distributor. If diversions of shipments are made upon the Distributor''s request, or are made by Company as a result of the Distributor''s failure or refusal for any reason to accept shipments made pursuant to the Distributor''s orders, the Distributor shall pay the additional charges and expenses incident to such diversions, but in no event shall the Distributor pay Company an amount in excess of the charges or expenses incident to returning such shipments to their original shipping points.
第三条第五款运输。本公司同意将产品装船运送给经销商或经销商按工厂交货方式指定的任何个人或实体。运输费以及任何由此而发生的延滞费、仓储费或者其他的产品抵达目的后需要支付的其他费用由经销商承担。如果经销商要求变更卸货地, 或者是经销商的基于某种原因不收或拒收订单货物,则经销商应支付由此而发生的附加费用和因变更产生的费用,但是经销商概不承担超过运输费
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用或者返程的费用以外部分。公司有义务协助经销商选择安全快速节约的运输方式。
(产品、价格、营销、广告、订单及装运的约定)
ARTICLE IV 第四条
PERFORMANCE 协议履行
Section 4.1 Best Efforts. Distributor shall use its best efforts to promote and sell the Products throughout the Territory. Such promotion shall include Distributor''s attendance at those trade shows listed on Exhibit "C" attached hereto. Distributor is required to advertise Company''s products in local trade publications and regional consumer publications a minimum of six times per year commencing no later than six months after official Product launch date.
第四条第一款竭尽全力。经销商应该竭尽全力在本区域促销销售该产品。该促销应包括经销商参加本协议附件三所列明的那些展会。经销商必须在该产品正式投放日6个月内以不低于每年6次的频率在与当地的商业出版物和地方消费者出版物发布本公司的产品广告。
Company shall provide use of Company''s International Educator one time per year, provided Distributor is in full compliance with all terms and conditions of this contract. Company shall provide trainer and pay for airline travel. Company shall pay for three (3) training days at the rate of USD $225.00 per day. Distributor shall pay for any additional training days at the rate of USD $225.00 per day, payable in advance upon confirmed travel itinerary, prior to scheduled training. Distributor shall pay for trainer''s room and board at a minimum "3-Star" hotel as defined in the current Michelin hotel rating manual, and safe transport to and from the airport and daily training site.
如经销商完全遵守合同条款,本公司应每年委派一次公司的全球性讲师来培训,。公司将提供导师并支付交通费用,并以每天USD $225.00支付三天的培训费用。经销商需要支付每天USD $225.00以外的其他费用。经销商必须在预定培训前,确定旅程路线后提前支付。经销商应承担讲师的食宿费,至少是Michelin 酒店星级手册定义的3星级以上酒店, 以及酒店和机场间以及酒店和培训地间日常安全接送。
Section 4.2 Inspection and Reporting. Distributor shall permit Company and its representatives at any reasonable time to inspect Distributor''s inventory of Products, and to inspect, audit and make copies of and extracts from all books, records, accounting information and all other papers in the possession of Distributor which relate in any way to this Distribution Agreement. Within ten (10) days after the end of each calendar month, Distributor shall furnish Company with written reports certified as true and correct by Distributor and by Distributor''s president individually in such form as Company may specify (or in the absence of such specification in any reasonable form) containing the following information with respect to the preceding month:
第四条第二款检查和报告。经销商应允许本公司及其代表在任何合理的时间检查经销商销售该产品的明细目录并检查、审计和复制或节录各种帐簿、记录、核算资料,以及其他一切与以任何方式与本经销协议经销商所占有的其他文件。在每个日历月结束后十天内,经销商都要向本公司提供由经销商及其董事长个人证实真实正确的书面报告,该报告应按本公司要求的格式:(如果没有以合理的格式提供说明) ,应包括有关上个月的以下几个方面情况的内容:
(a) beginning and ending inventory of products on hand, itemized by Product line and item;
(b) sale of products during the month and for the year to date;
(c) month-end balance of cash on hand;
(d) month-end report of accounts receivable to include an aged schedule of accounts receivable, specifically identifying any account receivable which may be of doubtful collectability;
(e) a complete monthly listing of each and every sales representative of Distributor, clearly indicating the
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Territory, or part thereof, for which that representative is responsible and reporting the volume of sales attributable to that representative for the preceding month; and
(f) such other information concerning Distributor or pertinent to this Distribution Agreement as Company may at any time reasonably request.
1) 按产品系列和品种列出该月的产品存货数量及产品目录;
(2) 本月产品销售额及本年度到当月为止销售额;
(3) 月底的现金结存表;
(4) 月底应收帐款财务报表还包括过期应收帐款一览表,特别地确定有疑问的应收帐款;
(5) 经销商该整月的每个销售代表名单,明确各销售代表负责的区域或区域的部分,报告其在所述区域内上月的销售额;和
(6) 本公司可以在随时合理要求的其他与经销商或本经销协议相关的其他信息。
Section 4.3 Financial Statements. Within fifteen (15) days after the end of each calendar quarter, Distributor shall submit to Company an unaudited balance sheet and statement of income and retained earnings of Distributor, certified as true and correct by Distributor and by Distributor''s president. Within ninety (90) days after the close of Distributor''s fiscal year, Distributor shall also submit to Company an audited balance sheet and statement of income and retained earnings of Distributor together with the usual and customary notes and schedules related thereto, which financial statements shall be true, correct and complete and shall be accompanied by a report of an independent certified public accounting firm, selected by Distributor but subject to the approval of the Company, to the effect that such firm has examined such financial statements in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and that, in its opinion, such financial statements present fairly the financial position of Distributor as of the end of such fiscal year and the results of Distributor''s operations for such fiscal year, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis.
第四条第三款财务报表。每季度结束后15天内,经销商应向本公司提交经经销商公司及董事长确认的真实准确的未审计前的资产负债表、收益说明、留存利润。在经销商会计年度结束后90日内,经销商也应向本公司提交经经销商公司及董事长确认的真实准确的审计后的资产负债表、收益说明、留存利润说明以及平时所用票据和相关的一览表, 并应随附独立注册会计师事务所的报告,该会计师事务所由经销商自己选择但是要经过本公司的批准,以便该事务所按一般公认的审计标准审查该财务报表并根据其意见,该财务报表能够公正说明经销商在该年度结束时的财务状况及该年度经销商的经营业绩,符合一贯适用的一般公认的会计原则。
Section 4.4 Insurance. The Distributor shall have and maintain at all times, at Distributor''s sole expense, an insurance policy or policies insuring Distributor and the Company against any loss, liability or expense whatsoever as a result of personal injury, death, property damage, and with respect to its inventory of Products, insurance against risk of fire, so called extended coverage, sprinkler leakage, if applicable, and insurance against other risks customarily insured against by companies engaged in business similar to that of Distributor, in such amounts, containing such terms, in such form, for such period, and written by such companies as shall be satisfactory to the Company such insurance to be payable to the Company and to the Distributor as their interest may appear. All policies of insurance shall provide for not less than fifteen (15) days written minimum cancellation notice to the Company and shall list Company as an additional Named Insured. The Distributor shall furnish to the Company certificates or other evidence satisfactory to the Company of compliance with the foregoing insurance provisions within fifteen (15) days from date of request.
第四条第四款保险。经销商应自费投保,保单要确保经销商和公司避免遭受无论是由人身伤害、
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死亡、财产损害、有关产品存货、火灾、通常所说的增加保险范围、喷洒(如果适用)和还是与经销商类似商业的公司都有可能遭受到的风险、损失、责任。经销商应该以此类的形式,此类投保额度,包此类条款由此类公司书就满足本公司要求的保单。该保险在保险利益出现时可付给本公司和经销商。所有的保单应在投保前15天内应该书面最低限度删减通知公司,保单应该将公司名称列为附加的被保险人。经销商应在本公司要求后15天内前提供本公司上述保险的保险证明书或者其他满足本公司要求的其他凭证。
Section 4.5 Care of Inventory. Distributor shall maintain its inventory of Products in first class order and shall follow strictly all reasonable instructions from the Company regarding handling and storage of the Products which includes a policy of first in,firs tout on all sales. Distributor shall not alter in any manner whatsoever the bottles, labels or contents of any of the Products nor shall the Distributor sell or repackage any Products which are damaged without the Company''s prior written consent which may, in the Company''s sole and absolute discretion, be withheld.
第四条第五款库存管理经销商应保持库存秩序良好,严格遵守本公司关于产品装卸、储存的合理说明包括先进先出的原则。经销商不得以任何方式更改产品瓶型、标签或者内容物,也不得未经公司事先书面同意销售或者重新包装任何残损品。
Section 4.6 Protection of Products. Distributor shall not alter in any manner or form any of the Company''s materials, brochures or Products.
第四条第六款产品保护。经销商不得以任何方式或形式更改公司的产品、手册、宣传品。
(合同履行的相关约定包括尽责、验收与报告、年度财务报表、保险、库存及产品保护几方面)
ARTICLE V 第五条
TERMS OF PAYMENT 支付条款
Section 5.1 Terms of Payment by Distributor. The terms of payment for the Products shall be as stated in Exhibit "D" attached hereto. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, all monies past due shall bear interest at eighteen (18) percent per annum simple interest (except that, during any period in which the balance outstanding exceeds $500,000, such interest rate shall be limited to a maximum of twenty-five (25) percent per annum simple interest calculated for such period, rather than eighteen (18) percent). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the interest rate charged shall in no event exceed the maximum rate permitted by applicable law. It is not the intent of the Company to collect or receive interest in excess of the maximum rate allowable by law, and any interest so paid shall be deemed to be a principal payment and shall be so credited and applied to the indebtedness hereunder.
第五条第一款经销商支付条款。产品的支付条款应该在附录4中说明。除非另外签订书面协议,所有到期的未付款应支付年18%单利(除此之外,在每一个付款期间如果现金超过$500,000,此利率最高以年25%单利为限进行计算而不是18%。)。纵然如此,利率一概不得超过适用法律允许的最大限额。本公司无意收取超过法律许可最高利率的利息,所付利息应视为本金付款记入贷方帐户适用该帐户下的负债。
Section 5.2 Costs of Collection. If any amounts due from the Distributor to the Company or from the Company to the Distributor hereunder are collected by or through an attorney at law, the collecting party shall be entitled to recover all costs of collection including, but not limited to, court costs, reasonable attorneys'' fees and paralegal fees, (including fees on appeals) if any.
第五条第二款托收费用。如果任何到期应付款项不论是经销商应付给公司的还是公司应付给经销商的由律师托收,则托收方有权收取托收的全部费用,包括但不限于诉讼费用,合理律师费用和律师助理费用,如果有的话(包括上诉费用)。
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(支付条款含委托律师收款费用)
ARTICLE VI 第六条
TRADEMARK 商标
Section 6.1 Ownership. The trademark "BBB" is registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (Said trademark, together with any and all other trademarks, trade names, designs, signs, emblems, insignia, symbols, slogans and other marks the Company may now possess or may hereafter adopt, acquire or use in connection with the Products shall be collectively referred to herein as the "Trademarks.") The Trademarks are the exclusive and valuable property of the Company or its affiliates. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as conferring upon the Distributor any right or interest in the Trademarks or their registration, and any use of the Trademarks by the Distributor shall be solely as a licensee of the company. Distributor expressly recognizes and agrees not to contest the Company or its affiliates, ownership of the Trademarks.
第六条第一款商标所有权"BBB"商标在美国商标专利局注册(此商标和任何别的商标、商业名称、设计图案、符号、徽章、标识、口号和其他公司拥有或后来采用、获得、使用与该产品有关的标志本协议统称为该商标)。该商标是本公司或其附属公司专有的有值财产。本协议所含内容不得解释为转让经销商任何该商标或注册的权益,经销商对该商标的任何使用均经获得本公司单独授权许可。经销商明确承认并同意不对本公司或其附属公司的商标所有权提出异议。
Section 6.2 Use of Trademarks. Distributor may use only such of the Trademarks as the Company may authorize and only in such manner as the Company may authorize, and the decisions of the Company on all matters concerning the Trademarks shall be final and conclusive, and not subject to question by the Distributor. The Distributor shall not take, nor shall he knowingly permit, any action which may in any way prejudice or harm the Trademarks, or the Company''s ownership thereof. The Distributor shall not use, nor shall it authorize any person, partnership, corporation or other entity to use, any of the Trademarks as part of a corporate, business or firm name. The Distributor shall not use the Trademarks in any way which might suggest that the Distributor is an agent, employee, partner or joint venturer of, or otherwise affiliated with, the Company and shall not use any of the Trademarks in any manner so as to suggest that the Distributor is the Company''s authorized distributor for any products of the Company other than the Products as herein defined.
第六条第二款商标的使用。经销商使用商标、怎样使用商标以及须经本公司授权。本公司对有关该商标问题的决议为最终决定性的,经销商不得质疑。经销商不得提起或有意允许以任何方式损害或侵害该商标或本公司该商标所有权的诉讼。经销商不得使用或授权任何个人、合伙、公司或其他实体使用该商标或作为公司、企业或商号名称的一部分。经销商不得以任何方式使用该商标来暗示其为本公司的代理人、雇员、合伙人或合作人或其他与本公司的关联,也不得以任何方式使用该商标来暗示其取得了本协议定义外产品本公司的授权。
Section 6.3 Obligations Upon Termination. Upon termination of this Agreement, for whatever cause, the Distributor shall abandon at once all use of the Trademarks, and shall not thereafter use in any manner whatsoever any of the Trademarks.
第六条第三款协议终止义务。无论是由何原因导致的协议终止,经销商都应立刻终止所有该商标的使用并且从此以后不得以任何方式再使用此商标。
Section 6.4 Protection of Trademarks. The Company (or its affiliates), shall have sole and exclusive right to protect and defend the Trademarks at its sole cost and expense and shall have the sole and absolute discretion as to how to protect and defend and whether or not to protect and defend the Trademarks. The
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Company shall not be liable to the Distributor for any loss or damage suffered by the Distributor as a result of the use of the Trademarks, or as a result of any litigation or proceeding involving the Trademarks, or as a result of any failure by the Company to protect or defend the Trademarks. The Distributor shall cooperate fully with the Company, its affiliates in the defense and protection of the Trademarks and shall promptly and fully advise the Company of any use in the Territory of which Distributor has knowledge of any trademark or other mark infringing upon any of the Trademarks.
第六条第四款商标的保护。本公司(或其附属公司),是唯一拥有专有权独自承担费用维护和保护商标的实体。有权独立完全决定怎样和在是否维护和保护该商标的权利。本公司对由于经销商使用商标、涉及该商标的起诉,以及维护保护商标权不成致使经销商遭受的损失或损害概不承担责任。经销商应密切配合本公司及其附属公司进行该商标的维护和保护并应及时全面通知本公司其发现的任何在该区域侵害该商标权的行为。
(商标的约定包括商标所有、商标的合理使用、合同终止不得使用及商标保护)
ARTICLE VII 第七条
LOCAL LAWS 本地法律
Section 7.1 Local Laws. The Distributor shall sell and distribute the Products in compliance with all national, state, municipal, local and other governmental laws, decrees, ordinances, rules, orders, regulations and charges.
第七条第一款地方法律。经销商一切经销活动必须符合所在国家,省市、自治区、地方的法规和其他的政府法律、法令、条例、法规、裁令、规章和指示。
(守法经销)
ARTICLE VIII 第八条
LOCAL FEES AND TAXES 地方税费
Section 8.1 Local Fees and Taxes. The Distributor shall, at the Distributor''s own cost and expense obtain all licenses, permits and other authorizations to conduct its business and for shipment to or from the Distributor of Products, equipment, and all other materials required for the selling and distributing of the Products, without any responsibility on the part of the Company with respect to such licenses, permits or authorizations. Distributor also agrees to pay all applicable taxes, licenses, fines and fees relating to Distributor''s business and its purchase and sale of Products hereunder.
第八条第一款地方税费。经销商应自行承担为进行经营获得所有许可证照和其他授权的费用,该产品、设备、和所有其他经销该产品所需的材料装运的费用,但不承担本公司方有关该许可证照和授权许可的费用。销售商也同意支付与经销商经营和本协议项下该产品买卖有关的适用赋税、许可费用、罚款、和费用。
(地税承担)
ARTICLE IX 第九条
LEGAL RELATIONSHIP AND INDEMNIFICATION
法律关系与保证赔偿
Section 9.1 Legal Relationship and Indemnification. Nothing in this Agreement shall create or be deemed to create any relationship of agency, employment, partnership, or joint venture between the Distributor and the Company. Distributor shall assume full responsibility and liability for, and shall indemnify and hold the Company harmless from, any loss, injury, or damage (including expenses and reasonable attorneys'' fees)
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resulting from, or claimed to result from, any act or omission on the part of the Distributor.
第九条第一款法律关系及保证赔偿。本协议不得创设或视为创设了经销商与本公司间任何代理、聘用、合伙、或合作的关系。经销商应自行完全承担由于其作为或不作为产生的索赔、损失、伤害或损害(包括花费及合理的律师费)并保证赔偿并使本公司免于该责任。
(不形成代理、聘用、合伙、合资法律关系和保证赔偿条款,这是本协议比较典型的规定)
ARTICLE X 第十条
ASSIGNMENT 转让
Section 10.1 Assignment of Rights or Obligations. Distributor may not sell, assign, transfer, pledge, lease, license, or in any other way or manner encumber or dispose of any of its rights or obligations hereunder, either in whole or in part, nor shall said rights or obligations pass by operation of law or in any other manner without the prior written consent of the Company. The Company''s right to withhold such consent shall be absolute and unqualified. If this Agreement is in any way assigned or transferred by the Company or if it is in any way assigned or transferred by the Distributor upon the prior written consent of the Company as aforesaid, then this Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the successors and assigns of the parties.
第十条第一款权利或义务转让。未经本公司事先书面同意,经销商不得售卖、转让、转移、抵押、租借、许可或以其他方式、手段设定债权或处置其本合同项下权利或义务无论部分或全部,也不得运用法律或其他方式让渡该权利或义务。本公司对该同意的撤回权应是绝对无限制的。如果本协议按上述以某种方式由本公司或经销商出让,则本协议应对该方的继受方和受让方有约束力并适用其利益。。
Section 10.2 Transfer of Stock or Securities. Neither Distributor nor any other person shall sell, assign, transfer, issue, reissue, pledge or otherwise dispose of or encumber, whether by operation of law or otherwise, without the prior written consent of the Company, which consent in the Company''s absolute and unqualified discretion may be withheld: (i) If Distributor is a partnership, any partnership interest in Distributor; or (ii) if Distributor is a corporation, any or all of the Distributor''s stock, and/or securities with voting rights and/or certificates of indebtedness with voting rights (whether or not such stock, securities or certificates or indebtedness are issued or outstanding at such time) is such transactions either singly or when aggregated with all previous such transactions shall or may cause ______________ and members of _____ immediate family to own less than fiftyone (51) percent of the outstanding voting stock of the Distributor or have less than fiftyone (51) percent of the effective voting power over the Distributor. Distributor hereby agrees that its stock shall at all times during the terms hereof bear a legend which states that its transferability is subject to the terms hereof. Distributor further warrants and covenants that its stock ownership (or partnership interest as the case may be) is now and shall be as of the effective date hereof.
第十条第二款股票和证券的转让。未经本公司事先书面同意,经销商或者其他人不得出让、转移、转让、发行和重新发行、质押或者用其他的方式处置股份或者有价证券、或者在股份和证券上设定债权,无论是否运用法律。该同意为本公司完全无限制权利,可在以下情形随时收回: (1)如果经销商的公司是合伙企业,任何合伙利益;(2)如果经销商的公司是一个有限公司,拥有一部分或者全部的股份或有投票权的证券或具有投票权的债券(无论该股票、证券或债券当时已发行在外或发行未售出)的该交易,无论是单独还是与所有先前此种交易结合应该或可能导致______________以及_____的直系亲属的成员拥有少于51%的经销商已发行有投票权的股票或者拥有超过经销商少于51%的有效投票权。经销商在此同意其股份在协议期间提供本公司图例表明其根据本协议条款的转
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让。经销商进一步立契担保其股分的所有权(或合伙权益视情况而定),为本协议生效时其现有的。
(合同转让和股份转让条款)
ARTICLE XI 第十一条
TERMINATION 协议终止
Section 11.1 Termination by Distributor. Distributor may terminate this Agreement at any time, with or without cause, upon thirty (30) days written notice to the Company.
第十一条第一款经销商终止。经销商随时可以终止本协议,无论有无原因,但要提前三十(30) 天书面通知本公司。
Section 11.2 Termination by the Company. Upon the occurrence of any one or more of the following events, in addition to all other rights and remedies, including the right to damages, the Company shall have the right, in the Company''s discretion, to terminate this agreement immediately by giving written notice thereof to the Distributor:
第十一条第二款本公司终止以下任一或更多事件一经产生,除其他权利和救济,包括损害赔偿请求权,本公司应有权决定立即书面通知经销商终止本协议。
(a) Distributor''s failure to pay any amounts due hereunder or under any other agreement between the Company and Distributor at the time such amounts become due.
(1)经销商未能支付本协议或本公司与经销商间其他协议项下应付到期款项。
(b) Distributor''s breach or failure to perform of any other covenant, obligation, warranty, term or condition hereof or Distributor''s failure to adhere to any established written Company policy which is applicable to all or substantially all of the Company''s distributors and which is in its terms mandatory, if Distributor fails to cure any such breach or failure within thirty (30) days after the Company gives written notice thereof to the Distributor, provided that no such notice to cure need be given if the Company has previously given the Distributor notice to cure with respect to a breach of or failure to perform of the same covenant, obligation, warranty, term, condition or policy on at least two previous occasions, whether or not Distributor has in fact cured on such occasions.
(2)经销商违背或拒不履行本协议项下的别的契约、义务、担保、条款,或者经销商未能坚持执行已签署的适用于公司所有或大部分经销商的规章制度和其强制性条款,如果经销商在本公司书面通知30天内该事件仍然不能解决, 但如果本公司就至少两次同样的该违约或不履行事件以前发过书面通知要求处理,公司将终止协议,无论前几次是否解决了问题。
(c) The discontinuation, without cause, in whole or in substantial part of distribution of the Products by the Distributor, for any reason whatsoever (except for normal seasonal variation in the sale of the Products) for a period of more than sixty (60) days.
(3)经销商无故中止销售整个或者大部分该产品超过60天的,无论出于何种原因(产品的正常季节性变化除外)。
(d) The insolvency of the Distributor; or assignment by the Distributor for the benefit of creditors; or the filing of a voluntary bankruptcy or reorganization petition by the Distributor; or the failure of the Distributor to vacate an involuntary bankruptcy or reorganization petition filed against the Distributor, within thirty (30) days from the date of such filing; or the failure of the Distributor to vacate the appointment of a receiver or a trustee for Distributor, or for any part or interest of the Distributor''s business, within thirty (30) days from the date of such appointment; or the failure of the Distributor to vacate, set aside, or have dismissed any insolvency proceeding under any law governing, or applicable to
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the Distributor within thirty (30) days from the date of the commencement of any such proceeding.
(4)经销商破产;或经销商为偿债转让;或经销商提出自愿破产请求或者自愿重组,或30天内未能撤消对其的强制性破产或重组请求;从该指定起30天之内,经销商未能撤消其任何业务的部分或权益破产管理人或托管人的指定或从该诉讼程序开始30天内未能根据任何管辖或适用的法律撤消、驳回、或解除对经销商的该强制破产程序。
(e) The effective loss by the Distributor of management or control of the Distributor''s business by virtue of any law, decree, order, rule, regulation, ordinance, foreclosure or similar cause and failure to restore such management or control to Distributor within thirty (30) days.
(5)由于经销商的管理或者由于法律、法规、政策、规定等类似原因对经销商经营的控制造成销售额的明显减低,并且经销商在30天内无法解决问题恢复销售额。
由于法律、法令、裁令、条例、规章、规则、没收或类似原因导致经销商明显丧失对其业务管理和控制且位能在30日内恢复管理控制的。
(f) The failure by Distributor to achieve the level of sales for the Products as stated in Exhibit "E" in the Territory, unless such failure is substantially caused by the failure of the Company to supply a sufficient amount of Products with reasonable promptness or by any breach of this Agreement by the Company.
(6)经销商未能在其经销区域内达到附件5中规定的销售水平, 除非是实质上由于本公司没有及时提供充足的货源,或者是由于本公司违背本协议。
Section 11.3 Right to Discontinue Supply. Upon the happening of any one or more of the events specified in Section 11.2 hereof or if the Company reasonably believes that Distributor may not have the financial ability to pay for the Products ordered, then the Company shall also have the right to discontinue supplying the Distributor with Products and other materials for such length of time as the Company may in its sole judgment deem necessary, without terminating this Agreement and without thereby prejudicing the Company''s rights to terminate this Agreement for the same cause or for any one or more other causes.
第十一条第三款中止供应权如果出现一个或多个本条上款中所述情况或者公司有理由确信经销商没有经济能力去支付订单产品的情况下,本公司有权,在其认为必要时,在这段时期对经销商停止供货以及其他材料,而不终止本协议和也不由此而损害公司以相同事由,一种或多种事由终止本协议的权利。
Section 11.4 Partial Termination. If Distributor fails, with respect to any or all of the Products in any or all parts of the Territory, either to perform its duties or covenants hereunder or to achieve the level of sales in Section 11.2(f) hereof, the Company may, instead of terminating this Agreement altogether, sell any or all of such Products to one or more other persons (including but not limited to Distributor''s existing customers), in any or all of such parts of the Territory and, in addition or in the alternative, may withdraw the Distributor''s rights to sell any or all such Products in any or all such parts of the Territory.
第十一条第四款部分终止。如果经销商在部分或者全部所属的区域中经营业绩不佳,未能履行本协议项下义务和约定或未能达到了第11.2中规定的的销售水平,在不终止全部合同的情况下,本公司可将该产品部分或者全部销售给在本区域部分或全部内的一人或者多人(包括但不限于经销商现存的客户),附带或二者选其一,也可撤销经销商在本区域全部或部分销售的部分或者全部此产品的授权。
Section 11.5 Effect of Termination. Termination or expiration of this Agreement for any reason shall not impair the obligation of the parties to pay any and all amounts payable hereunder at the time such amounts are or become due. Distributor''s sole remedy for Company''s breach of Agreement shall be termination of the Agreement.
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第十一条第五款终止效力无论何因导致本协议的终止或届满,均不得减少协议双方偿还应付到期款项的义务。经销商因本公司违约的唯一救济应是终止协议。
Section 11.6 Option to Repurchase. Should this Agreement be terminated for any cause whatsoever, the Company shall have the option to purchase from the Distributor, and the Distributor shall, upon the exercise of such option by the Company, sell to the Company, any part or all of the Distributor''s labels, containers, cases, cartons, mixtures, ingredients and Products at the invoice price thereof to the Distributor, less a 40% handling charge and a reasonable allowance for depreciation, deterioration and obsolescence.
第十一条第六款优先回购权。倘若本协议无论出于何种原因而终止,本公司应有优先回购权,且本公司一经行使该回购权,经销商应以开单价卖给本公司其标签、集装箱、木箱、纸板箱、合剂、配料、产品的部分或全部。减去40%的装卸费/手续费和合理折旧费、变质、过期的费用。(合同终止条款包括约定终止情形、中止供应、部分终止、终止效力、优先回购)
ARTICLE XII 第十二条
MISCELLANEOUS
杂项条款
Section 12.1 Costs of Enforcement. In the event that Company initiates legal action (including both trial and appellate proceedings) to enforce its rights hereunder, Company shall recover from the non-prevailing party his or its reasonable litigation expenses (including, but not limited to, reasonable attorney''s fees) of all such proceedings.
第十二条第一款强制执行费用如本公司为了强制执行其本协议项下权利而进行法律诉讼时(包括一审和上诉程序),败诉一方需要偿付本公司所有该诉讼程序合理的诉讼费用(包括,但不限于,合理的律师费用)
Section 12.2 Notices. Any notices required to be given under the terms of this Agreement shall be addressed to the parties at the following addresses, or at such other address designed in writing by the party to receive notice:
第十二条第二款通知任何在本协议期间所要求的通知均应按合同方的以下地址或者其他接受通知方书面指定的其他地址:
If to Corporation: ABC, Inc.
Attn: John Doe, President
111 Fentress Boulevard
Daytona Beach, FL 32114
如果给本公司: ABC, Inc.
Attn: John Doe, President
111 Fentress Boulevard
Daytona Beach, FL 32114
If to Distributor:
如果给经销商:
If to Guarantor(s):
如果给保证人:
Any party by written notice to the other parties may change the address or the persons to whom notices or copies thereof shall be directed.
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任何一方变更地址或者变更主要负责人均要通知其他两方人员
Notices shall be either (1) personally delivered (including delivery by Federal Express or other courier services) to the address set forth above, in which case they shall be deemed delivered on the date of delivery; (2) sent by Western Union Telegram, in which case they shall be deemed delivered on the date Western Union delivers it telephonic communication; (3) sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, in which case they shall be deemed delivered on the date shown on the receipt unless delivery is refused or delayed by the addressee, in which event they shall be deemed delivered on the date of the deposit in the U.S. Mail. Notices or communications to or from a party''s attorney will be deemed to be or from the party.
通知应按以下任意方式(1) 亲自传递(包括联邦快递或者其他快递服务) 至上列地址,在这种情况下投递当日视为送达;(2)通过西联电报,此种情况西联发出电话传送的日期视为送达;(3)保证邮件寄送,要求回执,此种情况下以回执上显示日期为送达,除非被受信人拒收或延误,则邮件的送达日期被确认为在美国邮局存放的日期。如果是发给或者来自当事人律师的通知或者通信视同发给或者来自该当事人
Section 12.3 Acceptance by Telecopier. Either party may demonstrate its execution or acceptance of this Agreement by facsimile transmitted via telecopier showing the transmitting parties'' signature thereon. Such a facsimile, once received by the other party, shall bind the transmitting party to the same extent as would delivery of this Agreement (or a counterpart hereof) containing the parties'' actual signature.
第十二条第三款传真的确认。双方中的任意一方如果要通过发送传真来签署或接受本协议必须有发送传真方在传真件上的亲笔签名。如果一方收到了该传真,应在对发传真方具有约束力,视同其送达含有其真实签名的本协议文件(或者是副本)。
Section 12.4 Construction. The parties acknowledged that each party and its counsel have reviewed and revised this Agreement and that the normal rule of construction to the effect that any ambiguities are to be resolved against the drafting party shall not be employed in the interpretation of this Agreement or any amendment or exhibits thereto.
第十二条第四款解释协议方确认各方与各自的辩护律师都可以审查、修订本协议,正常的解释原则以便解决起草方的含糊之处,该含糊不得应用于本协议及其修正或其附件的解释中。
Section 12.5 Waiver. The failure of either party to this Agreement to object to or to take affirmative action with respect to any conduct of the other which is in violation of the terms of this Agreement shall not be construed as a waiver of the violation or breach, or of any future violation, breach or wrongful conduct.
第十二条第五款弃权声明本协议任一方就任一他方违反本协议条款的行为反对或提起积极的诉讼未成的,不得解释为对违反、违约或任何将来的违反、违约或不正当行为作出弃权。
Section 12.6 Entire Agreement. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties hereto concerning the subject matter hereof, and supersedes all prior memoranda, correspondence, conversations and negotiations.
第十二条第六款完整协议。本协议构成协议各方间就本协议标的的完整协议,取代以前所有的往来信件、谈判、会谈、备忘录。
Section 12.7 Modifications. This Agreement cannot be altered or amended except by an instrument in writing signed by both parties.
第十二条第七款修正。未经双方签字的书面文件,本协议不能够修改或修正。
Section 12.8 Specific Performance. In the event of a breach or threatened breach by Distributor of any of the provisions of this Agreement, Corporation, in addition to and not in limitation of, any other rights,
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remedies, or damages available to Company at law or in equity, shall be entitled to a permanent injunction in order to prevent or restrain any such breach.
第十二条第八款特别履行。如果经销商违背或者可能违背本协议条款的规定,本公司除外但不限于可按普通法或衡平法获得任何其他权利、救济和损害赔偿金,应有权申请永久禁止令以防止或约束该违约。
Section 12.9 Choice of Law. This Agreement and the performance hereunder and all suits and special proceedings hereunder shall be construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Florida.
第十二条第九款法律的选择。本协议及本协议的履行和本协议下的所有诉讼和特别审判程序均应符合佛罗里达州的法律并按其解释。
Section 12.10 Forum. All actions under this Agreement shall be taken in a court of competent jurisdiction in Volusia County, Florida and no party shall advance a position that such forum is improper or inconvenient.
第十二条第十款受理法院所有本协议下的诉讼均应在佛罗里达Volusia 县的有管辖权的法院中进行,任何一方不得提出一个位置以认为该法院不合适或不方便。
Section 12.11 Invalid Provisions. The invalidity or unenforceability of a particular provision of this Agreement shall not affect the other provisions hereto, and this Agreement shall be construed in all respects as if such invalid or unenforceable provisions were omitted.
第十二条第十一款无效规定本协议某特殊规定的无效或不可执行不得影响本协议的其他规定本协议应,即使删除无效或不可执行的规定,本协议也应在各方面解释。。
Section 12.12 Legal Expenses. Each of the parties hereto agrees to bear its or their own expenses relating to the negotiation for and preparation and review of documents leading to, as well as this Agreement, whether or not the transaction contemplated hereby is consummated.
第十二条第十二款法律费用。本协议当事人各方同意承担协商有关费用、为文件准备和审查的费用和本协议产生的费用, 无论最终预期交易是否完成。
Section 12.13 Headings and Terminology. The headings used in this Agreement are inserted for convenience of reference only and are not intended to be part of or to affect the meaning or interpretation of this Agreement. The specific terms that are defined in various provisions of this Agreement shall apply throughout this Agreement (including, without limitation, each exhibit hereto unless expressly indicated otherwise).
第十二条第十三款标题和术语。本协议中的标题只为提及的方便无意成为本协议的部分或影响本协议的意义或解释。本协议在各种不同条款中定义的特殊术语适用于整个协议。(包括,但不限于,每个附件除非另有指示)
Section 12.14 Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in several counterparts, and each executed copy shall constitute an original instrument, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.
第十二条第十四款协议副本。本协议签署若干副本,每一经签署的副本构成原始的文件,但所有该副本应一起构成同一文件
Section 12.15 Confidentiality. The terms and conditions of this Agreement are to be held in strictest confidence and are not to be disclosed by the Representative to any third party other than appropriate Company personnel.
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第十二条第十五款保密条款。本协议的条款必须严格保密,不得由销售代表向任何第三者披露,除了本公司合适人员外。
Section 12.16 Limitations. The word "including" in this Agreement, when followed with a listing, shall mean including, without limitation.
第十二条第十六款限制本协议的"包括"这个词,当后面跟有清单时,将意味包括,没有限制。
(杂项条款涉及申请执行费用、通知条款、传真确认、保密条款、副本、合同解释、弃权声明、完整协议、合同修改、特别履行、法律选择、管辖法院、无效规定、标题和和术语解释及限制条款)
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Agreement on the date first above mentioned by their representatives, who personally attest that they are duly authorized to enter into this Agreement.
本协议由各方代表于上述日期签字盖章生效,各代表证明其系经正式授权签署本协议,特此为证。
(结尾即证明部分,双方由授权代表签约,特此为证)
WITNESSES: COMPANY: 见证人公司
ABC, INC. ABC 公司
____________________________ By:___________________________ (签约人)
____________________________ Its President (董事长)
DISTRIBUTOR: 经销商
____________________________ By:___________________________ (签约人)
____________________________ Its President (董事长)
(签名部分)
"EXHIBITS" 附件
EXHIBIT "A"; TERRITORY 附件一区域
Per Section 1.2 of the Distribution Agreement, Distributor''s Territory is:
根据第一条第二款规定,经销商区域为
Mainland China
中国大陆
EXHIBIT "B"; PRODUCTS 附件二产品
Per Section 3.1 of the Distribution Agreement, Distributor''s Products are those attached hereto.
根据第一条第三款,经销商产品为以下所附:
EXHIBIT "C" - TRADE SHOWS 附件三展会
Per Section 4.1 of the Distribution Agreement, Distributor shall go to the following trade shows:
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根据第四条第一款,经销商应参加如下展会:
As Available
如果可行
EXHIBIT "D" - TERMS OF PAYMENT 附件四支付条款
Per Section 5.1 of the Agreement, terms of payment are as follows:
根据第五条第一款,支付条款如下:
Wire transfer to our Bank: Wachovia Bank, Jacksonville, FL
电汇至我方银行Wachovia Bank, Jacksonville, FL
Bank Routing Number (ABA #): 063-0000-21
银行路由号码( ABA#): 063-0000-21
Account Name: ABC, Inc., * Blvd.
帐户名称:ABC 公司,
Account Number: ********** Swift Code: **********
帐号:************ SWIFT号码:
All orders, including the opening order must be paid for in advance. After one year, depending upon Distributor performance, terms of payment may be renegotiated by Company.
所有的订单, 包括开始订单必须提前付款。一年以后,根据经销商销售情况,付款方式可以与公司重新协商
EXHIBIT "E" - PURCHASES 附件五购买
Per Section 11.2(f) of the Agreement, Distributor shall make the following purchases per quarter: OPENING ORDER = USD $62,500
根据第11.2(6)规定,每季度经销商应按以下购买开始定单62500美元
Year 1
1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter 4th Quarter
USD $62,500 USD $125,000 USD $125,000 USD $125,000
第1 年
第一季第二季第三季第四季
USD$62,500 USD$125,000 USD$125,000 USD$125,000 (44,000)
Year 2
1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter 4th Quarter
USD $150,000 USD $150,000 USD $150,000 USD $150,000
第2 年
第一季第二季第三季第四季
USD$150,000 USD$150,000 USD$150,000 USD$150,000 (60,000)
Year 3
1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter 4th Quarter
USD $180,000 USD $180,000 USD $180,000 USD $180,000
第3 年
83
第一季第二季第三季第四季
USD$180,000 USD$180,000 USD$180,000 USD$180,000 (72,000)
Thereafter, the purchases per year shall be 25 percent more than the purchases of the prior year for a period of 4 years and thereafter 20 percent.
其后,经销的前四年每年的提货额将比前一年的提货额增加25%,超过4年其后每年的提货额将比前一年的提货额增加20%。
(合同附件部分)
NOTE: All BBB orders placed by distributor for less than USD $10,000 are subject to a 10% surcharge.
备注: 所有经销商的BBB产品订单货款少于USD$10,000的将多收取10%的附加费
(注意事项)
84
附录(Schedule ):合同术语CONTRACT TERNIMOLOGY
一般合同法律术语(General Contract and Legal Terms):
Arbitration 仲裁
Assignment of Rights and Delegation of Duties Clause 权利转让和义务让渡条款
Attachment 附件
Attorney-in-Fact 代理人
Attorneys Fees Clause 律师费条款
Breach of Contract 违约
Cancellation/Termination Clause (合同)解除/终止条款
Choice of Law/ Governing Law Clause 法律选择/适用法律条款
Compensation 赔偿
Contract 合同
Dam s ages 损害赔偿金
Actual Damage 实际损害赔偿金
Incidental Damages 附带损害赔偿金
Consequential Damages 间接损害赔偿金
Punitive Damages 惩罚性损害赔偿金
Defamation 诽谤
Default 不履约/违约
Entire Agreement Clause 完整协议条款
Injunctive Relief 禁止令救济
Jurisdiction 法域/司法管辖权
Legal Consideration 对价
Legal Representatives, Successors and Assigns 法定代表人,继任者和受让人
Mediation 调解
Meeting of Minds 合意
Mutuality of Obligation 相互义务
Offer and Acceptance 要约与承诺
Parties 合同方/合同当事人
Release 解除/免除
Rescission (合同)解除
Severability Clause 效力瑕疵/可分离条款
Specific Performance 特别履行(通常是法院衡平救济的方式之一)
Standard of Reasonableness 合理性标准
Statute of Frauds 反欺诈法
Term 条款/期限
Time of the Essence Clause 重要时限条款
Venue 审理地/管辖地
Waiver弃权(声明)
Warranty 担保
85
版权方面术语(Copyright Terms)
Collective Work 集体作品
Copyright 版权/著作权
Copyright Infringement 侵犯版权/版权侵权
Exclusive and Non-Exclusive Rights 独占和非独占权利
Fair Use 合理使用
First North American Serial Rights/FNA Hard Copy Print Publication Rights 首次印刷权
Instructional Text 指示文本
Joint Work 合作作品
License 版权许可
Moral Rights 精神权利(始发欧洲,譬如:声明作者身份和防止修改权)
Plagiarism 剽窃/抄袭
Public Domain 公众领域
Rights Reversion 权利复原
Subsidiary Rights 邻接版权(譬如翻译作品)
Supplementary Work 附属作品
Termination Rights Provision 终止权规定
Transferring or Assigning Copyright 版权转让
出版业术语(Printing Industry Terms)
All Rights/Universal Rights Clause 全部/普遍权利条款
Byline 署名权
Editorial Acceptance 接受投稿
Kill Fee/ Rejection fee 退稿费
Outlets 出版/印刷地
Royalties 版税
工商业术语(Business Terms)
Agencies/Brokers 代理/中介
Agent 代理人
At Will Employment 任意聘用关系(雇主可随时解雇雇员)
Bill Rate 薪资比率
Confidentiality/Non-Disclosure Clause 保密条款
Deliverables 可交付使用
Documentation House 文档编制室
Employee 雇员
Finder''s Fee 中介佣金
Fixed Bid/ Fixed Contract 定额投标/定额合同
Indemnification/Hold Harmless Clause 保证赔偿豁免条款
Independent Contractor 独立缔约人
Invoice 发票
Mark up 标高价格
Margin 差价/保证金
86
Milestone 转折点
Net Days 净天数
Non-Competition Clause/ Non-Compete/ Exclusivity/ Predatory Soliciting Clause
竞业禁止条款
Payroll Service Agencies 薪资服务中介
Perma-temp 长期临时工
Portfolio Copies 公文复件
Prompt Payment Discount立即付款折扣
Proprietary Rights 所有权
Purchase Order 定单
Retainer 预聘费/律师费
Reviewer 审阅人/审查人
Scope of Employment 聘用职责
Side Agreement 附属协议
Subcontractor 次承包人
Temp 临时工
Vendor供应商
Waiver of Benefits 津贴放弃
Work-for-Hire 加工承揽
87
主要参考书目(Bibliography)
1.《怎样起草与翻译合同协议》(Draft & Translate Contracts & Agreements),胡庚申著,中国科学技术大学出版社,1992年版
2.《国际商务合同起草与翻译》(Formulation and Translation of International Business Contracts),胡庚申、王春晖、申云桢编著,外文出版社,2001年版
3.《合同英语手册》(Master English For Contract),葛亚军著,天津科技翻译出版社,2002.1(2002.3重印)
4.《对外经济合同英文写作》(Foreign Economic Contract Documents in Writing),傅伟良著,石油工业出版社,2003.2(2版)
5.《如何阅读英文合约》(Understanding an English Contract)(基础篇),刘承愚著,智胜文化事业有限公司,2000.4
6.《国际经贸英语合同写作》(English Writing for International Economic and Trade Contracts),吴敏、吴明忠著,暨南大学出版社
7.《英美契约法论》(Anglo-American Law of Contracts),杨桢著,北京大学出版社,2003.2(3版)
8.《法窗译话》(Window on Legal Translation),陈忠诚著,中国对外翻译出版公司,1998重印
9.Contract Law, Chris Tuner, Hodder & Stoughton, 2001
88

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